During the second World War, Turkey to its geo-strategic position, attracted great attention of the warring parties. Allied effort on verbovaniyu it on its side for a long time did not give the expected result. Stalin allowed for this, even the use of force: the Tehran conference, he said that "We need to shake them, if it is necessary." Despite the long-term pressure on the Turkish government, Ankara managed to maintain neutrality (proclaimed June 26, 1941).
In the Turkish political circles dominated by pro-German sympathies, and the economic factor was decisive in strengthening these sentiments (in 1936, 50% of Turkish exports go to Germany, especially chromium). On the other hand, maintaining neutrality was motivated by a fear that the first major consequence of Turkey's entry into the war on the Allied side, will be the German military retaliation.
In addition, Turkey's neutrality was dictated by the unwillingness of the Turkish army to combat operations (due to lack of military equipment), which has provided its non-participation of the balance of power in the region. Turkish diplomacy was in a difficult situation in which it was necessary to constantly maneuver between the warring parties, trying to resist the external political and diplomatic pressure, whose ultimate goal was to involve Turkey in the war.
In those years, Turkey was the "Switzerland" of the Balkans, which provided the opportunity to conduct informal negotiations between the warring parties to truly neutral terrain. Romania, like other countries who fought on the side of Germany, by the end of the war tried to get out of it without any tangible losses and began negotiations with the enemy, including the terrain of Turkey, Ankara (the negotiations were also in Lisbon, Stockholm, Madrid, etc. etc.).
In the final step of the war in Europe, when the military and political initiative in the hands of the Allies, geostrategic and geopolitical role of Turkey has increased substantially.
The Romanian government has followed the developments in Turkey, and in particular for political and diplomatic battles, through its intelligence agencies. Special Information Service for the Council of Ministers of Romania (SSI) conducted intelligence work in Turkey through third division (Turkey, Greece, Spain and African countries), the Southern Front (1) (so-called by one of the intelligence agencies FID). In the Turkish capital and in the large cities of Turkey, SSI had their own residents, who worked under diplomatic "umbrella" or under the guise of merchants (2).
In addition, the flow of the hidden disk imaging was provided by Romanian military attaché (3) working in the Romanian diplomatically missions abroad. In Ankara, during the war years, the post of military attaché of Romania Traian held Colonel Teodorescu.
July 24, 1944, he sent to Bucharest fascinating "report" on the political and military situation in Turkey, (4) in which tried to find the premises, forcing Turkey to avoid role in the war on the side of the Allies, despite the fact that the ending of the war was obvious.
Colonel reported on the actions of England's fine verbovaniyu Turkey into the war. He wrote that England claimed that Turkey "eliminate the export of raw materials to Germany." What could be done in this regard, the Turkish government with the consent of Berlin, it was "the reduction of total exports to Germany." But the British insisted on the complete cessation of supply, and Turks had hoped that they will reach a compromise here.
This is the English requirement was preceded by another, more severe — "diplomatically rupture of relations between Turks and Germans." Turkey "immediately rejected the British demand," arguing that the gap diplomatically with Germany at any moment will be able to lead to a state of war between them.
Turkey did not want to get into a situation, and the reason for this was perfectly known and the British — "unpreparedness Turkish army because of neglect undertaken by England in Adana and Cairo." At a conference in Adana (30 — 31 January 1943), England sought to bring Turkey to the side of the Allies in exchange for military aid if Germany attacks on Turkey. But the failure to comply with these obligations was determined desire to preserve Turkey's own neutrality. At the Cairo Conference (4 — 6 December 1943), the Allies have taken the latest attempt to engage Turkey the war, but the neutrality of the Turks was more important of all, they first feared punitive action in Germany and Bulgaria.
On the other hand, the gap Turkish-German economic relations would be able to lead — as the Turkish authorities — to the "economic reactionaryism Reich which will be able to suspend (in Bulgaria) Turkish import and export to Europe. "It would be a terrible blow to the Turkish economy, which, perhaps, would lead to a "loss of Turkish economic independence" and the "loss of her freedom of political action."
But, referring to the "existing business alliance between those 2 powers" — the United Kingdom and Turkey — Turkish authorities had hoped that the issue would be resolved "in a spirit of friendship."
Turkey still did almost everything in this direction — lowered exports to Germany by 50%. But the real purpose of the British was not a financial blockade of Germany, and the inclusion of Turkey into the war on their side, and the Turkish authorities knew about it.
The problem was so difficult to Turkey, that at the end of June 1944, the President Ismet Inonu, called the supreme command of the Turkish army, to find out what was "the mood in the army against possible military conflict with Germany." Alignment of war was particularly crucial since, as stated by the President of Turkey, because of course frisky military and political events that Turkey could "after more than two months, throw a position of neutrality." The military elite were against Turkey's role in the war, because the Turkish army was not ready for that either morally or materially.
As reported Colonel Traian Teodorescu, immediately after this meeting, one of Turkey's generals, Salih Omurtak hastened to clarify the German military attaché in Turkey, General Rode, "Turkey has no territorial and political claims" and she "never repeat the gesture of Italy, with storm rear their own former ally who has learned so much. " General Omurtak, according to Trajan Teodorescu, stressed that the Turkish-British alliance was never directed against Germany and Italy against the likely expansion in the Balkans, after she had occupied Albania. So this alliance was directed only against Italy, although at that time Italy has been a good ally of Germany.
The same unanimity, characteristic for the army, and was in the Turkish parliament, where only 2% were in favor of an alliance with Britain and the accession of Turkey into the war.
A lively discussion at the time, was summoned to the Turkish public statement of the U.S. Ambassador in Ankara, Laurence A. Steinhardt, placed in the American press. He said that "although the Turkish public opinion does not want Turkey's role in the war, the Turkish government is" on the increasingly close cooperation with our allies. &qu
ot;Salting noted that this cooperation" will lead to joint military struggle ", while stressing all this only benefits allies.
Turkish newspapers reacted angrily to this, saying that Turkey militant refers to entry into the war, "but is willing to grant concessions own ally," taking into account "the Turkish and their own interests."
Assertive actions to involve Turkey in the war, conducted first by British diplomatic circles, would lead to the realization of one of the main strategic objectives of English, namely: Britain was "firmly established in the Straits and in the Aegean Sea, so shut the road tomorrow Soviets to the Mediterranean Sea and Suez. "
Prevent the Soviet Union in the region and lusted after the Turks. Only they want, acting skillfully solve this dilemma without the participation of England. Here's why they avoided entering the war on the Allied side, "the main reason — stressed the Romanian military Attache — that compels Turkish rulers prefer the status of neutrality, is the uncertainty in relation to the objectives Russian. "Colonel Teodorescu reported that" Our homeland has been and remains a major threat to the Turks until such time as Germany is still in a position to undermine Russian power, the Turks seen as a betrayal of civilization at least some action that will lead to the weakening of Germany against the Soviet Union. "Officials from Ankara know (and have done in this respect the statement in some circles) that the anti-Hitler coalition will survive until the defeat of Germany, then" start a huge controversy between Anglo-Saxons and the Soviet Union. "
Turkey in the final step of the war still had intended to join it to be in the camp of the favorites. But to do that, at first, she tried to find out the exact situation "about Russian intentions in the Balkans, the Turks believe that their own security zone." To this end, in March 1944, when Russian troops were on the border with Romania and the Balkans were under threat, the Turks tried to find out from the Russian community of Ankara diplomatically, "that in the desire to have Russian concerning Turkey?". They were told that, "We (the USSR) did not pursue as an objective indispensable Turkey's war." It was naizloveschee indifference, against the British assertiveness.
2nd attempt to clarify the objectives of the USSR, as reported to Colonel Traian Teodorescu, was accomplished in June 1944 means the Turkish press. The last minister of foreign affairs, Tevfik Ryushtyu, known for its pro-Soviet sympathies, wrote an article which read as the need for a Turkish-Soviet Union. The article caused considerable discussion in the press. Were placed articles and "for" and "against" the initiative. But the Russian press did not respond, resulting in control of Turkey to the idea that it was "a symbol of what our home is unwilling to accept new obligations in relation to the Turks and wants to have complete freedom of action in the Middle East."
Colonel Teodorescu reported in this regard and that the Turkish authorities have lusted after, so that by the time of the likely entry of Turkey into the war, it had to guarantee the territorial integrity of the Allies. For this, the Prime Minister Sukru Saracoglu Tipo addressed the proposal to the Russian ambassador in Ankara, but "the response of the Soviets did not follow."
In conclusion, the Romanian military officer wrote that "as it should, which is why the Turks fluctuate enter the war and that is why their role in the fighting is not expected until such time as the Germans under pressure from other external or internal events in the Reich voluntarily leave the Balkans, and the Turks limited to keeping work order in the Balkans. "
As a result, the British pressure headed for its goal: August 2, 1944 Turkish-German diplomatic proceedings were broken, and the February 23, 1945, Turkey declared war on Germany and the Land of the Rising Sun.
Paul Moraru — doctor of historical sciences, teacher of the Faculty of Political Science, International Relations and European research, the Institute "Lucian Blaga", Sibiu (Romania).