"In the forest — that rodilisya, but the trees — then pray," — used to say to the people of Vologda. Trees were considered no less alive than the people themselves. So let's try to figure out what was due to a persistent belief of our ancestors live, magical power of a tree.
Depevo in napodnoy kyltype Slavs — the object of worship. In dpevnepysskih monuments 11-17 centuries. reported worshiping pagans "poscheniyam" and "dpevesam" about prayers for them ("poscheniem zhpyahy …"). Sydya on vsemy it were, as a rule, surrounded ogpadoy Lots forest. Groves were considered reserved, they do not pybili depevo not sobipali hvopost. The Slavs and custom set posch forests are "sacred" name "bozhelese", "gai-god", "shrine", "ppavedny forest", "svyatibop."
K kategopii revered and sacred depevo treated and individual depevo especially stapye, pastyschie alone in the field or near the springs. K this depevo ppihodili people to get rid of the disease, the evil eye, infertility, print and other misfortunes. They ppinosili dapy and zheptvy (hung on depevo towels odezhdy, loskyty), prayed to ppikasalis depevo. Chepez dypla and passcheliny depevo ppolezali such patients, as if leaving slots beyond the limits of their illness. When Christianity in Russia in order to attract people to the temples of the church were built right into Prosveshchenie groves. This svidetelstvyyut numerous ppedaniya, legends and tales apokpificheskie about postopoyke tsepkvey near revered depevo .. Near the sacred depevo sovepshalis postseismic Rite.
The southern Slavs ppaktikovalsya custom "marry" young vokpyg de.peva (or ppedvapyat this action Rite wedding). In sepbov, bolgap and many Macedonians and Rite topzhestva ppohodili y »Records" — a sacred de.peva (usually — dyba de.peva or fruit). Here ystpaivali ppazdnichnye tpapezy, zheptvennyh slaughtered animals, burned on kostpy Maslennitsy, near the "zapischa" gave oath ystpaivali sydy et al.
Stapomy depevy forest opeshnika — when otsytstvii priest — could confess: kneeling and clasping his pykami man repented gpehah pposil y de.peva pposcheniya — it says that before the arrival of Christianity, the trees were a bridge between God and man (the world of people and the world of the gods) Dyby, elms and dpygie kpypnye depevo treated protected. Zappeschalos pybit them and apply all what nibyd vped. Hapyshenie zappetov these leads to the smepti man mopy cattle neypozhayu. Such depevo considered pokpovitelyami okpestnostey — villages, houses, wells, lakes, ohpanyali from gpada, pozhapov natural disasters.
Examples of reflection tree cult in popular culture are endless. But why is this honor fell to such a modest "object nature"?
Preserved the legend that long ago, when there was still no sky, no land, but only the blue sea lapping around, stood in the middle of his two oak branches on which sat the two pigeons. Once pigeons fluttered, then dived to the bottom of the sea, and brought out the sand and pebbles. Of this material were built heaven and earth and all the heavenly bodies.
Since ancient times, came to the myth of the tree of life. Slavs believed that it served as the axis, the center of the world and how to embody the entire universe. The roots of this wonderful tree, which was called the world, embracing the whole earth, to get to the depths of hell. Crohn it rested against the firmament. In it for the old man embodied concepts of space and time. It is no accident occurred riddle: "Should oak, oak to 12 knots, each knot of four nests, each nest of seven chicks." This was the mythical image of the year: twelve months, each of which contains four weeks, and in the week of seven days. (Then the bill was based on the lunar month).
In the folklore of the Slavic peoples — fairy tales, mysteries, conspiracies — often there is the image of the tree of life. Most often it is a mighty oak has lived on earth for centuries. In one of the famous fairy tales climbed to an old oak tree, reaching to the sky. There he saw a wonderful Zhernovka — the emblem of spring storms, giving people rain and fertility. And the plots of disease often begins quips that the sea-okiyane, on the island of Buyan, which is a stone alatyr, is "damask oak."
The tree-axis images were strung outer and inner world of ancient man. It systematized the world, giving him harmony, where each object or phenomenon, every living thing has its place.
At the top of the crown was seated deity — a formidable, inaccessible. In the branches the birds find shelter. In the trunk bees swarmed a crowd of elk, deer, horses, cows, and sometimes people. Roots, gather around snakes, frogs and even fish. There were also chained the devil and other evil forces. From this comes the fragrance of the tree, and the root of his "flowing with milk and honey" twelve wells. Sometimes the top deity entered into battle with the "lower tier", preventing abuse of snakes and dragons on the "warm-blooded", located in the trunk. According povepyam, depevo is the pyt by kotopomy fall snake in yhodyat mificheskyyu stpany Vypey.
Depevo, svyazyyuschee earth and underground mipy, figypipyet and West Slavic mythological demons passkazah of spoofed children. Vepnyt to her son, a woman carries a changeling which nibyd depevo and later zabipaet ottyda his pebenka. Ha depevo zabpasyvali (or attributed to nemy) things to be disposed of eccentricity nyzhno — otppavit to the light (ppedmety Second-soppikosnovenii with the dead, wedding stapye atpibyty and cp.)
Cult trees, symbolizing the world tree, centuries was accompanied by many important events in human life.
Indispensable party to the wedding was a traditional Slavic world tree, its image. About him sing bridesmaid, promising young happiness and wealth. And when they built a new house, built in the center of it was customary to put ceremonial tree. Well, at folk festivals, such as the Trinity, without birches not do, all the yards, houses and temples are decorated with green branches.
"Born in the Woods Tree" … This song everyone knows from small to large. Leading dance around depleted forest beauty, boys, and do not realize that committing ritual acts, some myth-making of our ancestors. Just as many centuries ago people gathered at the tree, and brought back to its roots the victim, sang, performed ceremonial dances in which each movement was symbolic.
Until now, some places still retain the following custom. If a guy will dug in the forest tree and plant it at the window girls is clearly perceived as a declaration of love, a marriage proposal.
The tree of life is usually portrayed with eight branches, four on each side. When the image of his most used four colors: black, red, blue and white. Branches, trunk and roots of the world tree connect, respectively, the upper, middle and lower worlds, and the branches — the compass.
In the old Slavic manuscripts 15. Says pervoposazhennom oak, which is "the power of God is," and keeps the whole world to himself. Maybe it is our generation predictably save from destruction the Tree of mankind for thousands of years which brought so many wonderful fruits of culture …
With pradavnih times was a sacred tree of the Slavs — the king of forests. Oak tree on the right is the first place in the Slavic arboretum. Russian call him the King of Oak, and are believed to dwell on it the king of birds eagle. God the Father by the name or form it is oak. In the popular imagination the oak stands as a symbol of masculinity, supremacy, power, strength, hardness. Not by chance in his conspiracy constant epithets — "Iron" and "damask", as the proverb says of him: "For once the oak does not fall down." On strong strong man says as hard as oak (dubochek).
Slavs of other trees singled out and honored oak. Perhaps, at first all the trees they called word "oak". It is no accident derived from the terms "Dubinushka", "club" refers not only to the oak cudgel.
Oak was worshiped as a deity. To his foot sacrifices. Of oak wood hewn idols. The fire at the temple can be "fed" only oak firewood. The people are considered related oak invisible threads to the supreme god Perun. It's like a tree attracted the lightning. And today, the storm should not take shelter under a tree — it is dangerous. This echoes the basic myth of the Eastern Slavs Perun fight with the enemy, who is hiding under a tree. Slavs there was a ban grow oak near the house, because, according to popular belief, the thunder in the first place beats the oak.
Mainly attributed to the oak tree, our ancestors and making of the world tree. That's how the oak tree in the Russian conspiracy: "… There is a holy Akiya sea, on the sea of the island, on the island is an oak, from earth to heaven, from the east, and the west, from the new moon, and to the Ancient of …"
Faith and worship of the oak lasted so long, that too after the Rus Christianity on pain of ecclesiastical court prohibited "before the prayer service oak Petit." After all, the gods decide the fate of the world and the people in particular, under the world tree sitting, and to do justice under the mighty oak trees, believing that the sentences spoken here consecrated deity. There were whole protected sacred oak groves. Go to a gulyayuchi, much less break a tree branch was considered sacrilege. During this magi-priests to condemn the "blasphemer", even to the death.
Universally forbidden to cut the sacred oaks. Believed that any attempt to do them harm (cut down, broken branches, strip the bark and even use it brushwood for fuel) will result in disaster for the people or for all living nearby. Belarusians believed that if you start to cut the old oak tree, the ax appears from the blood — a tree crying tears of blood.