High-altitude fighter M-17 Stratosphere

M-17 "Stratosphere" (by ordering NATO: Mystic-A) — Russian high-altitude plane, created to deal with drifting balloons. Plane was subsonic. For this aircraft was first created vysokonesuschy supercritical airfoil, designated P-173-9. Development of aircraft M-17 began in 1970. By 1978, a helicopter manufacturing plant in the town of Kumertau was made first flight model modern machines, which, unfortunately, crashed while performing jogging. Second flight model was created exclusively in 1982, this time in the plane at Smolensk aircraft factory assembled. May 26, 1982 test pilot EV Chel'tsov for the first time raised the altitude subsonic aircraft in the air, the flight was made from an airfield in Zhukovsky. In the spring of 1990, this machine is immediately set 25 global records speed, altitude and rate of climb for airplanes weighing 16-20 tons, filled with a turbojet engine. Then by 1990, the last model was built aircraft M-17.

Once in May 1960 near Sverdlovsk was hit by a high-altitude South American U-2 spy running Powers, the United States decided to revise the strategy of aerial reconnaissance over the Soviet Union. In service with the CIA at that time, a new means of delivering the intelligence apparatus in the air space of the country of the Soviets — automatic drifting balloons that are launched from the territory of some NATO nations. These balloons are used winds that prevail at a great height above the territory of our country and the Soviet Union could cross from west to east. These balloons are controlled by radio and could command from the ground to change the altitude actually from 0 to 45-50 km. With all this balloons could carry not only the "innocent" intelligence apparatus, and a fairly wide range of explosives that would have been discarded by the team from the ground.

Defense of the USSR was forced to use for the destruction of these uninvited guests rocket types of "surface-to-air" or "air-to-air." With all the price of defeat balloon made of Dacron or a cheap meylarovoy film in 10's times that the price of this drifting balloon. Moreover, the preparation of balloons to fly and deploy hardware is not wanted for NATO troops huge amount of time because of their massive launch the defense of the Soviet Union put under threat.

High-altitude fighter M-17 "Stratosphere"

With this in mind, in 1967 there was a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the CPSU Central Committee, according to which the Experimental Machine-Building Plant (EMR), based in Zhukovsky near Moscow and headed by VM Myasishchev, was ordered to perform complex research (R & D) "Selecting technical directions for creating aviation system for the interception and destruction of automatic drifting balloons". Control this theme on EMRs instructed the deputy head designer of GI Archangel. The project was executed very large amount of work to solve the difficulties universities were connected head of the aviation industry, interested agencies and ministries. In the end, all-inclusive conducted a feasibility analysis of the best solution was found to the creation of high-altitude subsonic fighter, curb small arms and cannon armament.

In 1970, commissioned by the Soviet air defense began work on number 17, which means the creation of high-altitude fighter. Lead designer of the project was the VM Morkovkin. By the time the bureau had already detailed study of debris brought down near Sverdlovsk high-altitude U-2 spy were drawn quite plump volume of comparative characteristics of units and systems of the aircraft with Russian counterparts. With all of this Russian engineers bribed unpretentious and simple structure of South American aircraft and its systems. The results of acquired in-process research debris U-2, showed that the creation of the Russian high-altitude interceptor based on the Russian science and technology — it's pretty long and thorough work that will claim to find new solutions.

A decisive impact on the future of the machine then had a choice of powerplant. Out of all the schemes of contrast in the end left only 2nd: with 2 double-contour engines D-30 PA Solovyov thrust of 6.6 tons, which were suspended in a gondola on the lower surface of the wing and one engine RD-36- 51A structure PA Kolesov, a takeoff thrust of 18 tons, which was placed in the fuselage of the machine. During the tests it was found that at altitudes above 11 km was a huge drop in traction for two-circuit L-30. Besides the desire to have an aerodynamically unsullied wing and the need to accommodate the vast amount of fuel also tip the scales to one engine, located in the fuselage.

High-altitude fighter M-17 "Stratosphere"

In addition, designed for supersonic Tu-144 engine RD-36-51A had a separate box drives aircraft units, which greatly facilitated the assembly of the complete power plant, has also made probable reduction in the fuselage midsection. All this eventually led to the final selection of one embodiment of the engine. With all of this kind of repeating the South American U-2 plane which was the classical scheme with the engine, gear large extension tube does not become due inexpedient. It was decided the brakes on the two-beam scheme.

In 1971, the aircraft was developed by the official designation of M-17 "Stratosphere." In the terms of reference for the project were supplied condition for achieving high loitering in the 23-25 km., Also providing piloting his usual combatant pilots. To achieve the desired aerodynamic characteristics of the new aircraft first had to create a wing with a unique bearing qualities. The result of this work was the wing's unique dual-mode design that the flight could change its size and shape (due to advances in the flight profile of the tail section). On this wing was received patent author.

In addition to solving problems of air, the usual transfer which would take a few pages of text (design, ergonomics of the cockpit, the configuration and size of GO, the location of the main landing gear, etc.) were working on the creation of search and sighting station to detect and balloons targeting weapons system. Because of the very low radar signature reconnaissance balloons, it was decided to use an active optical system of search and target tracking. The system overview cut one direction finder, which had to find the target, tracking and laser range finder, which was then called the quantum. This system the goal was to accompany the flight control and rapid-fire guns in the automatic mode, with the ability to make adjustments.

High-altitude fighter M-17 "Stratosphere"

This system has been successfully created in the CDB "Geophysics", controls the operation of the designer DM Horol. He developed system in the upcoming show their best side, because the data on the terms of reference specifications have been significantly exceeded. Requireme
nts for the optical features of the created system were so high and severe, for example, that the windshield had to perform a range finder of the Brazilian mining crystal. In the Soviet Union simply could not find a mineral, so owning a small number of third-party inclusions and impurities.

To defeat reconnaissance balloons was chosen PUF — moving gun mount made MMZ "Dzerzhinets" based on well-proven in use 23-mm high-velocity pushes GSH-23L, possesses the rate at 3400 rounds per minute. With all this she weighed only 47 kg. Other than that the designers had to create a highly sensitive fuse, which would work with the impact of a very narrow shell balloon, which was another important step on the path of defeat balloons 23 mm shells.

This Russian designers suddenly has promoted the accompanying physical effect. During the balloon membrane damage projectile fragments were created only small holes, through which the gas flow was not sufficient to lower the balloon. But to the delight of Russian designers with all this manifest reluctance torque, twisting balloon shell on its more inertial suspension. Retaining this suspension foot compressed shell and gas from the balloon squeezed out with a growing intensity. In addition to this were done and special explosive shells which at the moment the scattered wire flagella which significantly increment size and dimensions of holes.

High-altitude fighter M-17 "Stratosphere"

According to its own assembly M-17 "Stratosphere" was dvuhbalochnye device that holds a small fuselage and a "clean" wing span is quite large — 40 meters. It should be noted that the M-17 anew "opened" the schema for modern jet aircraft. With all of this it should be noted that at all times myasischevtsy profitably different from most other designers KB their special relationship to the decisions of competitors and colleagues. Specifically, it is possible and, ultimately, create a plane with very decent flight characteristics.

Especially celebrated spices unique profile, as mechanization of the wing "of the Stratosphere." There has been used quite a new supercritical wing profile, which allows the aircraft to have an exaggerated glide virtually the entire spectrum of flight altitudes and speeds. Wing aircraft M-17, then even became known as adaptive, which was the result of its variable geometry profile (not to be confused with variable sweep wing). In addition to better aerodynamic properties of the machine failed due to the unique wingtip. On large machines flying abilities demonstrated by the fact that the M-17 can plan with a height of 1 km. at a distance of 30 km.

Unfortunately, the unique aircraft has become hostage to the changed situation. Work on its creation was delayed, while the Americans have launched their own last balloon in November 1983, with the country of Norway. In the upcoming United States just completed the implementation of these intelligence agents against the Soviet Union. But by making the M-17 is not in vain, and became the basis for the creation of the civilian version of the aircraft M-55 "Geophysics".

The performance properties M-17:

Dimensions: Wingspan — 40.32 m, length — 22,27 m, height — 4.87 m
Wing Area — 137.7 square meters. m
Normal take-off weight of the aircraft — 19 950 kg.
Motor type — 1TRD RKBM (Novikov) RD-36-51B thrust 6000 kgf.
The highest speed — 743 km / h
Flight range — 1325 km.
Flight duration — 2 hours 14 minutes.
Service ceiling — 21,550 m
Armament — movable gun mount on the basis of GS-23L
Crew — 1 person.

Sources disk imaging:
— http://ru.wikipedia.org

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