Where he was born, there was no need

Landing craft air cushion (hoverborne assault landing ship) project 12061E (code "Murena-E"), made by the Central Marine Design Bureau "Almaz" — in fact the only one in the current time available to the proposal for the construction and delivery outside Russian hoverborne assault landing ship small displacement.

At first was a "squid"

"Murena-E" is an evolution of the band amphibious hovercraft 1206 project undertaken CMDB "Diamond" from the late 60s. Initially hoverborne assault landing ship project in 1206 (code "Squid") is designed as a high-speed landing craft to be placed in the docking chamber huge amphibious assault ship (BDK) rank 1 Project 1174 (code "Rhino"). Boat of 1206 had a standard displacement of 70 tons, total — 113 tons, the highest load capacity 37 tons (to enable it to deliver on Preserving the tank similar weight).

Since the maximum length of this Hoverborne assault landing ship amounted to 24.6 meters, width — 10.6 meters, camera docking "Rhino" length of 75 meters and a width of 12.2 meters could be three such boats. The main power plant "Squid" included two gas turbines M-70 with capacity of 20 thousand horsepower at all that any turbine has performed as one propeller and one lift fan for the air cushion. This ensured hoverborne assault landing ship the highest speed at full load up to 55 knots. However, the cruising range at such speed does not exceed 100 miles.

Feature of the architecture boat project in 1206 was the presence of one hundred percent of the hold closed (unlike American counterparts). In general, in the beginning, "Squid" was to have an open hold. But the reduction in step size of the design previously planned hoverborne assault landing ship (so the camera in the docking of the project in 1174 was located not two, but three boats) led to the decision to make his body a hundred percent covered to reduce splashing adopted by the assembly and the power of the power plant.

In the years 1972-1973 in the production association "Diamond" in Leningrad built two models of "Squid", then transferred into trial operation. At the end of the test built in the years 1977-1985 18 series boats of the project in 1206 at PO "The Sea" in Feodosia. Since the 1174 landing craft project after 1991 did not actually exploited, "squid" in the post-Soviet period have also lost their value in the eyes of the Russian Navy commander, and from 1992 were written off (the last such hoverborne assault landing ship was considered as part of the Caspian Fleet until 2006).

By the way, on the basis of the draft 1206 CMDB "Diamond" were developed artillery hovercraft project 1238 (code "Killer Whale"), built in one instance in 1982, also inshore trawler hovercraft project 1206T (two units built in 1984-1985 years). But both of these types remain experimental.

Not right in your own hometown

Meanwhile, it was decided that for engineering with 70s Nevsky PKB amphibious assault ship of the project 11780 need a modified version of the "Squid" with increased load capacity. He received the designation project 12061 (code "Moray"). Tactical and technical requirements for the development of "Moray" Navy issued a CMDB "Diamond" in 1979. The main designer was initially M. Mokhov, who created the boat of 1206, and then — Yuri Semenov.

The main difference hoverborne assault landing ship of the project 12061 from its predecessor was increased to 43 tons lifting capacity, allows for the transportation of the modern Russian tanks. Like the boat of 1206, "Murena" is also capable of transporting or two infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, or two, or up to 130 troops. Accordingly, the standard displacement of a new hoverborne assault landing ship headed for 104, and the total — 150 tons. While maintaining the same power plant boat can reach speeds of up to 55 knots, with a cruising range of all that has doubled in size — up to 200 miles. Boat length — 31 meters, width — 12.9 meters.

Another feature hoverborne assault landing ship of the project 12061 — Substantial efforts weapons. If the "Squid" had one paired 12.7-mm machine gun "cliff-M", then "Murena" received two six-barreled 30-mm gun mounts AK-306 and two 30-mm automatic grenade launcher BP-30 "Flame". Also included in the collection of weapons MANPADS "Igla". The boat could be used for the implementation of mine arms, receiving a set of portable device for the production of 10 to 24 minutes, depending on their type. Number of crew hoverborne assault landing ship of the project 12061 has doubled — up to 12 people.

"Morays" equipped with more sophisticated radio equipment, including navigational radar "screen-1" and a set of navigational aids.

From 1985 to 1992 year Khabarovsk Shipbuilding Plant named after the 60th anniversary of the Soviet Navy sent eight boats of the project 12061. Due to the fact that prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union no amphibious assault ship of Project 11780 and has not laid, the upcoming construction of the boat project 12061 has lost its meaning and has been minimized.

All eight ready-made "Muren" became part of the team based on the Amur River Division, Pacific Fleet (in other words, almost the Amur Flotilla), and in 1994, together with the entire division hoverborne assault landing ship passed the Federal Border Service. But with the introduction of detention maritime borders not found the boat. Some of them are written off in 1996 due to injuries acquired in the tragedy that occurred with 4 years earlier. Other "Moray" were soon put to the joke. In 2004, 5 hoverborne assault landing ship is also being written off, and then disposed of.

Two other boats are in storage in Khabarovsk. Together with the fact one of those "Muren" after partial repair was used for the preparation of the South Korean crew.

Since the 90's, an export version of the project, called 12061E ("Murena-E"), offered to Partners in Moscow for military-technical cooperation. The first customer was South Korea which concluded in May 2002 with Rosoboronexport contract price of 100 million dollars for the construction of 3 boats on OJSC "Khabarovsk Shipyard" in the Russian debt repayment programs from that state. Accordingly Seoul paid only 50 percent of the amount discussed, and the other 50 percent of the company reimbursed from the budget of the Russian Federation and accounted for as an extinguishment of debt to South Korea. Settlement of the last issue has caused delays in the implementation of the agreement, and the three "Murena-E" have been built and delivered to the customer only in 2005-2006.

From a basic version of the project 12061 12061E different installation of modern digital navigation equipment, radio communications Western (already mounted in South Korea), the lack of 30-mm grenade launcher systems BP-30 (in connection with the termination of their production). Presumably the latest navigation systems integrator is OJSC "Perm Scientific-Industrial Instrument Company" (PNPPK, the former Perm Instrument Production Association).

In 2010, Rosoboronexport signed a contract for the supply of 2-12061E craft project for Kuwait. In autumn of 2010, it was reported that the agreement will come into force recently. Build these "Moray-E" will once again of "Khabarovsk Shipyard." Characteristics of the contract are
unknown, but one can imagine that he was also signed during the settlement of the question of the payment of the debt to Kuwait, remaining from the days of the Russian Union of what took place long negotiations (in the same way, perhaps, has been concluded and the contract for the supply of nedavneshny Kuwait small additional batch of BMP-3).

That fall of 2010, with the words of the representative of the CMDB "Diamond" D. Litinskiy, it became clear that South Korea would not mind a few more boats to buy the project 12061E. It was stated that "in the true time Rosoboronexport is negotiating on that. Representatives of the Client wishes to have in the recent series have been taken into account their wishes, based on operating experience of the first series. Specifically, they offer to put their navigation equipment. Look forward to the signing of the contract for the coming year. "

Presumably refers to the probable construction for South Korea still 3 "Muren-E."

Among other potential customers that hoverborne assault landing ship, which Rosoboronexport has worked extensively, promoting the boat, called Venezuela and Malaysia. It is understood that before, "Muren-E" offered to China.

Application in any other capacity

Assessing the amphibious hovercraft project 12061E, it should be noted that it is a very "niche" demand on the world market. South American equivalent "Moray-E" — hoverborne assault landing ship LCAC — with similar dimentions exceeds its carrying capacity in (60 tons, and overweight — 75) and, in addition, more in line with the concept of "landing pontoons," possessing an open cargo space (cargo deck) and actually carrying weapons. Vpribavok Russian boat with fully enclosed cabinet has inflated height and in contrast to the LCAC can not be located in the cells of most modern dock landing ships, which limits its use and potential implementation.

So Makarov, "Murena-E" with a closed cargo space, power weapons, navigation equipment and the possibility of setting mines is not so much the landing craft as a multi-purpose amphibious boat for autonomous action in coastal waters, a kind of reincarnation of the German high-speed "fast" landing barges period of the second world war. Because the project 12061E almost positioned as a smaller version of small amphibious hovercraft project 12322 (of "Bison"), applicable, for example, for countries that contain a small number of Navy ships or disposing of a moderate budget. It intends specificity and potential customers.

It should be, but noted that the real battle worth hoverborne assault landing ship — expensive to operate, vulnerable and low owning combat stability — as boats for independent action is controversial to this day.

The same kind of "Moray-E", in our opinion, the term covers data hoverborne assault landing ship in the Navy of the Russian Federation. The Russian Navy so far shows no particular interest to small martial means "coastal war," and for placing in dock cells acquired from the French amphibious assault ship Mistral-class boat of 12061 does not fit the measured and height. So for the Russian "Mistral" will have to create a Russian LCAC. In view of the possibility of ordering boats for the Russian Navy seems to be very low.

Possible buyers zabugornom "Muren-E" may first appear fleets states interested in the implementation of operations in the rivers or in the waters at the junction of the "river-sea" (these include priemuschestvenno Latin America and South-East Asia), also on a shallow coasts immense low perfectly accessible beaches (Gulf countries and North Africa) or the rocky areas (the same of Korea). But quite a significant purchase price and operating such hoverborne assault landing ship with a total of exoticism as a military landing craft and imposes significant resource limitations on the acquisition of boats and suzivaet range of customers.

It is possible that in Latin America, "Murena-E" zahochut purchase of Venezuela and Brazil, the Middle East and North Africa — United Arab Emirates and Algeria, South-East Asia — Vietnam and Malaysia. However, in all cases, it is likely going to supply only small batches hoverborne assault landing ship in a few units.

In general, the specificity of the type of boat and the narrowness of the latest global market hoverborne assault landing ship doing at least some prediction in this case is very uncertain. Practically, this time not so much the product is the answer to the challenge of the market as the proposal itself forms the understanding of certain requirements. In this rather narrow, special and peripheral. As can be seen, the purchase of similar boats will inevitably be quite exotic event (and the case carried out so far on account of debt relief).

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