September 28, 2012 10:58
On the mysteries of the ancient city of the Americas — Tiahuanaco — "Secrets of the twentieth century," wrote more than once. We reported the strange events and discoveries on the moon. These puzzles have been known for tens, hundreds and thousands of years, a clear scientific explanation is not found. In such cases often are born all sorts of "crazy" hypotheses that attempt to explain what science can not explain, and sometimes establish relationships between these phenomena, events and objects, which, apparently, can not be linked . On one of these cases will be discussed below.
City by the sea
This town is situated at an altitude of almost 4,000 meters off the coast of Salt Lake Titicaca in the Andean region of northern Bolivia, Altiplano plain surrounded by snow-capped mountain ranges of the Cordillera. However, found in its territory remains of a large port, seashells, pictures of flying fish fossils and skeletons of marine animals suggest that once the city was on the beach.
Recently, at the bottom of Lake Titicaca, researchers have discovered the remains of buildings, cobbled pavement and more than a kilometer long wall, built of large stone blocks. According to Professor Ruben Vela of the Archaeological Institute of Tiwanaku, the discovered ruins — a "coastal temple where important people were buried." How then were these ruins at the bottom of the lake?
Researchers link these facts with the era prior to the process of mountain building that occurred 60-70 million years ago. It is believed that if the people on Earth were not.
The name of Tiwanaku was after the residents ever left him. Who were these people and how they called the city, historians do not know.
They say that the Supreme Inca Mighty Capac, stopped to rest in the ruins of the ancient city, a messenger came running with the news from the capital of the empire — Cusco. The governor praised diligence messenger, comparing it to a swift-guanaco — a relative of llamas — and said: "Tia Uanako" ("You're fast as guanacos"). So there was a city.
Who founded it?
Indians living in these areas at the time of the Spanish invasion, believed that such a big city could not build ordinary people — its elevated extinct tribe of giants. Researchers at the Giants did not believe, however, attributed the city extremely ancient origins. Bolivian researcher Austrian-born Arthur Poznań, half a lifetime devoted to the study of Tiwanaku, argued that the city was founded at least 17 thousand years ago. But archaeologist Dr HS Bellamy believed that the age of the city — 250 thousand years.
French paleontologist Alsid d'Orbigny (1802-1857) in his book "The American people" expressed the opinion that the creators of the Tiwanaku people were powerful pre-Inca state.
Palace or the observatory?
City, or rather what's left of it consists of several objects. The most well-reconstructed part of the city — it Kalasasaya, construction of a rectangular base with dimensions of 118 x 18 meters. It is enclosed by a wall, which built a number of monolithic columns. Kalasasaya courtyard, about one-third of its area is located below ground level. Included in Kalasasaya through large stone gate on monumental stairway with six steps. The inner courtyard bordered indoor room with large portals and windows. At one time it was decorated gold products, and the walls were hammered gold nails, which held copper and bronze plates that covered the stone skeleton of the building.
Kalasasaya originally seen as a palace or even a fortress, but now researchers are inclined to think that it was a stellar observatory. Some design elements in the walls strictly oriented to certain constellations and are designed to facilitate the measurement associated with observation position of the Sun in the sky at different times of the year.
In the middle of the twentieth century in the neighborhood of Kalasasaya found sanctuary area of about 750 sq. m. meters, the so-called semi-subterranean temple.
Its base is more than five feet into the ground deepened. In 1932, Professor Wendell Bennett found a giant statue of pink stone.
Its height is slightly less than 7.5 meters. Giant head adorns sort turban, hands pressed to her stomach. In one hand — a vessel-Kero in the other — pututu, ceremonial bugle from the sink.
Just south of the pyramid rises Kalasasaya Akapana. Some researchers believe it man-made structure, the other — a hill, which takes the form of a stepped pyramid. At the top, perhaps a temple or altar, and could have the military fortress. There remained a small artificial lake.
Gateway to the ancient world
Further south, the city limits of conventional, is another terrasoobraznaya construction, Puma Punku — Gate Cougars. It is built of huge stone slabs, some weight over 100 tons. At the top of Puma Punku builders placed shrine or altar, and the whole property was surrounded by a double wall.
One of the most famous and perhaps the most mysterious monuments tiauanakskih are undoubtedly Gate of the Sun — Inti-Punku. They are located in the north-western part of Kalasasaya and carved from a single block of andesite 3×3, 75 m.
The upper part of the east side is decorated with rich relief, the center of which is likely, the image of the main deity in the form of a human figure with a disproportionately large head, surrounded by a halo. Halo formed by 24 beams, each of which ends with a head jaguar or puma. From the eyes of gods shed tears — apparently, it granted the land moisture, providing a field crop. In the hands of the gods — the big royal rod with heads of condors overhead. To him eager gaze, less than forty-eight figures depicting demi-poluptitsy. Above the entrance door opening of the Sun is visible band of ornament, which shows the human face. However, the most important thing is the main relief with its central figure.
The content of the relief scholars interpret differently. Some believe that the central figure symbolizes the sun god, and half people-poluptitsy — this other star, turned to face his heavenly sovereign. For others, a relief depicts tiauanaksky calendar — solar or lunar.
Starry Sky 15,000 BC
If the complex Kalasasaya — it really Observatory, the calendar on the Gate of the Sun fits in this complex.
Arthur Poznań — the professor, an engineer, an anthropologist, a member of many scientific societies — in his "Tiahuanaco — the cradle of the American people" on the basis of their own archaeological research and astronomical calculation shows that designers and builders of its geometry Kalasasaya correlated with the location of the stars. Such was the starry sky … 17,000 years ago!
Of course, most adherents of orthodox science embraced guess Poznan with obvious skepticism. But soon a group of scientists from related fields of science has analyzed the results of his research. The group included: Dr. Hans Ludendorff, director of the Potsdam observatory, Dr. Frederick Becker of speculation Vatikanika observatory and two astronomers — Prof. Dr. Arnold Kolskhutter of Bonn University and Dr. Rolf Müller of the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam.
Scientists who worked from 1927 to 1930, came to the conclusion that the findings of Poznan in the main correct, Kalasasaya structures are oriented in such a way as to provide the most convenient observation of the heavenly bodies in their position that they occupied in the sky at about 15,000 BC .
Another random similarities?
Among the sculptures survived in Tiahuanaco, there are three of these (one in the semi-subterranean temple and two — in Kalasasaya), which lead to some reflections. The sculptures vary in size, degree of safety, style and craftsmanship. But all three depict a creature that sculptors have tried to present as a hybrid of a man with a beautiful beard — in the upper body and a fish — at the bottom. And one of the researchers, the American journalist and explorer Gray Hancock, speaking in Tiahuanaco with local residents, received interesting information.
It is found in the ancient local tradition speaks of the "gods of the lake that had fish tails and whose name and Chullua Umantua."
The characters of the legend and tiauanakskih sculptures clearly reminiscent of another character — the hero tales of ancient Babylonia, rybocheloveka Oannes, who in the old days out of the sea to the shore in Mesopotamia and taught wits local Aborigines.
Mysteries of artifacts found in Tiwanaku, pretty much unravels if we accept the hypothesis of the existence of the world in ancient times Unknown Advanced prapratsivilizatsii, which served as the general framework for the civilizations of the Sumerians, Egyptians, and the Olmec and other nations. We can only hope that in the future, archaeologists, historians and scientists from other disciplines will find indisputable evidence of the reality of this mysterious civilization, to establish its origin and residence time on Earth.