In St. Petersburg, November 14, 2007 in the park at the crossing Shpalernoj Tauris streets and opened a monument to General Alexei Brusilov. His military decorations are well known. In the history of warfare there is little strategic operations, named by the name of the leader of one of them — Brusilov breakthrough. But the activity Brusylov after October 1917 all-that provokes heated debate. After all, he was the most notable of the royal generals that have fallen in the service of Russian power. So who was Brussilov during this period — a patriot or a traitor? To understand this, one must look at how to fold the actual path of general.
Alexei Brusilov was born August 19, 1853 in a family of military. He just turned 6 years old when my father was killed — Lieutenant General, head of the military judicial service in the Caucasus. Alexis and 2-his brothers took over the education of his uncle — Gagemayster military engineer who served in Kutaisi. "The most colorful impressions of my youth were, of course, the stories of the heroes of the Caucasian War. Many of them at that time lived and came to visit my family," — later recalled Brusilov.
In 1867, successfully taking examinations, Alex was enrolled immediately in the fourth class of the Corps of Pages — the most privileged military educational institutions of Russia. At the end of the body, he did not dare go out in the Guard because of the shortcomings of funds, and the purpose was for the 15th Tver Dragoons.
Since August 1872 began for Cornet Brusylov military service. The first severe test of maturity officer became his Russian-Turkish War of 1877-78, which Tver Dragoons were in the vanguard of Russian troops. The future commander in full learned languid fighting on the defensive and angry storm fortresses, fast cavalry attack and wrenching bitter farewell to the dead friends. For seven months of the war, he earned three combat medals and was promoted to Lieutenant-Captain.
In 1881 the Brusilov again arrived in St. Petersburg. As one of the best riders in the regiment he captured the right to go to St. Petersburg officer's cavalry school. Two years of hard studying proparhali unnoticed, and in the record of the list there is another entry: "He graduated rate Sciences Division squadron and company commanders on the level of" good. "But with the" horse academy "as a joke called the Cavalry School, Captain Brusilov not soon parted . In August 1883 he was admitted to her aide and a quarter of a century has connected with her own destiny. Over the years it has become Gen.-Major, head of the school, made his cavalry training system, captured fame and appreciation in the army. Led them to the school has become a recognized center for the training of senior officers for the cavalry.
In 1906, was followed by a sudden and honorable mission chief of the 2nd Guards Cavalry Division, which included shelves, famous even in battles against Napoleon. The ancient glory is good for parades. Given the sad outcome of the war in the Far East, Brussilov seriously engaged in combat training of subordinates. Concluding that "the modern fight against each officer asks a broad outlook and opportunities without the help of others, without any prompting to make their own decision," he increased attention paid to training officers.
Analyzing the results of the war, he put forward the bold idea of creation cavalry corps and armies. But his mind was fully implemented only in the years of war, civilian, having checked in quick raids and cavalry armies Budennogo Dumenko.
By the standards of secular career in Brusylov going well: promoted to lieutenant general, entree to the palace. But Alexei inconvenienced by service in the stuffy atmosphere of the capital's intrigue, it leaves the Guard (the case at the time infrequent), and in 1909 transferred to the Warsaw district commander of the 14th Army Corps. The case was standing near Lublin near the border with Austria-Hungary, but the fighting was very poorly prepared. "I am satisfied with sadness — wrote Brussilov — that many gentlemen officers are technically very inadequately prepared. Infantry units in tactical exercises were held briefly and partially clumsily." Enhanced combat training, organized and aggressively controlled Brusilov, paid off. Already year body visibly distinguished by the level of combat readiness of the troops in the middle of a neighborhood.
In the spring of 1912 Brusilov was appointed assistant commander of the Warsaw neighborhood. Skalon Governor-General and his entourage met destination Alexei very cautious. And he, the man at heart spicy and discreet, did not hide their own businesses to thrive in the environment greed and even wrote about it the Minister of War. Brussilov produced by this time to the rank of full general, was a conspicuous figure in the Russian army, to quarrel with him did not, but just granted his request to transfer to the Kiev district commander of the corps. This was a decrease, but Alexei received him with joy. He again lost in the usual care commander. A "farm" he got a huge 12 th Army Corps consisted of four divisions, brigades, several separate parts.
Brussilov brought fame 1st Global War. By taking command of the 8th Army, located on the left flank of the Russian front, he has already started on August 7 coming inland Galicia. Battle gust 8th army was supported by all the South-Western Front. Began one of the great strategic operations of the war — the battle of Galicia.
Within two months of fighting Russian troops liberated the area bolshennuyu took Lviv, Galich, Nikolaev and went to the Carpathians. Austro-Hungarian army lost more than 400 thousand people. The main contribution to this success brought it the eighth army. Official recognition awards army commander General Brusilov was the awarding of a revered military decorations — St. ZHoru fourth and third degrees. During these months, Brusilov quite emerged as a military commander, has developed his own style of management bolshennymi masses of troops.
At the end of September for the coming of the left flank of the front and taking the strong fortress of Przemysl, commanded Brusylov created Galician group of 3 armies. Rally failed to take the fortress, but firmly blocking her troops Brusylov the winter came to the Carpathians and vyshybli enemy passes.
Winter 1914-15. was in continuous battles. The enemy sought to oust Russian forces from the Carpathians and relieve Przemysl. Brusilov, despite the absence of reserves and an acute shortage of ammunition, constantly counter-attacked on all fronts. It is in these battles, he began to mature the main principles of offensive action, they then brilliantly embodied in the famous breakout.
By the spring of the situation at the front changed. Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German divisions, went around the left flank of the Russian army, the army Brusilov was obliged to quit the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and back down to the Dniester. In languid battles she has stopped all attempts to break through the enemy to Przemysl, and 9 March fortress surrendered. It was a great success, which Entente troops did not know. In surrendered nine generals, 2,500 officers, 120 thousand fighter was taken more than 900 guns.
Unfortunately, the more big success in 1915, the Russian army had not, and by the summer of troops were retreating on all fronts. Army Brusylov left Galicia. To illumine the front stabilized in 1915, and the army spent the winter in a positional defense, preparing for new battles. In March 1916, the Adjutant
General Brusilov was appointed commander of the Southwestern Front.
Betting on the plan in 1916 foresaw the application of cerebral stroke by the Western front in the strategic direction of Berlin, the Army of the North and South-Western Fronts had to put personal snare beats.
The role of the statistician in the coming general Brusilov not happy, and he begins to prepare troops front to the decisive battles. The advantage of not possessing capable commander decided to reach the expense of success departure from patterns and painstaking preparation coming.
The main blow was inflicted 8th Army in the direction of Luck, for that involved almost all the reserves and artillery. Each army corps, too, and many areas were defined breakthrough. Special role in the breakthrough Brussilov averted artillery. He subdued part of the lungs battery commander of an infantry regiment of the first band. In conducting artillery barrage introduced instead of the fire on the areas fire on targets identified. Infantry planned to carry out an attack waves chains, strengthening their guns when accompanied by artillery. To gain air formed a group of front-line fighter aircraft.
May 22 Brusilov started strong artillery preparation, right behind her went on the attack infantry. During the first 3 days front on the direction of Lutsk was broken into over 80 miles away, there has been success in breakthrough sectors a number of armies and corps. It would seem that rate is to support the emerging operational success. But is the paranormal. Home coming of the Western Front lay up to June 4, immediately Brussilov refusing to allocate reserves and continue to hamper the enemy prescribing demonstrative fights. Only after 10 days Interest has flip reserves in the South-Western Front, giving him the right to put the head blow. But the time had already been lost. Languid fights, then fading, then flaring up again, lasted until September. Without the support of neighbors Brusylov army defeated the Austro-Hungarian and German forces in Galicia and Bukovina, causing them great loss — up to 1.5 million people and seized about 600 guns, 1,800 machine guns, huge trophies.
Analyzing the Brusilov Offensive, military historians often use the word "first": the first time a strategic offensive operation carried out in the criteria of trench warfare, for the first time broke through the defense in depth simultaneous crushing blows on a number of sectors of the front, the first time was allocated battery infantry support and Used consistent concentration of fire to support the attack — such transfer can continue for a long time.
The war lasted, but the country has been brewing significant changes. Right after the fall of the autocracy, quickly went to the disintegration of the army. From the end of May, two months Brussilov did duty commander in chief, but to stop the destruction of the army, he could not.
After leaving the army, Brussilov settled in Moscow. In November, was seriously wounded by shrapnel to the case got in the house and the projectile to July 1918 was treated in hospital. During this period, he was visited by representatives of the snow-white movement, trying to win over. This has not gone unnoticed, and Brusylov arrested. Two months later he was in the Kremlin guard-house, but was released for lack of evidence due to the anti-Soviet movement. At this time, were arrested his brother, who died in custody, and son, past captain Alex. The scion was soon released, and in 1919 volunteered for the reddish army commanded a cavalry regiment. In one battle he was taken prisoner. According to one version, was shot on the other — has entered into a voluntary army and died of typhus.
Prior to 1920 Brusilov eschewed active cooperation with the Bolsheviks. But with the outbreak of war with Poland made a proposal to organize a "meeting of the men fighting and relevant experience for a detailed discussion of the real state of the Russian Federation and more effective measures to get rid of foreign invasion." Within a few days of the order of PBC was established special meeting with the commander in chief, who was appointed chairman of the Brusilov. Coming soon in "Pravda" was taken by appeal "to all former officers, wherever they are." First the petition had been signed by AA Brusilov, then the other former generals — members of the meeting. Responded to the appeal several thousand former generals and officers who joined the army and reddish focused on the Polish front.
During the battle for the Crimea Brusilov was asked to write an appeal to Wrangel's troops to cease resistance. Trusting assurances that all voluntarily laid down their weapon will be sent home, he wrote a manifesto. Many white officers, believing the general who laid down their guns. A significant part of it was shot. Brussilov very hard going through their participation in their death, but the service in the Red Army continued. He was appointed a member of the Military Revolutionary Military Council of the legislative meeting at the Republic, as the main supervisor of the Head of horse breeding and horse breeding management of the RSFSR. Thanks to the authority of the Brusilov in a military environment, it readily assigned to other positions related to the cavalry, lured to lecture at the Academy of the Red Army. And when Brussilov retired, he was left at the disposal of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council "for very fundamental instructions."
Alexei Brusilov died March 17, 1926 in Moscow on the 73-year life. He was buried with full military honors in the areas of Novodevichy Convent.
Time puts everything in its place. The memory of General Brusilov lives. And it is not his fault, and failure that used to live under the laws of honor, he could not fit to realize that in modern Russia, which he tried to serve honestly, these laws are available far to many.