Not known, and a clear date of birth and death of Ivan Kalita. Historians point only approximate year of its emergence into the light in 1288, although this varies a lot (other sources indicate 1283 year). There is the problem with the definition of the date of the death of Ivan Kalita — 1340 or 1341. Future stately prince was born the fourth offspring of the ruler of the capital Daniil Alexandrovich and for a long time could not count on the capital throne. For a long time, Ivan remained in the shadow of his older brother Prince George capital Kuchma. Its stately grandfather of Alexander Nevsky is often associated with John Danilovich, trying to find the origins of peaceful coexistence with the Golden Horde.
Officially Ivan Kalita was married twice. His first wife — Princess Lena, who died in 1331, apparently, was a contemporary of his. About what kind of been the princess, no information, but it is clear that she gave birth during the period of marriage 4 sons and 4 daughters, but before his death, he took monastic vows and was called Solomonic. The date of the marriage as nothing is clear but it is thought that marry the prince, as usual, in their teens. Lena accounted Simeon the Proud Mom, Ivan and Andrei reddish Serpukhovskoy.
Second wife Kalita — Princess Juliana, the origin of which is not established for certain. It is clear that the princess was much younger than Ivan Kuchma, had a daughter, Mary, and the surviving spouse of 20 years. Under the will of the prince she got a lot of wealth and land.
Researchers refer to the names of eight kids Kalita:
• Simeon the Proud and Ivan Reddish (heirs of the mighty princes);
• Andrew Serpukhov;
• Daniel and Feotiniya (information about them actually lost);
• Mary (wife of Rostov-Prince Sts Constantine);
• Evdokia (the wife of Prince Yaroslavl Basil);
• Theodosius (Princess Belozersky principality, the wife of Prince Theodore Romanovich).
Moscow principality Ivan Kuchma received in 1320. For approval as a prince of the capital, he went to the Golden Horde, where for the first time met with Khan Uzbek. Already at the first meeting Khan revealed to Ivan Kuchma their accommodation but claimed from him to force Alexander, Prince of Tver, to come to the capital of the Horde.
Political activities of this extraordinary man began with the unusual and Stealther stroke. Kalita enlisted the support of Metropolitan Peter, luring him countless promises from Vladimir to Moscow. Peter requirement was built shrine of Our Lady. Kalita already in the years of early self-government was aware of the power of church influence on the minds of the Russian people. Investment, as history has shown, justified. 1326 on the square was laid Church of the Assumption of Our Lady, it was the first stone building in Moscow this magnitude. After the death of Peter Orthodox Department remained here that immediately made me think of other influential princes.
This intense period in the history of Russia was characterized by fragmented gain Tver and countless performances against the Tartar yoke. Voknyazheniya Ivan Danilovich preceded the bloody feud between his brother Yuri Danilovich and Dmitry of Tver, as a result of which Yuri was hacked to death. Not later than the Tver Dmitry killed in the Horde, and the prince's throne defected to the above Alexander. The young prince refused to travel to the Khan for labels and signed a contract with Novgorod. Alexander supported the rebellious inhabitants of Pskov and Tver. During the uprising in Tver, were brutally murdered Mongolian salting Chol Khan and his entire court, including the servants, sparking outrage Uzbek Khan.
Ivan Kuchma enjoyed the situation in order to remove their own basic political enemies and went to the Horde. Khan handed him a shortcut on the majestic reign, and has supplied fifty thousand troops. Kalita at the head of the Mongolian punitive squad against its own people. Under the command of Ivan Kuchma also raised Suzdal. As outlines actions Karamzin, Kalita moved slowly in the hope that Alexander senses, but found out that the Tver and Pskov do not want to give in, had to go up to the Opoku. As a measure of deterrence, he persuaded the Metropolitan impose a curse on the rebels, and it is not forced to obey them.
Tatars led by Kalita put down the rebellion, the village was burned and completely destroyed the Tver region, an unlimited number of local people were driven into slavery. Prince Alexander, leaving his young wife, fled to Lithuania, but then came back and again voknyazhilsya in Tver. In 1339, Alexander was summoned to the Horde denounced by Kalita, where, together with his son executed a painful method. The throne Ivan Kuchma received the blood of the Russian people, cunning and treachery. But now raid the area will not be repeated. Tribute was going to fit and often directed Uzbeks, though it was hard. Unrest Kalita ruthlessly suppressed by collecting surplus in its treasury.
Ivan Kalita dubbed Kuchma for his prudence and thrift. Untold wealth that he had amassed, collecting tribute to Khan directed at expanding the Moscow principality and the strengthening of its power. First rule in the Principality was only 35 thousand square kilometers, and at the end of Moscow was one of strongest centers of Russia. For a long time to get a shortcut on the throne of Vladimir Kalita been buying small and medium-sized plots of land and impoverished areas of their own neighbors, expanding the boundaries of their own possessions. For example, were bought outright three towns with the surrounding area — Uglich, Belozyorsk and Galich. Kalita did not disdain even immoral means, for special love of the Russian population did not deserve. Vast areas were separated from Tver in the period of oppression nepokorlivogo Alexander and the rebels. Yet, one can not refute that precisely because of its policy of Moscow acquired an impact on the whole area of the North-Eastern. Kalita dictated to the freedom-loving towns such as Pskov and Novgorod, also sent tax collectors to the Pechora. Not once tried to buy off the Novgorod Ivan Kuchma, but Stealther prince always remained adamant.
In domestic policy Ivan Kuchma has proved to be more successful. Economic and economical prince controlling costs, trying to attract as many people trading, developing trade and agriculture. In 1339, the Kremlin was surrounded by a wall of oak, Moscow replenished with new stone buildings. Despite the apparent commitment to the canons of the Orthodox Church, Kalita in matters of employment of staff committed to the principle of toleration. Give preference to people with outstanding business properties. In Moscow, flocked Tatars, Lithuanians Orthodox, Russian, fleeing the wrath of specific rulers. The pace of development of the principality were among the biggest in the history of the Old Rus'.
In Moscow ruthlessly punished by the criminal atrocities, because the security level in the principality has increased substantially. Great attention is paid Kalita and legislation in the field of civilian traffic, especially inheritance.
Award "unprincipled", as they call it some researchers, policy Ivan Kuchma was forty years of calm Russian lands. The raids are over, because the Horde Khan received a set tribute to them often and in full and friendly relations with Kalita allowed to remain Uzbeks and his entourage confident in their own power.
Ivan Kuchma was able to use the geographical advantages of Moscow, making it not only a political, and spiritual well as the economic center. Kalita is deservedly considered one of the first rulers, who started the reunion fragmented Russia.
Died "collector of Russian lands" on March 31, or in 1340 or in 1341. These are confused about his death, and now impossible to say what was the premise of his death. Ascended the throne on the capital's sons Simeon Kalita Proud and Ivan Reddish continued the policy of his father, which allowed the purchase of the Moscow principality great political weight and quite a foothold in the role of the center of Russia.