The prerequisites for the creation of a strong navy
At the current time, the region of Southeast Asia is one of the more lively in the developing world. Already at this point it's safe to talk about the emergence of a new geopolitical map of the world on the site. This happens because of the concentration of resources in the region, the main lines of sea communications, the population of 600 million people, is also the highest potential for conflict. Which, on the one hand, determined by the presence of internal (political fickleness, unresolved ethnic and sectarian conflicts) and private (piracy, drug trafficking, international terrorism) threats, and on the other hand, the opposition of some countries (both regional and extra-regional).
The decisive factor in regional politics in the region appears significant increase in the role of the oceans. South China Sea and the Malacca Strait to provide a significant degree of economic growth in the region. And specifically on these points and have most of the threats to international and national security. Marine band communications in Southeast Asia that forms the huge role that there are extra-regional powers, which include the United States, India and Japan. Because that countries in the region, "turned toward the sea" and focus more on maritime policy, there is nothing unusual.
In recent years, Vietnam has become one of the major states in the region, which relies on maritime policy. For their own national security and economic prosperity of the country with a population of 90 million people need to develop their own maritime capabilities and specifically the Navy. Already at this time the development of Vietnam's navy is becoming an important factor in the "great game" being waged by the country's three giant — the U.S., China and India.
Back in 1999, the Vietnamese government issued a statement on the programs from the beginning of the decade the development of port infrastructure in the country that managed to make only partly. Despite this, Vietnam managed to find a strategic ally in the person of its own an old mate — India, which since the 90s, intensively developing the doctrine of the "Look East" and seeks to gain a foothold in the region of Southeast Asia. At the current time, India together with Vietnamese companies to develop oil and gas fields of the South China Sea.
Strengthening economic and military-political ties between New Delhi and Hanoi causing more stress Vietnamese-Chinese relations. Despite the fact that both countries adhere to the communist ideology in China over the past decades, remains a major threat to the national security of Vietnam. After the confrontation, which has more than 30 years, the tension between with 2 states in the South China Sea (in Vietnam it is called East Sea) increases. A growing discontent Vietnam cause the Chinese claim to a large part of the South China Sea, also on the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands.
In turn, India feels in the region and more confident and ready for cooperation with Vietnam to go to a certain worsening of relations with China. Another partner of Vietnam, first in the military sphere, long years was the USSR, and at the moment is our homeland. Also, in recent years the partner country in its confrontation of Chinese ambitions in the region was the United States. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and Vietnam the U.S. has taken a course to overcome the hostility that persisted between the two countries-name after the Vietnam War ended. In 2000, for the first time since the Vietnam War, attended by the Minister of Defense, and in 2010 and 2011, the two countries held joint naval exercises.
Vietnamese management is aware that the country is unable to join the race vsepolnotsennuyu naval arms with China. But, taking into account the experience of past wars to protect their own national interests Vietnam must have sufficient naval forces. That's why in the zero years of Hanoi headed for the construction of a modern and battle-ready coastal fleet. His main partner in this project is our homeland, and to a lesser extent — India.
At present, Vietnam is kept of such an approach, which involves the use of the fleet for the protection of the exclusive economic zone and the coastal areas of the country. Vietnam plans to achieve the ability to inflict enough damage, but thus does not seek to establish in the event of a conflict with China's dominance at sea. It is believed that this will be sufficient for the prevention of the Chinese policy of "fait accompli" and become quite an important element of deterrence in the Vietnam-China relations.
In addition to a possible confrontation with China, Vietnam is preparing its own fleet to counter irregular maritime threats, which include piracy, drug trafficking, smuggling. There is also a potential for conflict with any state in South-East Asia, though that option seems unlikely.
In accordance with the set puzzles, the Vietnamese Navy, which is quite a long time were the only "mosquito fleet", now focused on the construction of modern light frigates and corvettes, the creation of a massive submarine fleet, and small-missile gun boats and ships. Total volume of prisoners between Vietnam and Russia treaties in the naval field exceeds 5,000,000,000. bucks.
The biggest project that implements Vietnam in the field of naval construction, advocates buying from the Russian Federation 6 submarines (NNS) Project 636 "Varshavyanka" in NATO terminology, "Clio". The contract for their supply was signed in 2009. First boat was founded in St. Petersburg in the "Admiralty Shipyards" in August 2010. The price of this contract is estimated at 1.8 billion. bucks. Besides Our homeland will engage and software built in Vietnam and
related infrastructure base for submarines, which is estimated at 1.5-2.1 billion more. bucks. The first submarine to be transferred to Vietnam in 2013, the last in 2018.
The modern non-nuclear submarines of the "Varshavyanka" for the Vietnamese Navy will be equipped with anti-missile system Club-S. The hull is divided into six watertight compartments, endurance — 45 days. The boat has a very low noise level of natural noise of the ocean. Its lightweight body is covered with a thick rubber coating antiakusticheskim. These boats are one of the better options for naval equipment from the standpoint of aspects of the "cost-effectiveness". If necessary, Vietnamese Navy will be able to ensure the continued presence of several non-nuclear submarines at sea, in the case of the conflict will allow the Chinese to negotiate the local command of the sea for a certain period of time.
The second basic element in an updatable Vietnamese navy ships have become a distant sea area — modern corvette class ships heavy / light frigate. In 2011, Our homeland has transferred to Vietnam two frigates project 11661E "Gepard 3.9," which was produced by Zelenodol'sk plant them. Bitter. The contract for their construction cost of 350 million dollars was signed in 2006. After receiving the first 2 "Cheetah", Vietnam has translated into the hard option agreement concluded before the construction of 2 additional ships of this class. From their predecessors they will differ by more massive anti-submarine weaponry.
Project 11661 frigates are designed for search, detection and destruction of all kinds of targets (surface, underwater and air), as without the help of others, and in the battle group. Can solve patrol and escort tasks. Upgraded ships "Cheetah" for Vietnamese Navy built with the introduction of technology "Stealth". Armed with anti-aircraft complex "Palma SU" with the latest in optical and electronic guidance systems and anti-ship missiles "Uran-E" — two quad launchers. Artillery weapons presented 76-mm gun AK-176M and 2 30-mm gun mounts AK-630M. Also ship has a 533-mm torpedo tubes. Displacement normal — 2100 tons, maximum speed — 28 knots (52 km / h), endurance of 20 days. The frigate can be based maritime helicopter Ka-28 or Ka-31.
In autumn 2011, also was reported that Vietnam has begun negotiations for the supply of Dutch corvettes / light frigates SIGMA (4 ships). Ships of this project is already under construction in Morocco and Indonesia. This ship regardless of the modifications can own a displacement of 1,700 to 2,400 tons. By his own armament and technical features, it is identical with the Russian "Cheetah".
Separately and is to provide such a fundamental element of the Vietnamese Navy refreshed as mobile coastal missile systems "Bastion-P", which Vietnam has also acquired from Russia. These complexes having armed with supersonic anti-ship missiles "Yakhont", capable of hitting targets at a distance of 300 km. and represent a severe risk for at least some ship. The contract for the supply of 2-sets "Bastion-P" was carried out in 2010-2011. At the current time there is a possibility of the Vietnam add-on kits PBRK 2015. The composition of each complex comes 4-propelled launchers based MZKT-7930 (by 2 to CP RCC), transport and loading vehicle, the car combat control. Sami missile "Yakhont" is stored in special transport and launch glasses, which simplifies operation and longer product life.
Another big project is a contract for the supply and licensed production of missile boats 'Lightning', the total price of which is about 1 billion. bucks. In the 1990s, Vietnam was delivered four boats etc. 1241RE 'Lightning' armed missile complex "Termite". In 1993, Vietnam had acquired a license for the construction of boats, etc. 1241.8 'Lightning' armed missile system "Uranus". Delivery of the regulatory, technical and technological documentation for their construction began in 2005. Since 2006 began the process of their production. First shock boat "Lightning" from missile system "Uranus" was transmitted to Vietnam in 2007, the second in 2008. According to the agreement signed two ship built our home, and another 10 licenses will be required to produce Vietnam. The implementation of the licensed assembly began in 2010, when Ho Chi Minh City was laid first missile boat series. Finish their construction Vietnam expects by 2016.
Vietnamese Navy are now in the stage of active formation and the transition from the legacy of the coastal fleet, which was unable to provide adequate protection to even the country's territorial waters, to a small, but quite massive and modern regional fleet. By the end of this decade, Vietnam will own a fleet that will force China to refrain from their own attempts to establish control over the South China Sea with the introduction of measures of force.
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