Today we will talk about the Slavic traditional world. Of course, this topic is very broad and talk about it for hours — so we limit ourselves to a cursory review. But, nevertheless, I hope that I can truly convey the basics … Just want to draw your attention to a very important point: I do not claim to "absolute truth" and ask to perceive what I say, as my personal opinion. Opinion of the man who has been studying and restoring the Slavic tradition for quite a long time, but does not consider himself a "great magician", "King and the Grand Duke," or some other "infallible spiritual master."
First of all — I will say a few words about the tradition. "Traditional" — means "passed on from generation to generation." From generation to generation, from father to son and from grandparents to grandchildren transmitted knowledge, ideas, works of art, experience — that is the content of the folk tradition. But tradition is not static. It is constantly changing over time, something goes something — on the contrary, there is, but something remains the same. Remember that our ancestors were men — and, just like us, they might be wrong. Those who know deep enough traditional culture, if you want to find a lot of evidence supporting the idea.
But in the popular culture is very much a wise and wonderful, but the truth is truth, regardless of when and by whom it was liberated. In the modern world, is widely believed that our ancestors were ignorant savages. This is not just a lack of respect for ancestors, this is clearly nonsense. Yes, in ancient times, did not know much of what is taught in our schools — and many of us lost ancestral knowledge …. But nothing of the spiritual degradation of the modern world says so much … I'm not even going to be here to talk about it. After all, we have with you is about the wisdom of ancestors, not stupid children.
Now a few words about the sources of knowledge of the folk tradition. Who wrote and published many books on ancient Slavic history and culture. This, of course, good. But a considerable number of these publications contain false information. Quite often, the "wisdom of the Ancestors" are given explicit fantasies of the authors and translation into Slavic way of various spiritual teachings and concepts of foreign origin. I am deliberately not going to mention any names, one that does not hurt. On the other hand, unconditional trust academic history, of course, should not be.
For those who want to study ancient history and traditional culture of the Slavs, I would suggest the following: use a variety of knowledge sources (chronicles and other primary sources, scholarly works of various authors on the history, archeology, folklore, ethnography, rodnovercheskie edition, non-fiction books and movies, and etc.), but try to think for yourself. Do not trust mindlessly interpretations (even the original sources can not always be trusted) anyone else. And as often as possible to contact Folklore (in Russian — "folk wisdom") — a living folk tradition.
In this, perhaps, is to complete the introduction to our discussion today. I think the story of the Slavic traditional world, we must begin with ideas of our ancestors on the origin and structure of the universe.
The birth of the universe.
According to ancient Slavic beliefs, the universe emerged from a body Pervobozhestva. Rather, it is the supreme deity called Rod or Svarog. Ancient spiritual verse of the Book of the Dove puts it this way:
"A white and light — from the face of God,
Co (l) NCO righteously — from his eyes,
Bright month — from temichka,
Dark Night — from zatylechka,
Dawn of the morning and evening — from the eyebrows of God
Some stars — from curls of God! '"
Similar views existed and relatives of the Slavs — for example, the Indo-Aryans. In the Rig Veda, an ancient Indian sacred text, it is said that the world came out of the body primordial Purusha (which was later identified with the supreme deity of Hindu mythology: God the Creator Brahma), brought the gods as a sacrifice to him:
"From the Spirit Month was born out of the eye — Surya-sun,
Agni, Indra, yes — from the mouth, and Vayu — out of breath.
Navel became its air, and sky — his head,
Feet — land, open space — rumor so izladili Gods world. "
This myth speaks of God's universe. The universe is not created "out of nothing", and the body of the Deity. In fact, it is still the body of the Divine — but in a different, different from the original, form. The fact that the verse describes the Book of the Dove — not a creature but the birth of the universe generated from God Himself.
Finally, I will quote another ancient Indian sacred text: Mundaka Upanishad. It about Pervobozhestve said: "Brahman came the first of the gods, the creator of all, the keeper of the world. (…) In truth, the Brahman — the immortal Brahman — in front, Brahman — the back, right and left, it extends up and down, really, Brahman — all this is the greatest. "
Structure of the universe.
How did the world works, according to the ideas of our ancestors? The entire Universe is composed of two parts: an explicit world (that is, the physical world, the everyday, in which we all live) and the world beyond, that light is outside of physical reality. In today Rodnoverie these worlds is called reality and Navyu. The word "Reality" exists in the modern Russian language, explaining its meaning is not necessary. But about the Nav should say a few words. This concept, as far as I know, taken from the "Book of Veles" — the source of the questionable. But, regardless of whether the "Book of Veles" original or fake, the word "Nav" is supported by the language. In the Ukrainian language "Nava" means "coffin" in Czech — "the grave", in Old Bohemian "unaviti" — "kill." In Slavic folk tradition preserved the spring festival of commemoration of the Ancestors — Navy Day.
It is known in Slavic culture and the division of the Universe into three parts: the upper world, the middle world (the world of men, Reality), and the lower world. It is this structure of the Universe shows Zbruch famous idol of him and says Slavic folklore: in fairy tales the hero can go down under the earth (the Lower World) and go to heaven (the Upper World).
The separation of the Universe apart, of course, does not mean a lack of unity of the universe. All the worlds are connected to each other, and between them there is no insurmountable limits …
The truth of the universe ruled. In Slavic folklore, the word refers to the moral law. About Truth be told, for example, in the verse of the Book of the Dove:
"It's not two animals were collected,
Not two fierce sobegalisya,
This is the Truth sohodilisya Injustice,
Promezhdu a beat-fought,
Truth wants to overcome falsehood.
True Injustice argument.
Truth went to heaven (…) "
But the Universe is one. Moral law, logically, is only a part of the universal Universal Law. That is the picture we see in the culture of the Indo-Aryans, where the concept of Rita Dharma stands for Universal Law in all its manifestations. The Rig Veda says:
"The law has strong foundations
Many striking miracles surprisingly
Through the law has long driven life force (…)
Follow the laws of the Act and receives "
"The catfish squeezed for you
O Mitra-Varuna, multiplying (universal) law.
Only hear my call here!
Two kings, brooking no deception
Sit on a firm seat
Supreme, has thousands of posts.
Both Almighty receiving a libation fat
Two Aditya, the ruler of the gift,
Follow those who hold nekrivogo way. "
Apparently, the same views on the Universal Law and held by our ancestors. Evidence of this is, again, the verse of the Book of the Dove:
"And Injustice go at us all across the land,
Throughout the land for light-Russian
Krivda of land voskolebalasya "
As can be seen from this quotation, the violation of the moral law, the faith of our ancestors, it could even lead to disaster (earthquake). And it is quite logical — after world is one.
Keepers of Truth — The Gods. The agreement with the Byzantine prince Svyatoslav said: "Az Svyatoslav, Prince Rusco, yakozhe klyahsya, and approved by the company of its svschan seven (…) If thou whether from th samh prezherechenyh not shranim, Az it is with me and below me, yes imem oath of God, by his vruem Bb, Bb in Perun and Volos, Cattle God, and we are of gold, like a gold, and their weapons so ischeni budem. "
A supreme guardian — the Almighty. I guess it is about him said Prince still unbaptized Bulgarians Presiyan in Filipisiyskoy inscription: "When someone is telling the truth — God sees. And when someone is lying — God sees. Bulgarians have done a lot of good Christians, and Christians have forgotten this — but God sees! ". To him is also indicated by the popular sayings: "God syschetsya all unrighteousness," "God will find someone to blame …"
Of course, punish the wicked deeds have the right not only Gods. In the words of Prince Vladimir Monomakh, addressed the prisoner Polovtsian Khan Beldyuzyu: "Know this company has captured you. For many times, having gone to company, you still have fought Russian land? Why do not you teach your sons, and your kind do not violate the company, but shed Christian blood? May it be Thy blood be upon thy head! "And he commanded to kill him, and so it was cut to pieces." The word "company" means the oath, the oath. According to the outstanding contemporary Slavic traditional culture researcher Michael Seryakov, another meaning of the word — Universal Law.
At the end of the story about how the universe — some mythological images. In Russian folklore, frequent references to the island of Buyan okiya-Sea. On the island, this is white-combustible stone Alatyr and growing oak. Island of Buyan and Alatyr-stone, according to some researchers Slavic traditional culture — symbols of the center of the universe. Under alatyr "hidden force powerful, and power is not the end." In the verse of "Dove Book" says:
"White-stone latyr all stones father.
Why are all en stones father?
— P-under pebble from under Belago latyrya
Rivers, rivers fast
Throughout the earth, in all the world (Noah)
Around the world for healing,
Around the world for food. "
And Oak — The World Tree, the axis of the universe. It is sometimes said that it grows back up — I think it's an indication that the roots of the World, the source of the universe, are at the highest levels of life …
Gods and spirits.
According to the beliefs of our ancestors, the universe is populated by a number of gods and spirits. For information about them — a huge amount of information, and give them a fairly full in the framework of our today's lecture is simply impossible. I will therefore limit ourselves to a short list of the gods, and worshiped by our ancestors, and talk a little about perfume. Description of the nature and functions of the gods I will lead based on the views of contemporary Rodnoverie (people professing faith of their ancestors), which are based on a fairly reliable historical, folklore and other sources ….
Rod. Many modern Rodnoverie believe that Rod — the name of the Supreme Deity, Vseboga, God … Maybe Rod and Svarog — two names of one and the same God. According to information from ancient sources, Rod connected to the top of the world (heaven), the fate and childbirth.
Svarog. God of heaven and the heavenly fire, patron of weddings and blacksmith. His name, according to scientists, dates back to the ancient roots of "var", meaning "burning heat." Compare modern Russian "cook."
Lada. Harmony — The Great Goddess of spring and summer fertility, patroness of weddings, family life. Until now, the Russian language is spoken word harmony (harmony, concord), akin to the name of the goddess Lada.
Lelia. This goddess associated with spring, spring greens, flowering renewal of nature. Her name is supposedly derived from a root meaning "game" …
Perun. Dreadful God of thunder, lightning and rain, a fighter with evil spirits, the patron of soldiers and keeper of Truth, punishing perjurers. His name is translated into modern language means "strikes."
Velez. In the annals known as "cattle god" — that is, God of wealth and material well-being (in the old cattle associated with wealth at all: in the old Russian word "cowgirl" meant "Treasury"). "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" calls legendary singer Bojan "Veles's grandson," which gives reason to believe Velez also patron of the arts — music, singing, etc. Velez is also associated with fertility and the forces of the Underworld — the dead. For comparison, the closest relatives of the Slavs — the Balts, God is beyond the world and the animals which fed the soul of the dead in their pastures. Name of God — Wells.
Dazhdbog. Sun God. In the Ipatiev Chronicle says, "And by this and tsarstvova his son, named the Sun, it is narichyut Dazhdbog (…) The Sun King, son of Svarog, hedgehog is Dazhbog, whi bo husband is strong."
Yarylo. God ardent vitality, fertility, and — war. Known as the "wolf shepherd" — the owner of wolves and therefore the patron of soldiers, werewolves — werewolves.
Stribog. God airspace: the "Lay" winds called "Stribozhimi grandchildren." His name is, presumably, related to the value "fast movement": remember the words "arrow", "rapid", etc.
Fire. God earthly fire. In Russian "sermons against paganism" It is called Svarozhich — that is, the son of Svarog.
Makos. Goddess of fortune, fertility, patroness of childbirth and weddings, as well as — spinning and weaving. Connected with water.
Madder. Goddess of death and winter, and, according to folklore — fertility deities. It is believed that Marena and Makos — two names of the same goddess.
Mother-Raw-Earth. The goddess of the earth.
Rozhanitsy. Goddess of fate.
Of course, this list is far from complete. You must also add that the ancient idea of the Gods, at different times, in different places and with different people, it seems, is somewhat different from each other. The same can be observed in the modern Rodnoverie. This is quite normal — because Slavic Faith is alive and constantly evolving ideological system.
A few words about perfume. As already mentioned above, our ancestors believed that the universe is populated by many spirits. They can be benevolent to humans (for example, Bereguinyas) or, on the contrary, hostile to him (ghouls). Their habitats can be Nature (goblins, water, mermaids, etc.), and can be a house and yard of the building (house, yard, swab, ovinnik). There are spirits of disease (tryasovitsa, Crixus, vesennitsa, fever, fear, cholera, urchin, cow death), the spirits associated with any particular time (poludnitsa, bat), etc. etc. With spirits can interact in different ways — to talk, cajole, or, on the contrary, cast …
In any traditional culture of the main source of information about the origin and structure of the world, and the gods and spirits — mythology. It is time to talk about it.
The value of the myth in the traditional culture is huge. Myths provide answers to basic human questions. They often set patterns of behavior. The eminent historian of religion Mircea Eliade writes: "The main function of the myth is (…) to" set "role models of all rites and all significant human activities, such as food, sex, work, education, etc. Acting as a being that has taken full responsibility, one model simulates the acts of the gods, repeating their actions, whether it be normal physiological function, such as food, or activities of social, economic, cultural, military, etc. " .
On the other hand, it is obvious that the myths can not be taken as absolute truth. Myths — is the way people, and people have been known to be wrong. In addition, the person can represent the gods like themselves — and even give them a lush bouquet of human vices. As they say, "what do — these and sledges." Think about it, the gods — beings, though imperfect (with the exception, perhaps, of God) — but still many times the people in terms of development. Whether they can morally be the same as men?
It should be noted that the assumption of the possible discrepancies myth truth — not a purely modern phenomenon. In one of the hymns of the Rig Veda contains several myths about the origin of the universe, and at the end says: "A visiting over the world in Sky Vishny Only he knows that. Or do not know. "
Part of the myths — this is an obvious attempt to explain the processes occurring in nature. In the traditional culture of the Divine is not separated from the sphere of its display, which is perceived, in fact, as the body of God. Ognebog and Fire, and Sun Dazhdbog — one. Therefore, some of the myths — display of natural processes, an attempt to explain their actions Deity. For example, the apparent motion of the sun across the sky our ancestors explained by the fact that the divinity of the sun drives a horse (or chariot). In a famous Russian fairy tale, where the girl is going to start a fire, Baba Yaga, by the way, she sees a galloping horseman himself "red, dressed in red and a red horse — was the sun rises." Baba Yaga later explains to her that this rider — bright sun. AN Afanasyev, the famous Russian ethnographer and folklorist, in his "poetic views on the nature of the Slavs" writes: "The Serbs have the tradition of a golden chariot and white horses zealous the Sun, in the words of Polish fairy tales, the sun travels in the diamond two-wheeled cart, on twelve-nMCs zlatogrivkah; horutane Sun are forever young warrior who travels across the sky in carriole drawn by two great white horses (…). "
Part myth, probably related to the events of the life of deified ancestors (deified after death or during the life of a revered embodiment of the Divine). Many years ago, the ancient Greeks Evgemer advanced the theory that the gods — is lived once people deified descendants. I think in some cases, this theory may be true, but it is in some …
Where do you find the Slavic myths? Unfortunately, we have no recorded in ancient scriptures like the "Edda" Germans, "Rigveda" and "Avesta" Indo-Aryans and Iranians. However, this does not mean that the Slavic mythology has survived. Live folk tradition brought to us very, very much, and there is a lot of valuable information in the extant ancient written sources.
When implanted in Russia Christianity, the vast majority of people, of course, did not want to abandon the faith and customs of their ancestors. Gradually Slavic beliefs and rituals mixed with the Christian religion — so there was a phenomenon that scientists call "dualism", "popular Christianity" or "popular Orthodoxy." Old Gods continued to read under the names of Christian saints: for example, Perun "become" in "popular Orthodoxy" Ilya the Prophet, Makos — Paraskeva, Yarylo — holy Yuri etc. etc. Russian historian LR Prozorov writes of "dualism": "Russian peasant was not exactly nothing to do with the ancient Jews, fanatic cult jealous tribal god, to kill their own countrymen for the veneration of foreign idols. Another little man came out of some Ilyinsky still would hurt mortal hint him who that "Elijah" was a Jew. In his mind, "Elijah" was a big hero in a chariot or on a white horse rushing to the sky and smashing evil arrows (…) On the day of Thunder Russian Orthodox peasants revered formidable "saint" is not so much a prayer candle and humble as a feast, to which, as their ancestors did in the days of Justinian, slaughtered the fattened by clubbing the whole village "Ilyinsky" bull, at the very least — a sheep. Then followed a wild dance — "poplyashu St. Elijah!".
The names of the Slavic gods gradually ousted from the national memory. But managed to push a few. In Bulgaria, until the 18th century, and in Belarus at least to the 19th century continued veneration Perun under his own name. In Ukraine, as mentioned earlier, in the 20th century were recorded folk songs mentioning Dazhdbog. Similar examples can be given …
Tradition is not interrupted — it continued to exist, albeit often in a modified form.
So those who are interested in Slavic mythology, should be treated primarily as folklore and ethnography. Ancient mythological stories and images are preserved in fairy tales, folk songs, legends, religious poetry … Many of them are Native Gods are not called directly by their names or hidden under the guise of Christian saints. But you can understand who they are, and to separate the, primordial, from someone else. Of course, this may be wrong — well, so what, do not mistake the one who does not do anything … It's better to have at least some knowledge (even if not entirely true), than none at all do not possess.
It should also be noted that the so-called "lower mythology" — that is, representations of the spirits (devils, water, mermaids, etc.) affected by planting Christianity to a much lesser extent than the "high mythology" — the idea of gods. This is due to the fact that the worship of spirits is not so much worried about the Christian church as a worship of the gods. The first priority in the fight against people's faith for the church was just the destruction of the cult of the gods.
At the end of a conversation about Slavic mythology — an example of reconstruction of the myth. Remarkable Russian folklorist A. Afanasyev in his "poetic views on the nature of the Slavs" to an ancient tradition of the wedding Svyatogora hero: "Having met Selyaninovich Mikula, Svyatogor asked him," You tell-tell, how do I know Fate of God? "- But You go to the mountains, those mountains under the great tree is a smithy, and thou in there and ask the blacksmith about his momentous. Svyatogor rode for three whole days, drove to the forge and see — blacksmith forges two thin hair. "What do you Kuyosh?" — Asks the hero. — Kuyu Fate: whom to marry. Svyatogor asked about his bride, and the reply was that the bride in his kingdom Pomeranian — thirty years is in gnoische body at her like fir bark. Athlete did not want to marry an ugly wife and ailing, he went to the realm of Pomerania, raised his sharp sword and struck the girl in the chest — and rode his way. Impact on sleeping with girls crust, and she woke up a beauty unseen and unheard. At the appointed hour for her to woo Svyatogor-hero and married. As they lay hold doth rest, saw his bride in Svyatogor scar on his chest, and asked really spoznal that bullet has its billet. "
How do you think a simple blacksmith forge human destiny? Do not you think that it is a function of the Godhead? In Slavic mythology associated with blacksmithing Sky God Svarog — and hence the legend that it is likely talking about him …
For the environment.
There is a Russian proverb: "Fire — the king, Water — the queen, the Earth — mother, Sky — father, Wind — lord of rain — the breadwinner, the Sun — Prince, Moon — Princess." Is impossible to see the forces of nature are our ancestors.
Remember — many Slavic gods (and not only) pantheon inseparably connected with the powers of Nature. Svarog — God of Heaven, Dazhdbog — Sun God, Perun — God of Thunder … These forces are, in fact, are the manifestations of the gods in the Universe: in other words, a kind of the bodies of the gods. Is it possible irreverent attitude to the body of God, which is the Spirit of God?
Forests, fields, rivers, etc., according to the ideas of our ancestors, are populated by spirits owners, who in the old days people revered. Boris Shugaev in his article "Man and Nature in Tradition" writes: "When he came to the forest to hunt, or before you cut it down, it was necessary to ask the timber (or the" Master of the Forest "), forgiveness for it and leave it in gratitude, for example, a piece of bread or a pancake on a stump. Forest owner otherwise might be angry at the person. The owner is greedy hunters "took possession" of the woods and are not coming back (on this until now, there are many legends and superstitions, especially in Siberia — because there commercial hunting preserved to this day). Image Treefolk, Goblin, Forest Master distributed throughout the territory, where the once Slavic tribes. (…) It is understood that about any hunting "for the pleasure of excitement" at the time of the question and could not. Not that hunt "against the rules", but even break a live branch unnecessarily was impermissible. "
And finally, the most important thing. Remember:
"A white and light — from the face of God,
Co (l) NCO righteously — from his eyes,
Bright month — from temichka,
Dark Night — from zatylechka,
Dawn of the morning and evening — from the eyebrows of God
Some stars — from curls of God! "
If Nature is the body of the Divine — so it is divine, and therefore sacred. And to treat it accordingly need. Priest Guardian Moscow rodnovercheskoy community "Rodoljub" wrote in his article "The Return of the Gods or Paganism Today": "(…) this pagan never leave a piece of paper in the forest, does not break a living tree, squashed frog … for God — Rod — manifests itself and in the great and small, believe Rodnoverie. And to honor him everywhere. "
At the end of a conversation about the attitude to nature in the Slavic traditional world one more touch. In the verse of the Book of the Dove said:
"Which of the sea all the seas of the father?
And which fish all fish mother?
And whom the mother mountain mountains?
And whom the mother river of rivers?
And which are all of the tree the tree of your father?
And every bird of the bird's mother?
And to every beast of the beast is the father?
And all the herbs which the grass mother?
And that hail all castles father? "
At the head of every kind of living (and other) beings, according to the ideas of our ancestors, is a senior kinsman — "father" or "mother." All things for our ancestors were, in fact, a great tribe, consisting of many sorts. But once the whole World (white light) is generated by God and man — part of this world, all things related. Birds, animals, fish, trees, grasses, etc. — Our and your relatives. In the truest sense of the word.
The origin of man.
Tradition says that the origin of man? In the verse of the Book of the Dove said that our bodies are generated by the Earth:
"The bones are strong from the stone,
Teles from our damp earth,
Our blood-ore from the Black Sea. "
It should be noted that in one of the oldest written sources (Lyutsidariuse) there are these words: "Thou earth created man: stone Thou hath the body, instead of indigenous bones hath instead lived wood and grass, instead Vlasov bylie instead of blood — water."
So, the Earth — Mother and our bodies are from it. And then who is the Father? Father — Sky. Remember the popular saying: "Fire — the king, Water — the queen, the Earth — mother, Sky — father (…)." AN Sobolev quoted from an ancient spell: "You, Sky, — Father, You, Earth, — the mother." The same (or similar) representations have been other peoples — the ancient Aryans said: «Dyaur me Pita, Mata Prthivi iyam» («My Father — The sky, my mother — Earth"). AN Afanasyev in his "poetic views of the Slavs in the Nature", wrote: "(…) the Germans claimed that Tuisko (Tvisko, Tivisko), on which there was the first person Mann (Mannus), was the son of Heaven (Tiv) and the Earth from the same divine four gromonosnogo Heaven (Divus) and all the supply earth (Apia) were descended and Scythian tribes. "
In this case, if, according to the traditional Slavic beliefs, the human body comes from the earth, his spiritual being associated with the sky — in the verse of the Book of the Dove said: "Our thoughts on oblats of Heaven" …
Old Slavic society was caste. This means that it consisted of groups of people (classes), to perform certain tasks, and social class hereditary. Evidence for this thesis set — interested, I refer to a wonderful book LR Prozorov "Mystery Pyatibozhiya Kiev. The gods of pagan Russia and caste. " Here I will mention only a few:
On the estates, labor say epics. Thus, in one of the epic Alyosha Popovich frees girl from the captivity of the nomads, and asked her:
"What are you old-tribe?
Tsarist al boyar?
Princely al Kupetsky?
Al last race — a peasant? "
The close ties of origin and occupations are mentioned in written sources. In the Life of Theodosius Pechersky, when the future saint, son of warriors, willing to deal with the slave farm labor surrounding condemn it "embarrassing himself and his seed." Byzantine author told us the words of Prince Svyatoslav, "We — the men of blood, weapons, defeat the enemy, not craftsmen, and sweat to earn their bread."
It is not in contempt of the working people. The fact that, according to the traditional Slavic ideology, everyone should mind their own business. As mentioned in the epic:
"Do not let God make of Boyar slave,
Boyar of slave, slave of a nobleman,
From slave gentleman of pop butcher … "
Society our ancestors likened to the human body, and class — body parts. Chronicler wrote in 1015 that his contemporaries, "I have sinned against the head to foot — hedgehog is from the king to simple Lyudin." In "The Song of Igor's Campaign" says, "hard ti, head, shoulders apart, evil ti, body except the head — without Igor Russian land." Verse of the Book of the Dove tells of the origin of the classes:
"That's why we went to the land of kings —
From the holy head of Adam,
Because she conceived princes nobles —
From the relics (shoulder) of Adam,
Because Orthodox peasants —
From holy tribe of Adam. "
This verse was written later — so it mentions biblical forefather people Adam. But the first mention of this text is found in the Life of Abraham of Smolensk, 13th century, and Abraham for familiarity with the verse of the Book of the Dove going to excommunicate. In the Rig Veda, Indo-Aryan scripture says about the origin of classes is almost the same. Only instead of Adam — primordial Purusha:
"When divided Purusha, into how many parts it has been divided?
What were his mouth than his hands, than the hips, legs?
Brahman became his mouth, his hands — ksatriya,
His thighs were vaisya of legs appeared sudra. "
Society of our ancestors consisted of three main classes. The upper class was the priesthood. This was unanimously testify to both the Eastern and Western sources. Arab traveler Ibn rusah Rust said: "They have medicine men, some of whom command the king, as if they had them, Russ, chief." The medieval chronicler wrote Gelmold western Slavs: "The king is in their lower, compared with the priests, respected. For he carefully reconnoiters answers (god) and interprets recognizable in dark. He is from the instructions of divination, and the king and the people from his instructions depend. "
The next significant estate was military. Many details about his place in the traditional Slavic society, the military spiritual values contained in the chronicles, and especially in the Russian heroic epics — epics. Slavic warrior was associated with Prince and other members of the squad ties, comparable in strength to be related. In battle, he observed certain moral principles — historian LR Prozorov writes: "It is not the honor, praise valiant" kill sleeping ("Dobrynya and Danube"), naked ("Dobrynya and Snakes"), unarmed. Not strike forced: the will Bludovich let live men — debtors hostile family natravlennyh to it (…). "
Special place in the military class held princes. They performed some priestly duties: direct evidence that in the Old Slavonic society Prince combined the functions of priest and ruler is … the word "prince". The fact that in a number of Slavic languages the term "government" and "priest" refers to similar words (or even the same word). The Polish ksiaze — «Duke», ksiadz — «priest", originally — "Priest", in the Czech word knez denotes both "prince" and "Priest", in Sorbian knez — «pop». Slavic prince was sacred ruler — but he did not have absolute power, because of him were priests.
Third Estate were free laborers and merchants. Speaking of which, we should note one important point. In ancient times, simple commoners were not poor in comparison with the ruling elite. In Slavic graves of commoners archaeologists often find zolotyee and silver objects. Who lived in the Middle Ages, Bishop Otto of Bamberg, described the life of contemporary western pagan Slavs: "Honesty is a partnership, and among them are such that they are completely unaware of any theft or fraud, do not lock their chests and boxes. We had not seen a lock or a key, and the people themselves were very surprised, seeing that pack boxes and chests Bishop lockable. Pay their money and jewelry they contain different in covered vats and barrels, without fear no deception, because it is not tested. And, surprisingly, their table should never be empty, is never without dishes. Every father of a family has a separate cottage, clean and elegant, designed just for the food. There is always a table with a variety of drinks and dishes that never empty: one ends — once have both. "
We know that children do not always inherit the qualities of the parents, and the temperament of a person depends not only on heredity. So, for example, the son of a warrior is not necessarily a warrior on his inner self. To people because of their origin did not take place in the society to which it does not, there was a special mechanism. Dedication (or, as the scientists call it, initiation).
Dedication — it's a rite of passage, after which changes the social status of the person. But is not only the position in society — me and the man himself. In part — due to the rite. Often initiated based on a "death-rebirth": initiate symbolically dies and is born again. Ancient Aryans called the last rites of initiation of full members of society "dvija" — twice-.
There are two main types of initiations — age (which one must pass upon reaching a certain age) and class (after which it is representative of a class). In Slavic traditional culture known both types of initiation.
Shortly after the birth of a child to perform various rituals (perhaps the most important of them — naming names), whose purpose was to help the child to become a complete human being and get useful for a person of quality. Midwife rules baby arms, legs and head, cut the umbilical cord on the oak block, the child was strong, the day of the naming raised the bread and broke it on the height (to the baby grew faster), wiped his eyes with silver for vigilance, etc.
At the age of one year or a few years old (in different places — two, three, five or seven years) made the tonsure (or braiding braids girl). Prior to this ceremony was considered a child of asexual being. The ritual was accomplished by the following scheme: a child planted on or near the object of an object related to a male or female occupations (for boys, horse, sword, ax, harrow, etc. for girls — a spindle, spinning wheel, carding comb, yarn etc.), obstrigali braided hair or braid, first dressed in men's or women's clothing, all the participants were treated to the rite. Rite is known since ancient times — according to the chronicles, even in ancient Russia made tonsure of princely children and ritual boys planted on a horse at the age of two to three years.
The well-known researcher of Russian Tradition Alexei Andreev believes that initiations are associated with children's folk songs and tales of the girl-seven-year period. Interested, I refer to his excellent book, "Peace Path. Sketches of Russian ethno-psychology, "and here is an excerpt of text of one of these songs:
"In the green muravtse
Byazhit girl seven years,
And for her old Dedkov.
"Wait a minute, the girl seven years,
Will conjecture three riddles.
To guess — smart are you,
Sgadaesh not — a fool you will! "
Here, as you can see, it is a test. It was an integral part of many initiations — a man who does not pass the test is not passed and initiation rite — and thus could not take place in a society that is not deserved.
In ancient times, on reaching marriageable age, our ancestors also had to go through a rite of passage, opening their way to adulthood. The young men, he was accompanied by a severe test — they were symbolically die, suffer pain and humiliation, live a long time in the woods "wolf life," engaged in hunting, war, and learning the skills necessary for a man. Only after this young man became an adult, a full member of the community. Echoes of this tradition came to us in fairy tales, legends and epics, and moreover, he had lived in a different form almost to the present day — at the turn of 19-20 centuries, Ukrainians, Poles, Slovaks and Czechs existed youth associations, whose members were required to pass initiation, similar to the initiation age of antiquity. Those who are interested in this ancient custom, I advise you to read the book Russian folklorist VJ Propp, "The historical roots of the fairy tale," and the work of VG Balushok "Initiation of the ancient Slavs." I myself want to step back a little from the topic and say a few words about slavery in the Old Slavonic society.
Slaves in our ancestors were — some people hate to hear this, but you can not argue with facts. That's only relationship to the slaves was not the same as in ancient Greece and Rome, where they were regarded as "talking tools". Arab Ibn rusah Rust wrote: "To the slaves they are well and take care of them." Byzantine Mauritius informed about the Slavs "Finding them in captivity they do not hold in bondage, like other tribes, for an unlimited time, but by limiting the (period of slavery) a certain time, offer them a choice: whether they wish to purchase a known return back home or stay there (where they are) in the position of free and friends? "
In Slavic languages, the term "slave" and "child" are very close to each other. Slave (clap) — boy, teenager. Servants — servants, but in some dialects of the same word means children. Chad — servants, but the child — the child. Young man — a teenager, but in Old English this word is still set to "servant", and in Bulgarian — "slave." Rab — an adult child.
Historian LR Prozorov said, that the first slaves were people who have not passed the age of initiation rite: "Not everyone can make this ceremony — but in the distant days of hunting, when it came to the poor children he simply did not survive — did their cold, hunger, disease, , predatory animals. When there was farming — times softer, more children survived to the ritual, the more it became such that with a cry of "Mom!" Thrown away, back of the terrible forest huts, from skulls to the stockade, the priests and priestesses of masked monsters from fear and pain. And the mother, as if he heard them again took under his wing — a dedication to a new, or ever. That is how there are slaves. Later they began to change, and those who took up arms, put off the inevitable share of the warrior, with a cry threw him to the ground, he saw over his head entered the ax or sword. Thus, he showed that his dedication was, so to say, poor, poor. He asked him to spare. (…) Chad recognize a child. And it becomes an ex-child soldiers. Child. Parobkom. Chelyadinov. Slave. A slave. "
In addition to the age of initiation, as mentioned above, in ancient times there were estates and dedication, the echoes of which are also preserved in the traditional folk culture. You can talk about them for a long time, but it will be better, I think, to devote a separate conversation. A complete discussion of initiations I want to Anton Platov, a prominent researcher of the Aryan tradition: "The slave can kill its host, seize his property and even social status, but without being initiated into free men, it remains essentially a slave. Without going through the proper initiation, the man who took the hands of an automaton may be a soldier, not a warrior, a man who has mastered the skills of "bioenergy", will be a psychic, but not the Magician, and the man who won a democratic election — the president, but not the true king So … from the point of view of the sacred tradition, modern free and democratic Western society is a community of slaves and villains. "
On Death and Poslesmertii.
Any religion implies some idea of what happens to a person after death. Slavic Faith is no exception — our ancestors had a complex set of ideas about human existence after death. In their eyes, death was not the end of existence, and the transition from one state to another — so the ratio of death, they had quite different than the vast majority of our contemporaries. IS Turgenev wrote in his "Notes of a Hunter": "Amazingly Russian man dies! The state of his before his death is neither indifference nor stupidity, he dies like a rite performed by: cool and simple. "
Our ancestors did not consider death a kind of "absolute evil." What would the world be like if not obsolete took his life? One folk tale cunning soldier put Death in Torbay and hung it on the tops of the tall aspen. "With this the people were very pores die: to be born — born, not dying! Many years have passed, the soldier does not remove all the sacks. It happened to him again to go into the city, go and meet him, an ancient old woman: in which direction the wind blows, and falls into that. "You see what the old woman! — Said the soldier, — tea, long since dead time "- Yes, sir! — Said the old woman, — I have long time to die, even in Toe time, as you put death in his bag, was only plaguing my on in the world only one hour. I'd be glad to retire, but not without death primaet land, and you, soldier, for it is of God unforgiven sin! because no living man also was suffering! "
The traditional national representations, following the death of a person had to go to another world — but only if he died in his term, "his death." People who have died before the date slain, suicides, victims of an accident, can finally leave the world of waking. They become hostage dead and live near people live beyond the grave they put lifetime. According to popular belief, are inclined to harm people hostage …
Other World (The Light), according to the ideas of our ancestors, is far from the world of the living, it is separated from reality water obstacle: the sea or a river. This river is in Russian folklore is often fiery and named Currant. Please note — hardly a coincidence in the name of the river merged two roots "sea" and "kind", meaning death and birth … The beliefs of many people separated from the world of the dead world of the living river, perhaps the closest to our currant image — bloody river Vaytarani of Indian mythology.
River Smorodin can go on Kalinov Most — this image is well known to us all from the Russian fairy tales. I must say that the idea of the bridge leading to the light, there are other nations. Thus, the Germans believed that in order to get to Valhalla (heaven warriors), you need to go over the rainbow — the bridge Bifrost. Iranians believed that the way to heaven is through the bridge Chinvat.
To the light, according to the beliefs ancestors, you could get in a different way — for example, up to Heaven or go underground. The inhabitants of the Otherworld live there life, like the lives of people in the Reveal: with this view is linked to the ancient custom of putting grave different things that you might need the deceased in the afterlife: weapons, food, etc.
A few words about the burial rites of the dead. Ancient Slavs burned the dead — in the Chronicle says, "If ye kto umryashe — tvoryahu trizny over nim. And posem stvoryahu steal the Great and vzlozhahu on krady mrtvtsa and szhzhahu and. Posem, sbravshe bone vlozhahu in sudinu little and postavlyahu on stlpe on puth, hedgehog doeth Vyatichi and now. " Fiery burial awarded only a free people, not mired in the life of impropriety. Arab Ibn Fadlan reports that "(…) if (rus) dies, they burn it, and if he is a slave, then leave it there until you eat his dogs and birds of prey." He also writes about the penalty for adultery: "And one of them commits adultery, whoever he was, nailed for it four opener would tie them both his arms and both legs with an ax and cut from head to both of his hips. And in the same way they do with a woman. Then each piece of it, and it hangs on the tree … ". But the custom of burial of the body in the ground also existed in our ancestors, as evidenced by archaeological data.
Often in scientific work involving subject Slavic traditional notions of poslesmertii says that our ancestors supposedly did not believe in the afterlife retribution for sin. Of truth and punishment for the bad deeds in this life, we have already spoken. It would be strange if the retribution for sin was only possible in the world Reveal — because the Universe is one. Referring to the sources:
The agreement with the Byzantines Prince Igor are the words: "And others like to break the cross country on our (…) And it shall be the whole rab Bb vek in the future." One of the possible interpretations of the phrase — the desire of punishment (and may the rab) in the next life for perjury in this. Motive of retribution after death for the sins common in Slavic folklore, and the reward is not necessarily the torments of hell. For example, in the Volyn Polissya existed the idea that sometimes God as a punishment for sin, inspires the soul of a deceased person into the body of the animal. The idea is clearly non-Christian.
In Russian spiritual element found representation of the souls of sinners who are suffering in the flames of the fiery river. This explains the influence of Christianity — but to compare read a passage from the ancient Indian text, "He saw a river of blood Vaytarani in which, emitting plaintive cries, swam sinners, to pay for the crimes torments in life evil deeds."
Gone to the Other World can not stop to chat with the rest in the World Reveal family and friends. In ancient times believed that the dead can hear us and may interfere with the living — so they brought required (the victim) and turned to them for help. Probably almost everyone has heard or read in childhood tale "Sivka-Burka" — there, if you remember, the main character goes to three nights in the tomb for his father, talking to him, brings him food, and in return receives a magical horse. Moreover, according to the traditional national representations, gone to the other world to attend the World Reveal …
DK known ethnographer Zelenin results the following information: "The attitude of the dead ancestors to living people generally friendly; ancestors in every way to help their descendants maintain their economy. However, sometimes the dead ancestors and harm to living people, but that they do, so to speak, from a pedagogical purpose: they punish their children as those who have forgotten their duty lies on commemorate their deceased forefathers, when the punishment is his take on a momentum action after the chastened descendants fix and will honor their ancestors conventional memorial offerings — then dead ancestors again begin to treat people living with favor. " Many traditional calendar holidays (Christmas, Carnival, Grandparents, etc.) associated with the worship of ancestors.
And, at the end of the conversation poslesmertii, one more touch. Greek philosopher Plato wrote: "There is a tradition of the oldest, which only remember that migrated to the underworld souls live there and come back here — on the ground." In the beliefs of many of the Aryan peoples (Hindu, Celts, Thracians, Greeks, Balts) meets an idea of the transmigration of souls (reincarnation). Ample evidence of the presence of our ancestors and belief in reincarnation is found in Slavic folklore and ethnography. One of them we have already quoted above — "in Volyn Polissya existed the idea that sometimes God as a punishment for sin, inspires the soul of a deceased person in the body of an animal." There is a Russian proverb "Do not hurt the dog, and she was a man." Old Believers fixed ideas about after death, to put it mildly, not characteristic of Christianity, "the death of God, the good and the servile people their souls transformed into angels, and some are ranked, as the merits of the saints … the wicked people … move into beasts, reptiles and so on. Again, of cattle and creeping things go in newborn babies … "In fairy tales uncommon motif transformation of people after death in plants and animals. For example, in the story "On the wicked stepmother" stepmother stepdaughter killed after death becomes a viburnum. Passers-do of this viburnum whistle, which itself plays and talks about the murder. In South Slavic folk tradition, according to N. Veletskaya "traced rudimentary understanding of the transition of the soul of the deceased in the newborn, as well as the reincarnation of souls in animals."
Holiday in traditional folk culture — essential phenomenon. But the understanding of people holiday traditions very different from his perception of the majority of our contemporaries. Traditional holiday — it's not just drinking and partying, a reason to relax. Holiday — a sacred time, not by chance his other name — is sacred. It is intended to come into contact with the world beyond the limits of everyday worries: it should be noted that the popular culture is very characteristic ban on the holy days. We can say that the holiday — a break of the sacred in the world of men …
Here's what they wrote about holidays in Russian folk culture: "The alternation of everyday and holiday is a necessary part of the normal course of life, and failure could result, according to popular notions, the chaos and destruction of the world. Holidays in Russia XVIII-XIX centuries. were many: 140-150 … The holiday is celebrated by the whole community generally, they were open to all adult residents of the village, a village, a city block or street. Ignoring the festival people physical and mental health was seen as a sin, a violation of ethical norms and precepts of God. "
Traditional sacred inextricably linked to the natural cycles: for example, Kolyada — the winter solstice holiday, Midsummer — Summer, Earth Day is celebrated in the herb (May) month, during the heyday of Nature. Often during the holidays the ritual is repeated in symbolic form that occurs in nature — on Kupala roll up the hill into the water burning wheel (symbol of the Sun), on Shrove Tuesday burnt an effigy of Winter … The purpose of such ceremonies in ancient times, apparently, was to contribute to the earthly level what is happening at the level of the space.
During major holidays you communicate with the gods, spirits and souls of the ancestors. People offered sacrifices to the gods and spirits, remembered ancestors. Joint participation in festive FUNCTIONING rallied the community, to help people feel like a single entity … So it was … and so is now.
A complete discussion of the holidays in the traditional culture, I want the words of the wise men Blagumila community "Crina": "The time in which we live, is divided into holidays and weekdays. In everyday life, we earn our daily bread in the sweat and labor. But there comes a holiday when the soul begins to sing, when I want to think not only about how to feed your body. (…) The holiday — is the gap "mundane" time, it can fill a few days, but can be placed in a few minutes: prayer, attending church, meditation, spiritual songs. (…) The holiday — this altered state of consciousness. World opens on the other hand, is no longer common and is fabulous, magical. "
This completes our discussion of the Slavic traditional world. I hope that this lecture will be useful to you and help you to follow the traditions of ancestors. Help to live in Russian.
Thank the gods!