Cyril and Methodius — phantoms holy Orthodoxy

Cyril and Methodius - the "holy" phantoms of OrthodoxyThe issue of writing in Russia is still an important and controversial issue. Perhaps one of the major versions of a church. Here's how to see it, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Kirill. September 21, 2010 during the primatial visit to the Far East, he said, told the TV channel "Russia": "The Orthodox Church keeps in its history, in the tradition of the great names of his Saints Cyril and Methodius. In a sense, we the Church of Cyril and Methodius. They went out of enlightened Greco-Roman world and went to preach the Slavs. And just who were the Slavs? Are barbarians, people who speak a foreign language, it is inferior, it is almost animals. And so it went to the enlightened men who brought them the light of Christ's truth and do something very important — they have to talk to these barbarians in their language, they created the Slavic alphabet, Slavic grammar and translated into the language the word of God. "

This, of course, a new reading, but still old and battered "The Slavs, being ethnic bastards, are not able to accept and bear the great legacy of the Aryan race, and the Slavs in general are not suitable to be the bearers of culture. They are not creative people, this herd animals, and not the individual, it is not adapted to the mental activity "(Paul Joseph Goebbels, 1942," Diary "). Thus, we see that at the beginning of the 21st century, some had the wrong idea about the Slavic world. And it translates into just such erroneous interview.

This happens because the wrong data entered in scientific communication. Thus, the article "Cyril and Methodius" in the TSB says "Cyril and Methodius, the Slavic educators, creators of the Slavic alphabet, the preachers of Christianity, the first translator of liturgical books from Greek into Slavic." But, as is well known to linguists, the "Slavic language" does not exist, there is a group or family of Slavic languages. Cyril and Methodius were unable to make a transfer to all Slavic languages at once, because these languages require translation between them. Note the contradiction.

"In science, there is no consensus on the question of whether the ABC has created Cyril — Glagolitic and Cyrillic (most scholars believe that the Glagolitic)." And this is the second controversy in the church theory, confirmed in the article "Cyrillic" the same source: "Cyrillic, one of the two Slavic alphabet. Named after the Slavic educator middle of the 9th century. Cyril. Most scholars believe … that Cyril created the Glagolitic. " Britannica echoed: "The question of the ABC for the Slavic brothers invented — or so-called Glagolitic, Cyrillic — a controversial" — and specify. — "Language translation was a Bulgarian dialect, in the opinion of the majority, or adverb Pannonian Slavs." And linguist M. Fasmer agrees: "Cyrillic — the name invented by Cyril (Glagolitic) alphabet."

Modern scholars — experts in ancient writing systems — are unanimous: Cyril invented for the Western Slavs Glagolitic.

The question remains open with the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyril "created the first Slavonic alphabet" in 863, but the old Cyrillic monuments date back only a century later: Old Bulgarian — inscription Mosticha (10 in.) Inscription of King Samuel (993), the inscription of Ivan Vladislav (1016), manuscript 11. This is the third contradiction. It is reinforced by the fact that to date, more than 1,000 found birch bark letters in 11 cities of Old Russia: Novgorod, Staraya Russa, Torzhok, Pskov, Smolensk, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, Tver, Moscow, Staraya Ryazan, Zvenigorod Galicia, located far from the centers of orthodoxy of the period — from Byzantium, Kiev, Bulgaria. This is the fourth contradiction.

Fifth contradiction in church theory that letters written in the early 11th century, that is, until the arrival of Christians in Novgorod — Letter number number 89, 90, 123, 181, 245, 246, 247, 427, 428, 526, 527, 590, 591, 593, 613, 733, 753, 789, 903, 905, 906, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912, 913, 914, 915, 915-I and in Staraya Russa № Art. P. 13. Total — 31 diploma. The earliest date — 1025. The most recent — 1100. However, Novgorod was baptized only in the 12th century, so 95 percent of the economic literacy content. Almost no Christian literacy — is the sixth contradiction, and the seventh in the fact that at the beginning of the 11th century Novgorod wrote secular recipients who are inside the city and in the villages, in other cities.

Academician AA Zaliznyak argues that "this ancient system of writing was very common … The script was spread all over Russia." Already at the beginning of the 11th century, the whole Russian people to freely write and read — "reading birch-bark manuscripts denied there was a view that in ancient Russia were literate only nobles and clergy. Among the authors and recipients of letters, numerous representatives of the lower classes, the found text, there is evidence of practice learning to write — alphabets, formulations, numerical tables, the "trial of the pen. '" "There's a charter, where, like, some kind of year indicated. Wrote his six year old boy. " Wrote almost all Russian women. AA Zaliznyak: "Now we know for sure that a significant portion of women to read and write able. Letters to the 12th century. all in different ways reflect society more free, with great development, in particular, women's participation than the society closer to our time. This follows from the birch bark letters clearly. " And despite the fact that "both Byzantium and the West had little interest in preaching Christianity among the barbarian tribes of the Slavs", because "it's inferior, almost beasts" — as Kirill said. And is the eighth contradiction.

Archaeologist academician BA Fishermen unique data published: "There is popular belief that the church had a monopoly in the creation and distribution of books, the view is strongly supported by the churchmen. True here is that monasteries and episcopal or metropolitan courts were organized and censors book cancellation, speaking often as intermediaries between the customer and the clerk, but the executors were often not monks, and the people who did not have anything to do with the church. We produced counting clerks, depending on their position. For the pre-Mongol era result was that half of the book was scribes laity, for the 14 — 15 centuries. calculations gave the following results: Metropolitan — 1; deacons — 8; monks — 28; clerks — 19; priests — 10, "servants of God" — 35; Popovich — 4; parobkov — 5. Total count on our 63 and 47 lay clergy, ie 57% of the artisans scribes did not belong to the church organizations. Basic forms in the studied period were the same as in the pre-Mongol: working order and work to market. " This is the ninth contradiction.

Thus, in Russia did not write the priests, and the Russian people! That is why "the picture of Novgorod 14. and Florence 14. the degree of female literacy — in favor of Novgorod "(AA Zaliznyak). Through the efforts of the Church to the 18th century, the Russian people became literate. This is the tenth contradiction.

We brought only ten contradictions in the theory of the origin of the church in Russia Cyrillic. If carefully analyzed Cyril life, you can find ten — twenty, for example, Cyril did not know Russian language, for the invention of the Cyrillic alphabet, he was banished to Moravia, Cyrillic was banned church from the very beginning of its existence, worship in the Cyrillic alphabet from the start was not allowed. But it is worthy of a separate study. Here we analyze the etymology of "Cyrillic", allowing clerics equate Russian kind of writing with personality Cyril, which is actually called Constantine.

Starting search for sources of the myth "on Cyril — the inventor of the Cyrillic alphabet," we turn to the historical sources — Bible encyclopedia (encyclopedia). Its third edition was released in 2005. But the first edition — "" The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the fully featured Bible "Archimandrite Nicephorus was first published in 1891 and still remains the best in Russia nontransferable popular guide to the Bible text. In 1990, the encyclopedia was reprinted reprinted way with the blessing of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II. In addition to publishing staff, this work involved employees of the Moscow Patriarchate. " Strange, no clergy of the 19th century, nor the clergy of the Moscow Patriarchate did not include the story of Cyril and his invention of the Cyrillic alphabet in the composition of this encyclopedia.

In another encyclopedic dictionary of the same period (1890 — 1907 gg.) There is an article "Kyrill", which provides a detailed list of numbered "Cyril, the name of several saints and clergy: St., The father of the church, 315 — 386; St. father (who died in 444) ST., bishop of Turov, preacher and writer, 1130 — 82 …, K. III, Metropolitan kievovladimirsky from 1250 …; prep. Belozersky, 1337 — 1427 …, K. S. Terletskii, bishops. Lutsk and Ostrog. He died in 1607 …; Lucaris, 1572 — 1638 … "(Bible Encyclopedia). But "Holy. Cyril "in it. Only in the article, "Cyril and Methodius" is still remembered that "Cyril and Methodius, St.. Equal to the Apostles. Enlightenment of the Slavs. " It is also said that "862 brothers went to Moravia to preach the glory. lang. Brothers brought the book a success. lang. were met with hostility Latin clergy. Pope Nicholas I asked them to court in Rome. " And further: "The language of the translation was a Bulgarian dialect, in the opinion of the majority, or adverb Pannonian Slavs." That is, the book has been, and the target language was Russian.

A thousand years after the death of the future saints remember, and in 1863 was declared the Roman church "year anniversary of the Slavic" with the center of celebrations in Velehrad (spiritual talks, weekly published by lifting redaktsіey protoіereya Іoanna Yakhontova. — St. — 1863. — T. 17 . — № 3. — P. 89). In the same year, the Russian Holy Governing Synod set celebrating both saints "in memory of the original commission Millennium dedication of our national language of the Gospel and the faith of Christ" (Hersonskіya Eparhіalnyya Sheets. — Odessa. — 15 th April 1863. — № 8. — C . 92). But at this stage, Cyril and Methodius were not the inventors of the Russian alphabet: the latter-day saints were simply Slavic educators — to Christianity.

Further, "in Rome, they were canonized in 1880," and after the 1880 Cyril and Methodius Church began officially submitted as the "inventors" of the Russian alphabet. Therefore Brockhaus and Efron to the article "Cyril and Methodius" provide a bibliography, dated only followed for 1880 years. Previously, these "inventors of Russian literature" neither Rome nor the ROC did not know.

Opportunity to carry out this operation was the consonance of the Russian word "Cyrillic" (one letter "l"), indicating the Russian system of writing and did not have anything to do with the latter-day saints in tune with the name of "Cyril" (two of the letter "l"). In "Alphabet" (Brockhaus and Efron) are both words — "Cyrillic (Cyrillic)," the authors Encyclopedia 1890 — 1907 years, accompanied eloquent adjective — "attributed". And in the dictionary of 1940, edited by Ushakov same thing: "Cyrillic, Cyrillic, Cyrillic (filol.). One of the two old Slavic alphabets. "

Methods allow us to establish philology correct course of forming words and the time of its formation. It is a suffix-EC, which is "a very ancient and has been widely known to the beginning of our writing. Originally suffix EC widely and extensively used for the formation of male kind of verbs and adjectives of quality. These words formed long ago and no longer produced. Suffix EC, losing agentive meaning lost the ability to be combined with the basics of verbs and adjectives, and was easy to form new words from nouns: Leninist Nahimovets etc. "(Potikha, ZA, Contemporary Russian word formation, 1970).

Now, the church and all the "atheistic" science argue that the term is derived from the Cyrillic name of Cyril and the suffix-IC (A). However, this method of forming words for this suffix became possible only recently, and it means that the word of the Cyrillic alphabet, produced from the noun Cyril with the suffix-IC (A) — a remake! Linguist M. Fasmer article "Kyrill" is the initial name of the Russian birch bark letters LETTER — "Old KURILOVITSA (in the" Wild Vampire "in 1047)."

Known Russian toponyms: Kirilko — a river in the Nizhny Novgorod region, Sundovika tributary, the river and the village Kyritz Kyritz in Spassky District, Ryazan Region, River Kirya — tributary Sura, etc.

The letter "L" should refer not to the stem of a noun, and be an independent suffix-L-, or be part of a complex of the suffix-person (s). With it, the ancient form "names of persons on the operation and status. Etymologically, they are correlated with the base verb past tense suffix-L-+ suffix-EC ", and is already" from the name of male sex-on-the-rings (when the verb) form the names of females with the same value by replacing the suffix-rings — in-person (s). "

Thus the word Cyrillic we have the suffix-IC (A) added to the verb past tense, formed by the suffix-L-, — Kirilov (example: possession — the owner — the owner). And the verb KIRIL must exist an indefinite form, for example: kirit, Kira, Kirety, Kirya. And given the specification M. Vasmer that the root in the old version of the CSD was, he also find: "Kura -" casually sew, write doodle. '"

Andrew Tyunyaev, RANS, president of the Academy of Basic Sciences, member of the Union of Journalists of Russia, member of Russian Union of Journalists

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