Attracts attention to the fact that the first to the privileged club of developers and owners own their own mnogokalibernyh MRLS entered Japan, but for all that she had to agree with certain rules and a slip. In 1968, the Japan Self-Defense Forces armed own 307-millimeter complex E "Type 67". In theory, the complex fell under the definition of MRL. It consisted of own composition fighting vehicles with a launcher that was installed on the chassis «HINO», which could reach speeds up to 78 km / h Fighting vehicle had two guides for shooting rockets "Type 68". Their length is 4.5 meters and the weight reached 573 kg. Japanese mnogokalibernuyu MLRS produced by rocket-space division of the company "Nissan Motor Co.." And the range of fire of such plants reached 28 km. At present, this mnogokalibernuyu multiple launch rocket systems already have laid off because Japanese military now prefer to buy weapons such as missile systems in its own South American partners. Japanese "Type 67" was listed as MLRS, but this awareness into two BM missiles — this is not the MRL.
MAR-290 on the chassis of the "Centurion" for rockets caliber 290 mm
Follow a country that has always tried to develop itself VVTS different standards — is Israel. This country has to apply accumulated over many years of experience to the creation of the MRL. Municipal company «IMI» in 1965 began work on a 290 millimeter multiple rocket launcher type MAR-290. This system has been adopted by government forces in the late 1960s. At present, MAR-290 still serves as the defense of Israel, according to some estimates the country has the 20th units of the technique. After the creation of the system has suffered a series of modifications. First configuration is that the MRL set for this type of tank chassis "Sherman." Operating experience was not entirely successful, because the developers have decided to put the MAR-290 chassis owned by Britain's main battle tank — "Centurion". PU consists of four 6-meter-guide tubes. Full salvo setting makes for 10 seconds. Mass combat vehicle is 50 tons, and walking in store for all that 204 kilometers, a crew of 4 people. Firing range 600-killogramovymi PC from 5.45 meters to 25 km. Warhead weight is 320 kg MS. For the missile guidance system peculiar angles unit guides in elevation from 0 (+ -) 60 (+ -), the azimuth value of 360 (+ -). Recharging PU extends about 10 minutes.
On today zabugornye media, specializing in military theme report that passes an improved type of MLRS. He is given the designation MAR-350, the caliber of this installation is a 350-minute millimeters. According to official data, the properties of this system would be: out of the guide are selected dvuhraketnyh two blocks that have the curb weight of each to 2 million pounds, the unit will own 6.2-meter-long and 0.97-meter width, height was 0.45 meters and the duration of bursts of four missile about 30 seconds.
Great-grandson of "Katyusha".
The very first and true mnogokalibernoy MRL was released in the USSR 300 millimitrovaya MRL under the title "Twister." It was shaped by the union, led by Tula Municipal Research and Production Enterprise "Alloy". It first came out of the 1980s.
300-mm MLRS "Smerch"
By creating a "Tornado", a team of developers it could prove unshakable in practice that an increase in the effective firing range MLRS can be. This rocket artillery could very well shoot for 70 or even 90 km. The creation of "Whirlwind" was shocking shock to the West. South American spices, having spent many research and development have made MLRS MLRS, the effective range of fire which was 30-40 km. For all this, the South American scientists were totally convinced that the maximum firing range for at least some of MLRS. It was believed that the impending increase in the firing range will result in a very bolshennomu dispersal of shells, which is unacceptable. How solved this problem of our experts at? They managed to make the rounds with a unique design. What was in their unique? They had a system of independent adjustment of the line of flight movements in pitch and yaw. Specifically, it provides accuracy to hit, which is two or even three times the performance zabugornyh MLRS. By some estimates, the figure was less than 0.21% of the distance run. Accuracy Russian spice failed three times to increment. Adjustment of the trajectory of flight rocket projectile gas-dynamic control surfaces. They worked on high-pressure gas, which comes from an onboard gas generator. Also by stabilization of the projectile in flight. It is achieved by the rotation thereof in the air about the longitudinal axis. Rotation itself ensured preparatory promotion rocket projectile yet when he moved on the guide tube, in flight, it was supported by the fact that the blades were installed the drop-down regulator that is expanded at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the projectile.
But that's not all the outstanding features of MLRS "Smerch". Subs
equent feature is that for a "tornado" was developed by an arsenal of ammunition, and range of which reached 70 km. It was the family of rockets 9M55. Was achieved range and 90 km with rockets 9M52 and 9M53 families. They were equipped warheads quite different types. These included: cassette, possessed submunitions fission type, cassette with penetrating fragmentation submunitions; close coupled high-explosive; cassette with fragmentation submunitions proximity detonation; cassette with shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions, high explosive, which was penetrating warhead type, cassette with anti-tank or anti-personnel thermobaric warhead; cassette, with standard or compact homing homing submunitions, also with anti-cassette or even anti-tank mines.
At present, the Russian army used an improved type of multiple launch rocket systems 9A52-2. A number of foreign countries also uses as a weapon this reactive system. For example, countries such as Ukraine, which uses 94 MLRS, Belarus, with 40 instances in Peru in the use of 10 systems, Algeria has 18, and Kuwait, which uses 27 units. It is necessary to see what is wrong with Kuwait was drawn up and implemented the first contract for the export of MLRS "Smerch": In 1995, Our homeland has provided 9 rocket systems in possession of Kuwait, and later, in 1996, another 18. Also in 1996, an agreement was made for export to the United Arab Emirates, in accordance with which they are provided with 6 PU nine A52-2, an automatic system of command and control "Vivarium" and 6 9E234 TRV-2.
One of the last states who purchased "Twister" was India. In 2003, the application was signed preparatory to supply 36-year-armored "Smerch-M", set on the chassis «Tatra». The transaction price was about 450-million dollars. Due to some events the signing was postponed and took place only on 31 December 2005. In accordance with the agreement India has received 28 9A52-2T, standing on the chassis of the car «Tatra» T816. Some evidence suggests that it has been sold yet 38 military vehicles. The transaction price amounted to about 500 million dollars. In May 2007, was sent to the first party of the order, and in July of the same year, India signed a contract for 24 combat vehicles, the price of which amounted to 600 million dollars. Another deal was signed with Turkmenistan in June 2007. This order was for 6 complexes and the price was marked at 70 million dollars.
In relation to China has developed extraordinarily fascinating situation: according to the official data, the multiple launch rocket system "Smerch" is never delivered to the area of the country, but today the Chinese military-industrial complex have made two copies of the "Tornado". This country has a greater or lesser part of the copy of type A-100, and PHL-03. As it turns out, China has been able to make an exact copy of the PHL-03, and hence there was a question about the availability of professionals in China Russian version of "Cyclone" because there are serious doubts that such a clear copy can be the result of the study photographs and video of various visual observations. Specialists adhere to the version that, if our home and really did not sell MRL data, most of all, China is quietly acquired such a system in the countries — former Soviet republics. Such suppliers could become fully Belarus or Ukraine.
"Tornado" — the son of "Cyclone".
Once has been adopted "Smerch", Tula State Research and Production Enterprise "alloy" developed a modernized version: 9K52-2. It differed from its predecessor abbreviated combat crew (with 4 of his ex reduced up to 3) and overpriced, improved automation of the processes of combat. 9A52-2T, which provides for export was walking on the chassis «Tatra» T816 (10 * 10). There was another modification of the "Cyclone". The new "Tornado" appeared only recently. This version is easier, is also a six-barrel. The system is a four-chassis all-wheel drive car, and specifically "KAMAZ-6350." At present, there are two sub-options such combat vehicle: PU with ordinary tube-type 9YA295 also with PU removable container MZ-196. Last supposedly has a one-off container that peresnaryazhaetsya only at the company, which is the manufacturer. Already the new complex has been created under the concept that was used in the development of American multiple launch rocket systems HIMARS. HIMARS — a compact E-227 analog and mixed complex millimeter multiple rocket launchers OTP ATACMS. Also equipped with a new set of modern fire control system, which allows you to distribute the battery on the ground and repeatedly improve its performance in the criteria for targeting enemy opposition. This system has a computer, which process information without play in the process of man. Tests was another combat vehicle of the family "Twister", which was put on the chassis of MAZ. This system has a PU with 2 removable containers set up to six rockets each. From time to time this fighting machine called the "Tornado".
The development of multiple rocket launchers "Smerch" is not terminated. Improved combat vehicle is in the interests of the Defense Ministry. The modification takes place in the direction of the PC equipment control systems with receivers SNA. It also discusses options for the growth of the firing range.
MRL / OTR ATACMS
Try the power of the increment of ammunition and expand their range. Brand new system that runs over the way the state of scientific and production enterprise "Alloy" is the title of "Tornado-C". This reactive system is not changed gauge its predecessor, it was 300 millimeter. SRI "Search" is developing a guidance system for rockets "Tornado-C".
Exotic or variants on the theme.
Be sure that progress is never standing still. Any country seeking to conceive their disposal standards of weapons, military and special equipment such as long-range missile systems mnogokalibernoy. In general, the trend is obvious today expressed growing number of states that use mnogokalibernye MLRS. But this is not the only trend is also noticeable growing number of countries, the defense industry which is able to create and make the production of such systems without the help of others, from time to time using a method which is called the "unlicensed copy".
Chinese MLRS AR-1
More enthusiasm now make up the Brazilian and Iranian development. Regarding the first to say that in 1983 began shipping MRLS «ASTOS II» in some Brazilian army units. Title of the system, stands Artillery SaTuration Rocket System. This system is designed and manufactured by a local company, namely "Avibras Aerospatiale SA". It should be seen that in the course of its work on the Rockets Brazilian developers have implemented a number of new technical solutions categorically. And it specifically distinguishes this system from other reactive with a similar class. Thereby «ASTOS II» attracts a number of states, and why the system there is not only in Brazil, and in Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. MRL «ASTOS II» was used in operations in 1991 — "Desert Storm." Brazilian military also experienced a reactive system in the fighting.
ASTOS — from Artillery SaTuration Rocket System
One of the most important features of MLRS «ASTOS II» is an opportunity to put it into action with a single universal PU type AV-LMU PC outright several calibers. This naturally affected the ammunition plant. His options: either a block of 30 two rounds, with the type SS-30 and the caliber of 127 mm and a firing range from 9 to 30 km, length of 3.9 meters and weight of 68 kg. Or the second option: the block into sixteen shells, type SS-40, caliber 180 mm and a firing range of 15 to 35 km. This equipment has a length of 4.2 meters and a weight of 152 kilograms. Third variant configuration — a block of 4 shell-type SS-80, who owns a firing range achieves 90 km, it is the most affecting warhead. Artillery unit PU was performed in accordance with a modular scheme. Overall, this box-farm, in which you can install up to four plug-TPK, who own the guide-tube packs. With all of this clearly depends on the number of TPK unless the caliber rockets. The period of replacement of the 1st TPK varies from 5 to 6 minutes. On the basis of MLRS battalions «ASTOS II» shock groups can be formed completely different military units.
MLRS "Astros III»
Not so long ago, the Brazilian developers have even the option of MLRS launchers «ASTOS II», which provides for the introduction of a tactical missile launch range of 150 km is being sought. A certain type of rocket has not been specified, but it is clear that it can be fitted with warheads completely different type. Rockets used previously, were capable of the same, for they were made, other than ordinary single-warhead, and even cluster warhead. They created three types: the cassette, with the shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions (KOBE, basic part of the missile type SS-40 — 20 Kobe, the base part of a missile-type SS-60 — 65 Kobe), high-explosive anti-tank and cassette protivodnischevymi mine . For the scrapping of the airport runways of air bases, to the rocket projectile can be put penetrating warhead type. They are able to seep into the soil to a depth of two feet, which will allow reliably disable the runway. Such effect is due to a delay detonation.
Vehiculo de Combate Lanza Cohetes
But this is not limited to particular MLRS, which may increase its capacity. Another is that it can be used in shells flight control system. This may be due to the fact that the movement is corrected by the missile pitch and yaw. This scheme is similar to the one used in the Russian "Smerch" and means increases the accuracy. But this movement of the adjustment line of flight pitch and yaw signals are to control. This is achieved by means of gas-dynamic control surfaces. Their drives are beginning to act on the highest gas pressure coming from the on-board gas generator. The structure of MRL comes automatic guidance and fire control. Fully all the machines «ASTOS II» are put on three-axle chassis with over-cross (6 * 6). Their capacity achieves 10 tons, and the speed can develop up to 90 km / h A crew is 4 BM-eat people.
122 mm MLRS Type 83 (Chinese "clone")
On the basis of «ASTOS II», by its own IP which was created by the amended MRL «ASTOS III». It used blocks of PU with existing shells. These include shells and facial features SS-60 in the amount of 12, which range up to 60 km, facial features missiles SS-80, also of 12, but with a range of up to 90 km, are included here, and new SS-150. The firing range in which up to 150 km. The latter gauge is not specified, but each unit PU fit only two rounds, because it can be concluded that it is not missiles, but also tactical or operational tactical missiles.
320-mm MLRS WS-1B
Argentina, with the assistance of Israel has developed a high-caliber missile systems belonging to the family of VCLC. VCLC — Vehiculo de Combate Lanza Cohetes. This was followed by development with 160 millimeter version of the LAR-160. On his BM, which put on the chassis of a light tank THERE this can develop the speed to 75 km / h, and there is in store in the course of 560 km, with 2 WPK. Any of them has from 18 rounds. They feature: weight is 100 kilograms, the weight of warhead — 46 kg, range achieves up to 30 km. The system has been test in 1986, after it was decided to give it only in trial operation. And already adopted it was not accepted. There is a second option — a VCLC-CAM. Stands VCLC, as Cohete de Artilleria Mediano. This version was developed for the Israeli-350 projectile timillimetrovy MAR-350. Properties are as follows: PU four rockets, RS weight is 1000 kg, and the effective firing range of 75 to 95 km. But work on this version were discontinued after the creation in 1988 only the 1st layout.
Iran, at the cost of untold effort also managed to get his volley fire their system. This 320-timillimetrovaya MLRS "Oghab", which translates "Eagle." This MRL was developed Tehran «DIO». It should be noted that there is not left without intervention of China. PU has three tubular rails, it is placed on the chassis «Mercedes-Benz» LA911B (4 * 4). MS mass is 360-kilograms, the mass of high-explosive fragmentation warhead achieves 70 pounds, length is 8.82 meters and the shooting range is approximately 45 kilometers.
In 1986 he held the first shooting. This is said to have been fighting and shooting took place near the town of Basra (Iraq). In 1988, the system has been used more extensively in the "War of the Cities". Then it was released about 330 shells at 10 of the cities of Iraq. In late 1987 began series production of the MRL. According to the known data, this issue was carried out in part by the capacity of Chinese companies. System was vigorously trying to sell over the limit, but still great success in this case is not achieved, because now there is a more efficient system in its class. The Western press in conjunction with the military love to spread the "horror stories" about the ability of the introduction of MLRS launchers of missiles that can be equipped with chemical warheads. Eliminating this option can not be sure, especially when you consider that during the Iran-Iraq war, the two countries have been active in the creation of chemical weapons. And it should be noted that the MRL — it's more efficient means of delivering chemical warheads in combat.
Then all states in the creation of their own mnogokalibernyh long-range multiple rocket launchers able to go China. Only in the last 30 years there have been created about half of the 10-ka similar systems. China initially tried his hand in the development of remote mining areas, with the result that Chinese companies came out with 284-ehmillimetrovaya "Type 74" and 305-timillimetrovaya "Type 79". They are PU, first 10, second nine-MS. Their combat units have 10 anti-tank mines, "Type 69" or "Type 70" in plastic housings. At present, armed with the People's Liberation Army of China, there are 300-millimeter "Type 03" and 320-timillimetrovye MRLS WS-1B.
Show the first of these systems has been developed by the Chinese «NORINCO». Truly, it is — it's a copy of the Russian "Smerch", except for some parts. Similarity noticeable to the naked eye, since system, even outside are virtually indistinguishable. Most perceptible exception is that the MRL consist of crank Chinese development and production. Also, there are transport-launchers reconnaissance and target — UAVs. BM — it's PU with a package of 12 tubular rails. Put it on the chassis of the car inflated cross TAS5380 (8 * 8). This machine — Chinese copy of the MAZ-543M. According to some reports the delivery of the vehicles involved in Belarus. A crew car is 4 people, range varies from 20 to 150 km. Since 2005, this system is in service. Stipulates that the MRL of this type this year received Artillery Brigade of the 54th Army Group, which is located in Jinan VO. It was the fourth brigade, which received multiple rocket launchers PHL-03. Before these units were delivered in the 1st Artillery Division 42th Army Group, 9th Artillery Division of the 1st Army Group and artbrigady 31st Army Group in Nanjing VO.
MRL 320 mm WS-1B has been developed and intensively produced under the control of the company "China Precision Machinery Import & Export Corporation." It includes the BM HF-4, put on the chassis Mercedes-Benz, which own over-cross — 2028A (6 * 6), their capacity achieves 10 tons. Also they own with 2 quadruply packages TRV QY-88B-hand and machine DZ-88B, which are equipped with survey and a weather station. For BS MS WS-1Brazrabotali type 2 CU: close coupled high-explosive ZDB-2, with 26 thousand different cooked shrapnel and iron ball elements or cassette SZB-1 466-Tew pulepodobnymi submunitions. Mass itself fighting vehicle 11,200 pounds, the rate of developing up to 90 km / h when the car nesnaryazhena, in alertness is 20 minutes, the length of RS is 6.18 meters and the weight of the RS WS-1B is 708 pounds, in the case of the RS WS -1 — 520 pounds. Effective firing range such machines from 80 to 180 km, another embodiment of 20 to 80 km. CHED over 1 per cent of the firing range. Western experts report that auto run, most likely, "according to the license." Number of already issued and entered service MLRS is unclear.
In previous comparative trials with multiple rocket launchers PHL-03 adopted the role of a modern 300-mm MLRS China — A-100. The latter was developed in cooperation CALT and the company CPMIEC. It is reported that the system is also designed in the likeness of "Cyclone".
A-100 is designed for surface targets or enemy forces. An example is the large armored and mechanized units, military bases, missile launch sites, airports and air bases, harbors and naval bases, and many other important objects. Artillery unit fighting machine consists of a pack of 10 smooth-walled tubular rails that are provided with U-shaped helical groove. It is set on advanced chassis WS-2400 (8 * 8), which has inflated cross. In combat vehicle is a huge number of automatic systems: fire control, communications, and on-board equipment. Weight of the machine itself is 22 tons and the maximum speed varies from 60 to 80 km / h speed in store is 650 km. Preparing to shoot this BM in 6 minutes, and the time urgency of leaving combat position after volley of about 3 minutes. Recharges in 15-20 minutes. Range is from 40 to 100 km, some data they say about 120 kilometers away. Fighting means are correctable missiles, length 7.27 m, weight — 840 kg, warhead weight will be 235 pounds. For rockets manufactured several types of warheads: cassette, which are equipped with a 500 shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions to defeat manpower and light armored vehicles or five homing submunitions with armor penetration of up to 70 mm of homogeneous armor (at an angle of 30 (+ -) from the normal). Adjustment of missiles in flight is obtained from gas-dynamic control surfaces, which are driven by high-pressure gas from the onboard gas generator. Accuracy because it increases by 33%.
In January 2000, Chinese developers have stated that the work on this project completed. Already in 2002, announced the arrival of the data MLRS into trial operation People's Liberation Army of China. Systems are made available to the first artillery battalion, stationed in Guanchzhousskom VO. According to official figures A-100 lost the competition PHL-03, but still went on trial operation. At present already produced about 40-BM and the respective machines provide. It was also announced the planned marketing plans of the system on the external market. Already in September 2008 zabugornye media said the signing of the agreement between Pakistan and China. In accordance with China it delivers first such plan for the unknown number of MLRS (A-100). In 2009, information came to light that Pakistan is willing to "put in order" about 2-A-100 regiments from 36 to five combat vehicles. Chinese developers report that are working on the creation of ad
justable rockets firing range which will be 180 km.
Now the companies are engaged in the supply of military-industrial complex of the PRC on the international export market mnogokalibernyh multiple launch rocket systems. Of their more exciting of the following:
1. 300-mm AR1A. Was performed by «NORINCO». The dash combat vehicle: PU car chassis, which has inflated cross (8×8) and 2 packs of 4 or 5 is tubular rails, a crew of 4 people. Mass combat vehicles — 42.5 tons, the rate of developing up to 60 km / h, in the firing position is in 5 minutes, while a full salvo of 1 minute, as the time from the position of urgent care after volley. Firing range from 20 to 130 km. PC was created 2 types of warheads: BRE2 type missiles with high-explosive fragmentation warhead, the warhead weight is 190 pounds; missiles BRC3 type or types BRC4 with cluster warhead with a 623 or 480-name anti-Tew submunitions. Most effective firing range of data rockets — 70 and 130 km. Marketing brochure development company reports that this machine can be used both for coming, and for the defense.
2. 400-mm WS-2, either, he's SY-400. This system was developed on the basis of cooperation "China Precision Machinery Import & Export Corporation," and the Chinese Academy of research in the field of technology boosters. Work on this version is almost complete, at this point, China is ready for their mass production. It is said that China sold several similar machines Sudan. First time MLRS put into light in November 2008 at the 7th China International Aerospace Exhibition. It happened in Zhuhai. WS-2 — is a MLRS with guided munitions or Guided Multiple Launch System. For rockets developed 4 types of warhead: cassette, equipped with 560-or 660-Tew Tew antitank submunitions, high-explosive, with over previously harvested striking elements — iron balls, high explosive, which owns over-capacity, the Big Bang. Chinese military already use guided missiles, and in Russia they just created. This development in Russia is put on the shoulders of the "Tornado-C".