Swords were given the names of the great warriors

Excalibur - sculptureSome legendary swords have survived

Almost all of the characters — whether it's fabulous, mythological, literary, or historical, actually lived for many years before the advent of firearms, — performed their feats by the sword. He provided a victory in any battle, and after the death of the soldier becomes a sacred relic that has magical powers. Typically, such a name was given to the sword, like the soldier, faithful friend and companion.

Excalibur returned to the Virgin Lake

In the legends of King Arthur featured two swords. The first — the so-called Sword in the Stone. According to legend, he could extract from the stone blocks only one who was destined to become the ruler of England. Only managed to Arthur — son of King Uther, educate "incognito" in the family knight Hector. But later this weapon (found version of his name — Klarent) broke in one of the fights. Then Merlin helped Arthur get second sword — Excalibur, which held over the waters of Lake mysterious hand.

When many years later, the legendary leader of the Britons died of wounds inflicted by his illegitimate son Mordred, he asked the valiant knight of the Round Table, Sir Bedivere to return the sword to the lake. Once again, there an arm and took cast from shore guns.
How then looked Excalibur? In one of his novels, medieval French writer Chrétien de Troyes, talking about Arthur, remarks: "his belt hung Excalibur, the beautiful sword that cuts through the iron, like a tree." In other works, one can read that on his arm were shown two gold chimera, which was terrible to watch because of their frightening guises. The sword bared, mouth monsters escaped the flames.

By the way, historians say that the part of the legend, which tells of the return of Excalibur into the lake, have real grounds. Many lakes in Western Europe, archaeologists found the swords, which leads to the assumption of the chivalric tradition — after the death of the soldier sink his arms in the water.

Gram and beheaded Hruting Dragons

In the old German and Scandinavian myths of Siegfried (Sigurd), the hero of "The Song of the Nibelungs," also mentions two swords — notung and Gram. The first son went to the supreme god Odin — Sigmund, snatched it out of the trunk of a huge tree, in which the father had driven arms to the hilt. By the sword hero did great exploits while notung not broken spear of Odin himself. While Sigmund lost divine favor and had to die. His wife Sieglinde notung retained fragments and gave them to the magician-smith Regina, in a cave which had a son Siegfried. For this mighty hero embodying the German spirit, sorcerer forged sword Gram. They first cut the anvil Siegfried Regina, then killed the dragon Fafner, guarding treasure dwarf Nibelungen, and then killed, and gave him a blacksmith.

In Beowulf (whose name means "bee-wolf" or simply bear), the hero of the ancient Anglo-Saxon epic, dated VIII century AD, was also a magic sword — Hruting who forged giants. Beowulf famous for having killed the king of Denmark terrorized troll Grendel and his monstrous mother, and then the dragon guarding the treasure. In the battle with the dragon hero was mortally wounded, and dissolved in the blood Hruting evil creatures … There was one handle. By the way, historians believe that the prototype Beowulf existed in reality.

Sword in the StoneIn the hands of the enemy will not be perfect Durandal

Old French heroic epic "Song of Roland" tells the story of a brave knight, who was sworn in by King Charlemagne's sword Durandal (by the way, in French the word is feminine. — Comm. Aut.). He was a blacksmith forged Galan of the same hardware as the sword of King Zhuaez. In handle weapons relics of the saints' — the blood of St. Basil, St. Peter's tooth, hair Dionysius of Paris and a fragment of garments Mary.

In the story, Roland dies after battle in the valley, but then what happened to him with the sword, the poem is silent. But other pieces of the Valiant Knight told that Charles sent five men to bring him the Durandal, but they could not let go the hand dead hero. Having created a prayer, Carl still got the sword of Roland, and threw him into the lake, taking a handle yourself with the holy relics.

In Ariosto's poem "Orlando Furioso" weapons knight named Durindana. It says that it once belonged Trojan prince Hector. It is believed that there is still a fragment of the legendary sword is kept in a French castle Rocamadour.

Tizona sword"I — Tyson, I was made in 1040"

Rodrigo de Bivarao glory was so great, that his life was the basis of the epic "The Song of the Cid." The nickname "El Cid" he gave the Moors (from the Arabic for "sit" — leader). A Spanish called hero Kampeadorom, meaning "valiant, warrior." El Cid lived in Spain during the Reconquista (the period when the Spaniards pushed forward from the Moors occupied their land. — Comm. Aut.). He was born probably in the years 1040-1044. But his feats performed during the reign of Fernando I the Great, then as Alfonse VI.

It is believed that before his last battle against the Moors in 1099, Rodrigo was mortally wounded by a poisoned arrow, and then his wife Jimena told to wear to her husband's body armor and tie it to the saddle, the army did not lose morale.

Sid was buried in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardenio. But his sword — Tyson survived and is now a National Monument of Spain. Sid took the gun as a trophy from the Moorish king Bukara killed them in combat.

In 1919, the remains of the Cid and his wife Jimena were transferred to the cathedral city of Burgos. Here in 2007 is Tyson. The last owner of the sword — Marquis Jose Ramon Suarez del Otero sold it for $ 1.6 million ($ 2 million) to the ownership of the region of Castile and Leon. So legendary weapon fell to Burgos.

Some time after the sale of Tyson Ministry of Culture of Spain stated that the artifact — a fake and worth no more than 200-300 euros. However, experts have identified, even if the hilt of the sword is really made in the XVI century, its blade, according to the data of chemical analysis, is a contemporary Sid — that is dated XI century. But Colada — second sword, allegedly belonged to Sid, most likely, really fake. His blade, as established researchers, forged or after XIII century.

Sword ScherbetsRussian and Polish kladenets Scherbets

Had their legends of swords and the Slavs. In fairy tales, sometimes heroes sword kladenets dug out of the grave or burial mound. Such a weapon belonging to fallen soldiers are believed to possess special powers. For example, in the epic "Svyatogor and Ilya Muromets" the two main characters during the journey there was a coffin, which both decide to try. Ilya Muromets great he is, and Svyatogor — fit like a glove. Hero asks his friend to take a sword and hit kladenets cover. But the stronger beats Ilya, the more there is an iron band encircling the coffin. Realizing that he was out, Svyatogor leaves sword kladenets Ilya. (By the way, some sources that sword called Rasey. — Comm. Aut.)

Another hero of the epic Old Russian Eruslan Lazarevic finds his weapons of war, as follows: on the field, strewn with fallen soldiers, he sees a giant head, which is hidden under the giant sword shining. By the way, this episode is in Pushkin's poem "Ruslan and Lyudmila".

But the Poles cherish the coronation sword Scherbets. According to legend, was in the beginning of XI century in the Polish throne King Boleslaw Piast and looked at the rich princely Kiev. Conceived ruler intermarry with Yaroslav the Wise was wooing his sister Predslava to get a chance at the throne of Kiev. But Jaroslav strengthen the friendship between the way people would not. Boleslav army then gathered and went to the neighbors. However, the match did not take place — the prince in Kiev at the time was not. Then in impotent rage Boleslav drew his sword and struck on the Golden Gate … The perfect blade appeared notch, hence the name of the sword — Scherbets. By the way, Princess Predslava Boleslav still kidnapped and taken away to Poland.

Currently weapons are held in Krakow. And in the Wawel Royal Castle is a knight, and decked with gold and diamond sword that Prince Vladislav in 1621 handed Ukrainian hetman Petro Sahaidachny a reward for the successful actions of the Cossacks against the Turks under Khotyn fortress. The existence of the relic for many centuries in the Ukraine was not known. Of course, that the sword pass fellow Hetman, it does not go.

Tatiana Sataeva