In China, ended XVIII Congress of the Communist Party, which, of course, will be the principal landmark in the history of the country. Not only because the CCP, the Communist Party of China in other words — it naikrupneyshaya the world's political organization, which has in its ranks more than 90 million people, or eight percent of the inhabitants of the most populous countries in the world. The fundamental importance of the Congress by the fact that it really has become a tradition gradually, and often volunteered to transfer power from the 1st generation to the next.
Who took the reins of the Middle Kingdom is the fifth generation of the party-state favorites. This tradition laid the patriarch of Chinese reforms, Deng Xiaoping. First he gave a balanced assessment of Mao Zedong, noting that 70 percent of his legacy — it merits, and 30 percent — the shortcomings and errors. But it can not be criticized for only Lofty helmsman. The cause of these defects and errors — in this sinful practice of indefinite stay in top management posts of the country, which, unfortunately, was the case in almost all the socialist countries.
Deng Xiaoping revolutionized the way that order — he decided to limit his stay in the top ranks in the party of the country till 2 five-year terms. He referred to himself in advance not only the name of his own successor, and the successor to his own successor. So, if the first generation of Chinese favorites embodies the founding father of the revolution of Mao Zedong, and the second — the patriarch of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping, the third generation has become a Shanghai electrical engineer Jiang Zemin. For the first time at the head of the Communist Party of China was not a party veteran and technocrat, the creator of the idea of creation in seaside towns China free economic zones offering to investors.
This is a broker execute the ideas of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping's ideas about what should not rush to privatization of large public companies, especially natural monopolies, save in the hands of the country's energy, transport, development of natural resources, and to focus on individual entrepreneurs 2-ways — the creation of objects of national consumption and products for export. Specifically, it allowed China to avoid the unfortunate "grabbing", in other words, plundering of national wealth in the first step of the transition.
So, Deng Xiaoping gave the reins of the state voluntarily own successor, representative of the third generation — Jiang Zemin, the Shanghai engineer which continued reform under the slogan "Let China will become more rich." But the time has come, and after his own 2-five-year terms Jiang Zemin handed over the reins to the representative of the fourth generation, Hu Jintao.
Unlike Shanghainese Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao career took shape in the boonies, in the provinces of the far west, because he knew its needs and requirements. The welfare of free economic zones has led to the fact that at first made a fortune Primorye — Eastern Province, the coastal areas of China, while the far west, in other words the deep provinces that make up two-thirds of the countryside and a third of the population, to this day can not get out of poverty and backwardness.
Yet, the success of the first favorites of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin has led to an enormous victory over poverty. When Deng Xiaoping began the reform, in other words, at the turn of the 1980s, China has 250 million people lived in absolute poverty, in other words, every fourth inhabitant of the Celestial undernourished and walking in ragged trousers. Now instead of the 250 million poor people appeared 250 million new Chinese, for which the well-being — it is not a thermos, and a large pen, and redeemed at their own homes, cars and foreign trip.
Now it's time, and when Hu Jintao transfers power to the representative of the fifth generation. General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, and later President of the PRC, in other words, the head of the country, will be Xi Jinping. This is a great friend of my son Xi Zhongxun, vice-premier in the government of Zhou Enlai. Therefore, Xi belongs to the so-referred to as the tribe Tsarevich — is kids veterans of the revolution, born soon after the proclamation of the People's Republic. They all got a good education and a very cherished reputation of their own parents, why are great reverence and respect among the people. So here, Xi will now representative of the fifth generation.
Such a systematic, permanent and voluntary transfer of power took place in China as early as the third time. And every time the change is not only persons not only target, and control methods. Instead of the revolutionary principle of necessity that I found in China, where there has been a correspondent of "Truth" in 1950, currently on the first plan moved concepts such as legality, scientism, pragmatism. And the first — the rule of law. Many in the West they say, Behold, China successfully carried out economic reforms, but as for political reforms, then everything remains as before. This is not the case. Yet Deng Xiaoping appointed that the law is of mandatory for all, including members of the Central Committee and the Politburo — all must restrict its activities in China, the existing laws. And this has been a huge step forward. Before that, it was possible to justify at least some tyranny, though any self-will that is, they say, need for revolution.
I wish to emphasize that the Chinese Communists not only took over the Russian experience, and almost all have improved it. In-1's, they spent the collectivization of agriculture without dispossession, the there is layer retained more caring owners. We have them destroyed, robbed, shared, and what is a great result? For several years the hungry, and so on, and so similar. Another method was carried out and the privatization of private industry and commerce. How to read Deng Xiaoping, "we need not only the capital that have private businessman in the pocket, and that the capital which he held in his head. "Former owner of the company after he made his public-private venture, leaving the post of CEO. He continued to manage the business, but it has a Commissioner as Secretary of the Party Committee, who are more engaged in social neuvvyazkami, so to speak, rear. But the business, I repeat, was in the hands of former private entrepreneurs — people who know this business.
Apparently, this is why China went at a pace that even eclipsed the Japanese economic magic. I then worked in China in the Land of the Rising Sun, and beheld, as Japan has evolved from 1960 to 1980. But China is at the moment almost everything than Japan and in their abilities. Why? The victory over poverty, when instead of 250 million poor people appeared 250 million new Chinese who revolutionized the Chinese domestic market, it was truly abysmal, relentlessly expanding. In the midst of the global economic crisis, when all rolled to zero in 2010, the Chinese bought 10 million vehicles for the first time in the world ahead of America on the sale of vehicles in their
own market, and for the next year — already 17 million vehicles. Japan produced 10 million vehicles, but only 3 could implement at home, and China's domestic market absorbs everything, because this growth is truly limitless.
In addition, the smart thing and ordered the Chinese anti-crisis funds. They do not have the means to help the banks and put them into the infrastructure. Over the years, the global economic crisis, the Chinese have built 62 thousand kilometers of high freeways, which can be found only after Roosevelt in the United States after Hitler's Germany. And it radically changes the whole inner life of China. Since the government seriously undertook infrastructure here responded to personal business. I repeat, at the moment, in this Congress before Xi Jinping as the new manager tasked: for his ten-year term, in other words, for two of his five-year term, China needs to double gross domestic product. This means that in the race for global leadership China will limit the most important — it will be released in the first place in the world in terms of gross domestic product. It will happen here and there in 2020, and perhaps even earlier. Deng Xiaoping once foretold that it would be in the 2049-m, on the centenary of the People's Republic. But in practice, even within the time today's new favorite of the fifth generation of Xi Jinping, China is now the world will come to your favorites.
Of course, the Chinese have had a huge advantage — it's Chinese community, with redundant 60 million held enterprising people. Specifically, they blazed the first track to foreign investors: foreign direct investment in China exceeded half a trillion dollars — more than 500 billion dollars, crazy money. This not only flourished, free economic zones, and improve the overall technological level of production in the country.
Significant configurations in the policy is unlikely to have to wait. The Communist Party has given to understand that it is the guiding force of the country. I repeat that the first steps towards the liberalization of the Chinese political system is made — it is the principle of the rule of law, which was launched by Deng Xiaoping and already implemented. Began the first experiments with different selections. While they are at the level of counties and townships, and when they get to the province, it will be a significant and noticeable. But in China, as in the United States, a multi-stage system of elections. In other words, each county elects county governments, some delegates to the province, and every province has its quota to the National People's Congress. There is currently an unlimited number of delegates — the first time more than two thousand, including 26 delegates are working with rural registration.
The fact is that China's rural population is tremendous, and not a lot of land. The Chinese have about as much arable land, how much we have, and the population is 10 times larger. There has only 10 acres of arable land per capita. Because the village currently live here and 600 million people, and the workforce there to the strength of 200 million. So here, for now 250 million people at times, twice a year, strolling into town to work, and their children, the so-called social orphans are left in the care of grandparents. Unfortunately, for the inhabitants of the village there are no social benefits, there is not even such a thing as a pension. The only thing — it is an indispensable universal education, which is also a great achievement for China. But I do not foresee any big jumps — one at the evolution will continue. This tradition itself every 10 years to change all control — it wants it or not want, it does this, it happened three times already and probably will continue to happen. I believe that this is a very didactic experience for other states.
Inner-party struggle here, of course, there is, because there are different regional interests, and consequently, the different regional groupings, and in business, there are a bundle of interests. But with such a permanent consulate some severe shake-up hardly likely.
However, China is very sharp and energetic fighting corruption. We often say that blatantly, as there is put against the wall, shoot. Indeed shot. But you can not deny the effectiveness of austerity measures. When I was working in China after the "Truth" in the post-Soviet period — from 1992 to 1996, we came first pyramid, and here in China there was a pyramid scheme. They decided to present this creation of concern for the production of single syringes. Kind of thing you need, and personalized. In the development of the pyramids they uttered that income — 5 percent on invested capital for the month, in other words 60 per cent a year. It was common, as we have, pyramid, and fell for it, of course, not ordinary people, and the management of companies: here I will delay for two weeks wages, payments, I will put these funds, and 5 percent for the month — this is a good jackpot . And they began to these pyramids like this work. Even the Party bureaucrats are there to invest under these enormous interest.
And six months later the Chinese state security is all revealed, revealed organizatorshu-set woman and three men on their knees in front of a mass shot — and all. In China A total of 2300 disgruntled members of the pyramids, and we have their number in the millions. After that, nothing more than that of the shooting did not appear.
However, it is to root out corruption China fails. But as I read as Chinese leaders, even if the position of the power will be giving some dividends, but it can not be a product. Power can be invested, but should not be a product. In other words, no one in China has no right to use their money or their position to some political influence. Here one party, "do not let go." In this sense, there is order.
As to the fight against poverty — as has been said above, China had 250 million poor people — less than 5 bucks a month for life. At the moment of absolute poverty is the norm — 30 bucks a month, but it is still nonsense. Currently in China below the poverty line — the new $ 30 per month — left 24 million people. In other words, there were 250 million — every fourth, and at the moment of 1 billion 300 million inhabitants account for 24 million poor people.
But what are the difficulties? Poor areas — remote, in the mountains, there is something very hard to take people in general. Because there is so called blossom township enterprises. This brilliant Chinese invention, which we really did not learn from sin for dying cities and towns. I know perfectly one village near Beijing, there was a people's communes behalf of the Soviet-Chinese friendship. We got there in 1984, even before the normalization of relations. And there I saw a large canopy sits elderly peasant women 50-60 years of age and hooks knit mohair some details. And then sew it to the label: "Pierre Cardin, handmade, Paris." So, here, means, Pierre Cardin gives orders people's communes, where the available labor force altogether — seven times cheaper than in France. It provides them the patterns, wool, gives a certain order: what style, how many pieces, and one hundred percent confiscate products. In other words it is in pure form fruits of sale.
Just for foreigners and many Chinese enterprises, even car factories, buy land in the village, hired labor, there are imported equipment, machinery. And rural youth do not have to go out of the village — it can work in these shops do bumpers, lights, create some labor-intensive, but technologically easy operation. Here and auto companies, and just engineering, and textile and sewing — all sorts.
City business comes to the village, buy a cheap land, delivery of all equipment. The most simple — it's poultry farm. There is a large poultry farm, and it is replaced in order to raise chickens centrally, toured the adjacent villages. T
here are some old men and women older than 60 years. They they said: "How much do you want to raise laying hens: 500, a thousand, two thousand or three thousand?". They said: "Well, let's take a 500." Team arrives, builds lean-to, gutters or bring them twice a week on Bikes feed, clean water, and grandparents can only go twice a day, pour the water, sprinkle food. After a 54 day or how much needs to grow chicken, again the same machine arrives, all grown chickens condemns, and cutting is centralized in a large factory. But it is very cost and saves the earth, and all.
In this sector, the so-called township enterprises have been operating for 10's of millions of people and it loads the rural labor force, which have nothing to do, as the 10 acres of land per capita, and a lot of people.
As to the Russian-Chinese relations, the tremendous achievement of the Russian Federation and China is that we are one hundred percent legal problem of closed borders. Strictly speaking, when Mao Zedong came to power, the new management of the PRC announced that all contracts that previously existed in the pre-revolutionary era, they consider inequitable and invalid. It belonged to a certain extent and to Kyakhta agreement between Russia and China, where there were some questionable areas. But, fortunately, as a result of very complex negotiations (just my colleagues Sinologists they were 18 years old), we are quite agreed on the entire boundary. In particular, it was difficult for large rivers like Cupid — new island appeared, the old disappeared. In some places we had to go to meet the Chinese here and there — the Chinese people towards us. But at the moment everything is settled, signed and, in contrast to the land of the rising sun, we have no border with China no problems.
Since China is not only our majestic neighbor, and our main geopolitical partner, historically our task 2-states, Russia and China, in the XXI century is to repeat on a brand new stage in history Lofty ideas Silk Road — to Russia and China bridge between Western Europe and East Asia. According to the most modest estimates, some transit will give the Russian Federation for the last least 150 billion dollars a year. A lot of money! The collapse of the Russian Alliance, new boundaries, there were some stops, delays on these routes and cargoes by sea went around Africa. Here are needed, the task is to return the Trans-Siberian at least that the burden he was carrying a Russian years, and maybe its increment. Our countries most of geopolitics, by geographical location had the task to revive the idea of stateliness Silk Road between Western Europe and East Asia. The results of the XVIII Congress of the Communist Party of China they say that the conditions for this are even more better.
The most basic task of — this is the role of the majestic return of technological power. In the first five years, when I was working in China, we were majestic technological power — and we have built China's first auto plant, the first tractor factory, the highest bridge in the world over the Yangtze. At the moment, unfortunately, we have become supplier of raw materials for China, which supplies priemuschestvenno oil, gas and round timber from Siberia. That's just, maybe, in the field of military technology and military cooperation we deliver something high tech.
However, we are there built an atomic power station, the first two units are already working at the moment an agreement, there is building another 2-units. Can be built more stations. China will develop nuclear energy, it is of primary concern. Certainly, the main focus of Russian-Chinese cooperation is particularly energy.
I imagine for themselves the future of Trans-Siberian as a revival of the Silk Road Lofty — to make along the Trans-Siberian chain of free economic zones and resettle there are 25 million Russian, who, after the collapse of the Soviet Union were in the CIS and in other countries. Many of them want to come back, they say in Russian, but they do not need to settle in the European part of Russia, specifically along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Create there a chain of free economic zones, like the Chinese.