Catching up with the United States

Catching up with the United States

Russian aircraft will be able to compete with overseas "Predator" and "Lightning"

January 29, 2010 for the first time flew the most experienced Russian fighter T-50 Sukhoi. Flights newest machine identified the next step the long history of the Russian plane fifth generation, which began over 30 years ago.

Requirements for a future car for tactical aviation management Soviet Air Force initially defined at the turn of the 70-80s, when there were tests fighters fourth generation — the MiG-29 and Su-27. Almost working on a promising aircraft in the Russian Union and the United States began immediately, with our designers sought to give it approximately the same properties that are listed in the material Konstantin Bogdanov about American cars.

False start

The first Russian project fighter fifth generation has become the theme of "I-90" Mikoyan Design Bureau (Fall 1979). It must be emphasized that at this stage the customer, as in the United States, have not yet prepared a tactical and technical requirements for this aircraft. It was clear that her ability to be structurally different from the previous models of machines, and before a TTP, the military on both sides of the Atlantic want to realize that they can give them new technologies embodied in a future project.

Tactical and technical requirements for the I-90 issued in 1983, when it was possible to determine characteristics of the aircraft of the future, its avionics and weapons. In 1987 was passed the preliminary design stage of protection, in 1991, by its conceptual design of the IFIs (functional front-line fighter, won a title theme) and the layout of a fighter.

The machine is in contrast to the previous military frontline aircraft Mikoyan Design Bureau came out of a massive: the largest take-off weight of 35 tons put it between the Su-27 and a languid air defense interceptor MiG-31. Typically, in the plus-minus in the same weight class found themselves competing project Sukhoi Design Bureau, as the South American projects YF-22 and YF-23, which were created in the framework of programs from ATF.

A more convincing explanation of such "heaviness" of promising vehicles represented the desire for universality of new aircraft and a desire to increment their fighting abilities through both the highest payload and placing more massive (and mean and more than bulky) electronic equipment.

The first flight of fighter Mikoyan expected long-term: the steering much more obvious in the winter of 1993-1994, the aircraft received index MiG 1.44, took to the skies in February 2000 — after the collapse of the USSR the pace of development of modern technology is very slowed down.

This slowdown was fatal to the fate of the IFIs: during the finalization aviation technology progressed, changed approaches to achieving invisibility machine, a good understanding of the assembly, etc. As a result, this aircraft Mikoyan design bureau was assigned the role of a flying laboratory.

A little later than I-90, in 1983, simultaneously with the issuance of the TTZ Air Force Sukhoi Design Bureau started the project, eventually ended the most difficult job to redesign the machine T-10/Su-27. Already burned due to excessive conservatism when choosing an assembly of T-10, which led to the deterioration of the flying machine features in comparison with aircraft-competitive and require virtually complete redraw of the project, the engineers decided to rehabilitate bureau on the new fighter, taking a non-traditional assembly with back-swept wing and very extensive use of composite materials.

Given plane 5 years developed through programs from the Air Force Research cars with swept back, and after the 1988 programm was closed, the aircraft continued to create the Naval Aviation of the USSR, which came in handy carrier-based fighter.

When the fallen Russian Alliance, work was done at the expense of the bureau, which could raise the car into the air in 1997. The aircraft, designated C-37 (later modified to the Su-47 "Golden Eagle"), has made a very huge memory in both Russian and foreign professionals. The Su-47 was much closer to these requirements, and specifically the outstanding ability of the machine, coupled with the best conditions in much of the design bureau as a whole ultimately intended range of Sukhoi as head developer of the new project fighter fifth generation, the implementation of which started in 2002 year.

Catching up with the United States

PAK FA: Understanding Completed

Beginning of the 2000s was marked by the growth of Russian economy and as a consequence an increase in military spending. These criteria in the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation once again stood on the agenda of the day or the issue of fighting winged car of the future. Thus was born the example program PAK FA — promising aviation complex tactical aircraft. The fighter, from the middle of the decade became a regular character military-technical press, was known by the abundance of names: the product 701, I-21, T-50. The prospects for its creation caused very great doubt, exacerbated by the postponement of the first flight, which initially was expected in 2007, then in 2008 and finally, in 2009 … Stressful add and unclear situation with the engine to a promising machine.

The project is developed in the meantime, and it must be said that in comparison with the previous programm PAK FA had a strong foundation: it was based on the existing large backlog, congestion in the development and testing of prototype 2-OKB Mikoyan and Sukhoi. With all of this "Golden Eagle" intensively involved in the process of development PAK FA to test a number of layout solutions and testing new systems. Significant impact on the development of the aircraft and had a foreign experience: namely, many experts perceive a lot to do with the machine and Dry South American layout YF-23, YF-unlucky competitor 22, who earned despite the loss of the tender, the very highest marks professionals.

Was taken into account and the example of the "Raptor". Familiarity with foreign experience is very extensive contacts helped engineers design bureau, which turned into AHK "dry", with employees from other countries, namely in the process of project implementation civilian aircraft "Sukhoi Superjet."

As a result, the creators of the T-50 could go ahead with open eyes. An additional method is the development of a safety net in the second half of the 2000s, the Su-35BM (Su-35S) Supplies Equipment similar or close to what you plan to use the machine fifth generation.

Successful tests of Su-35s and the beginning of series production for the Russian Air Force showed the correctness of the chosen path. Vpribavok reliability of the T-50 project builds for duplicate options for each of the major aircraft systems. So, for the merits nonafterburning cruising supersonic T-50 pretty existing "intermediate" engines "117", which allows relaxed to wait until the development of their counterparts of the last generation, designed specifically for the T-50.

Engines "117" NPO "Saturn" made on the basis of a family of AL-31. They differ from their predecessors increased thrust and reso
urce.

By the way, for themselves alone power plant can not be a consideration for referring to the machine or to another generation. Suffice it to recall, for example, the main interceptor fourth generation of U.S. Navy F-14 Tomcat. He took off for the first time in 1970, and mass production are specifically designed for him engines F110-GE-400 began almost 20 years later — in 1989.

With these engines in the end, it was built only 37 cars and 50 got them when upgrading. All other fighters in for almost 20 years, mass production of motors equipped with TF30-P-414A, which at first seen as a temporary measure, but eventually turned into the main engines for the aircraft. This "substitution" has led to a kind of downward flight characteristics in comparison with the calculated, but did not prevent the F-14 to be one of the best cars of its own generation.

"Redundant Options", there are other major components of T-50, making it very likely the highest count on the success of programs from a whole and provides the ability to upgrade the aircraft coming.

In the end, passing tests fighter now many spices, including zabugornye, called a very promising platform. In the upcoming T-50 can serve as the basis for a whole galaxy of planes like the earlier development of Sukhoi — T-10, gave birth to the thick trees of the Su-27 and its modifications.

It is safe to say that the PAK FA project was saved thanks to the role of Sukhoi. Creators of the most commercially successful family of combat vehicles cruise past 20 years in Russia were the only profile structure able to "pull" the development of a fundamentally new fighter and has the necessary project for such scientific, financial and operational resources, and level of organization.

SELECTION OF CONTRACTOR

Indian Air Force interested in Russian works by promising fighters very quickly. So close attention to the plane fifth generation simply explained: the country aspiring to leadership in the middle of the countries located on the shores of the Indian Ocean, and a leading position in the Asia-Pacific region, which has not loving neighbors (Pakistan and China), is required to maintain its military aircraft at an appropriate level.

With all of this Russian version was and remains essentially uncontested. In Europe, projects fighter fifth generation is not in the near future is not expected. South American F-22, even if you do not deal with the question of its price, is not exported, and hopefully the F-35 still does not escape from the growing tangle of problems — technical, financial, etc.

It must be emphasized that initially liking India tended to project more easily and conventional fighter Mikoyan design bureau, which for a new contest offered two versions of the machine — a twin-engine "tailless" I-2000 is the creative development of the MiG-29 platform, and a single-engine car, which is an analogue of the coming you can name which seemed about the same time the project JSF (F-35).

But soon the project of a light fighter fifth generation was declared a minor and India wanting to get the newest car in the foreseeable future, it was necessary to join the PAK FA program there by plane Sukhoi role FGFA (fifth generation fighter aircraft).

The Indian version of the car, according to available disk imaging, will be different from the Russian fighter double cabin near electrical systems and other minor equipment. These aircraft in the years 2020-2030, by implication, to change the Su-30MKI. It is expected that India will be set up license to develop machines. With all of this, according to available disk imaging, Divide wants to lure aircraft modernization zabugornyh manufacturers, including naikrupneyshie Western companies that at the theoretical level are able to do FGFA more successful in the market system, if a unique T-50.

Catching up with the United States

WHOM Vie T-50

In total, India wants for 10-12 years to acquire more than 200 cars FGFA. Several large batch of fighters to enter the Russian Air Force (including 60 — 2020). Overall, global demand aircraft in aircraft of this class is estimated spices Sukhoi approximately 1,000 units, with all this, the T-50 all have a chance to meet her. Middle opponent T-50 — F-South American 22 is not currently done, and exports "Raptor", as mentioned above, is forbidden by law.

A comparison with other aircraft undergoing tests 5th generation — F-35, which, on the contrary, it is intended intensively sell abroad the United States, very clearly demonstrates the advantages of our fighters. At a lower cost of the T-50 has extensive power due to advantages in combat load and range of weapons. In addition, T-50 as a whole — a machine made with even the smallest degree of technical risk compared with F-35, which in particular embodiment, F-35B, substantially built "on the edge technology". This region is very well felt in ever new dilemmas "Lightning" — from the design (in the form of "brute force" in the mass of the fighter) to pop up under the guise of production (eg frequent and unexpected failure, it would seem, has long worked nodes aircraft).

But even in the absence of restrictions, similar to those that are imposed on the export of the F-22, free purchase of U.S. military equipment under the applicable cost of the lot is the main allies of the United States, which does not include, for example, the same India.

FLYING TIGERS Podnebesnoye

Just as our motherland and the United States, China realized the need to develop a fighter fifth generation early enough — in the 80s. For conceptual studies on this program there, Chinese engineers have begun in 1989. Involved in the work of leading aviation experts at SRI International: of the 611 in Chengdu and 601 th in Shenyang.

The normalization of relations between Moscow and Beijing, who came in during the late 80's — 90's, China has opened access to the Russian stung. The Chinese have used the knowledge and experience of employees SibNIA (Siberian Branch of TsAGI, Novosibirsk). By the way, besides providing practical assistance in designing new aircraft, they participated in the modernization of machines built in China, as in the alteration of a Chinese demands Israeli project Lavi, launched a series under the symbol J-10. Do not stay aside and representatives of other advanced aviation powers, including the Antonov Design Bureau, of "Boeing" and "Airbus Industrie".

Information on the Chinese plane fifth generation is very inconsistent. According to one version, the PRC developed twin-engine heavy fighter, who is "in the same category" with the F-22 and T-50. In 2008, but it was reported that in China also creates a lightweight fighter — a kind of analogue of the F-35. However, the prospects of success here are called into swing: work on this machine, and in the U.S. is hard, and therefore rely on the fact that China will be able to quickly solve the most complex set of technical and economic issues, however.

LAYOUT probability of the Coming

Apart from the United States, to this day, only Japan has become a post-industrial state, set out to my car to get fifth generation. The only available "masses" of information about the project is the photo layout of the new aircraft on the factory floor. With all of this Tokyo — one of the customers the F-35, which should be based, namely, the promising light aircraft carriers Japanese Navy.

Land of the rising sun, of course, has the potential necessary for the design and creation of promising aviation systems, but then there is the question of economic n
ecessity similar expenses. Of course, the work on the fighter, similar in capabilities to the T-50 and F-22 will cost very expensive.

Meanwhile, the special needs in such a "feat" not — the U.S. is ready to come to the aid of his own Far Eastern ally, if Japan is attacked. As a result, the development of the aircraft fifth generation could be for her to some extent a political move that would mean zeal Tokyo to greater independence from Washington.

Instead of an Epilogue

Separation of the post-war generation of combat aircraft, maybe not the most successful method of organizing, but very enjoyable. There is, perhaps, the best illustration of modern industry closer to the technological barrier than a narrowing of the range of states, without the help of other developing and building the military winged machines belonging to the next generation newcomer. Even more pleasing evidence — reduction in the number of companies and projects, respectively.

Each successive generation of combat aircraft requested more time to develop (despite the cool growth of computing power) and the costs of the times, if not much more expensive than its predecessors. At the current time every errant requests tremendous improvement in performance characteristics and costs may not always be in principle.

The last time such a barrier stood in front of the piston aircraft in the 40-ies of the last century and was overcome by the transition to jet aircraft. It could take 10 years-ki "in normal mode", but occurred in the military aviation advanced countries for 5, and in civilian — in 15 years thanks to the stunning power pulse that advances in technology have given second global war.

Now armed confrontation of the same magnitude is unlikely to give a similar boost, faster lead to the destruction of industrial civilization, so will have to overcome the barrier manually. How long it will take, as well as what will end until the unpredictable.

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