The Hungarian revolution led to inter-ethnic strife and bloodshed
Peacekeeping, as part of international policy, came after the second world war. But peacekeeping operations were carried out even earlier. In history, there is a lot of evidence, when the armed forces of a third party shared the warring parties. Something similar happened in 1849 in Hungary and Transylvania. Obviously, this was not the peace-making in the modern comprehension of the word. But one of the motivations of semantic role of the Russian army in the war on the territory of Russia is not been in the protection of the Slavic peoples of the Austrian Empire.
After the triumph of the Marxist-Leninist ideology operation troops of Ivan Paskevich, held in the spring and summer of 1849, is generally regarded as the crown of the crimes of autocracy. Our homeland, the governor Nikolai Paskevich and he became known as the "gendarme of Europe."
But this assessment overlooks the multi-ethnic Hungarian kingdom, and in the meantime the national minorities, who formed a large part of its population (Croats, Germans, Romanians, Slovaks, Ukrainians Transcarpathia), fearing the Hungarian chauvinism, opposed the revolution. But to attribute the defeat of the revolution one of the Habsburgs or the intrigues of the royal intervention will be superficial. All actions are needed in the weighted evaluation — not to justify them, and to gain the truth.
In Russian textbooks appeared, that the Magyars brought by another Parisian revolution and the overthrow of Louis-Philippe Bourbon began to fight for independence. But did that matter the true patriots of the Hungarian Miklos Veshsheleni, Shama Yoshiki, György Apponyi, Lajos Batthyány, Lajos Kossuth, Petofi Sandor. Bloodlust of the latter in the form of rhyming works with the reassuring name "on the gallows of Kings" was recommended even in the Soviet Union to study.
The fact that, inspired by similar verses and words of the Magyars began to engage in a full bloodletting across the Empire, in the textbooks of the victorious Marxism held back.
But that still occurred on the banks of the Danube at the time?
Liberalism plus Magyarization the whole country? The Hungarian revolution "raised to the ears of" the whole "patchwork empire." Certainly, most of the claims (12 points) carried within itself the progressive trends of liberalism. Very sharply question the state of liberation. The Hungarians were part of the empire as the Hungarian kingdom, which has a number of deputies of the Sejm of benefits, and the beginning of the revolution, the government issued its appetite for Croatia, Transylvania and Vojvodina. The Principality of Transylvania, or Transylvania, in the XI century, became part of the Hungarian kingdom and represented a unique ethnic cauldron. Earth specifically subordinated to the crown of the Habsburgs in immutable rule of the Magyar nobility. Apart from this there lived Saxon Germans resettled ethnic group Magyar Seckler or Seke, characterized by a zealous and brutal character.
Ethnic raznotsvete supplemented raznotsvetem religious: the Magyars were Catholics and Calvinists, half Vlach preserved Orthodoxy, the other took Uniate Church, the Germans were Lutherans.
"Four described the tribe, so diverse, lived in such a cramped plot, churayas each other. A few hundred years could bring them closer together: the neighbor is not vyznat language neighbor, never intermarried, the same city is called by each tribe in its own way. Such cases are, of course, gave rise to distrust, hatred, contempt or hatred of the 1st people to another. " So outlines Semigradia army officers Paskevich.
Start the revolution Vlachs positively perceived, but when it became clear that the Magyar landlords are not going to allocate them land, and "Pest Program" to anticipate the categorical connection Transylvania with the Hungarian kingdom, the local population began to grumble.
As early as March 1849 meeting of the Vlachs obscherumynskom swore allegiance to "the emperor of Austria and the majestic Prince of Transylvania" Ferdinand and the Romanian civilization and vowed to protect her from "any attack and oppression."
Immediately against the Magyars came ban (governor) of Croatia Josip Jelacic, who demanded the creation of the Triune (Austro-Hungarian-Croatian) of the country. In Vojvodina Hungarians went against the Serbs, but the biggest clashes took place specifically in Transylvania.
First blood. First collision happened in the village of Mihaltsi where peasants seized the land of the Vlachs landlord Magyar. Sent to the oppression of detachment, consisting of Seke, a real massacre perpetrated by the brutal killing.
When the Hungarians tried to join the army conscription vlahskih inhabitants of the villages, they began to set up self-defense groups, where invited grenichar soldiers guarding the border. Plainclothes war began in Vienna which supported the Vlachs and the Germans.
Excellent sekei and armed militias "Honved" launched a large-scale repressive acts. In the dispatch Duhamel said: "The German and the Wallachian population merged with enthusiasm around the Austrian flag, while Seckler recognize only the orders coming from Pest. Aggressive actions began with both sides … Where the Vlachs are stronger, they commit unprecedented ruthlessness against the Hungarians, the Hungarians with their own hand, cut Vlachs, wherever the latter are in the minority. This is — a terrifying race war. Seckler, though inferior in numbers and Wallachia, almost familiar from early youth to the craft associated with the instrument, and more warlike past. "
With all this intelligence report that in Transylvania are looking to the Russian. 5 Quartermaster Corps colonel Nepokoychitsky reported: "Everywhere in Transylvania are looking forward to the Russian troops and rescue are just waiting on our military intervention."
Wished miles Russian war? Contrary vserasprostranennoy stories about the order of Nicholas I to saddle stallion, after the news of the revolution in Paris, which the court seized and Russian Academician Yevgeny Tarle, the governor was not going to fight a war. March 15, Nikolai Paskevich wrote: "Yesterday I published a manifesto of its own, it shows all the hare and hunt enemies that I want without disturbing others, and it is not permitted to touch yourself, in which all of my task … We must remain in a defensive, almost Cordone state sur ce qui vive, paying the most vigilant attention to their edge to sample all the homes daunting in the beginning. "
There were also municipal bureaucrats and Russia. Chancellor K. Nosselrode pointed Ambassador to France N. Kiselev, that our homeland, "wants peace and preservation of the territorial order in Europe by the Paris and Vienna tracts … it will not accept any role in the internal strife that may appear, and she no way to influence the choice of a government that people wish to choose for themselves. " In fact, Nicholas I recognized the right of peoples to self-determination and even broke relations with the modern French republic.
Paskevich wrote to the emperor that the Austrians' want to drive (Ashe) in (elichestvo) deigned to take the brunt of the war itself. " At that Nicholas replied: "To enter into Transylvania no prerequisites. This case is just the Austrians … When the whole thing is spoiled, it would be stupid to fix their mistakes by Russian blood. "
Well before the war there was the Russian Federation, especially in the opponent's area? Bread crop failure in 1848 struck the Volga region, the Black Earth, Ukraine, and the Urals. On top of all the fields of the locusts. Drought contributed to the spread of fires burned Penza, Kherson, Orel, Saratov, Kazan. Complete the picture of the results of the cholera epidemic which claimed over half a million lives.
The budget in 1848 was reduced to the lack of 32 million rubles. Gold and silver are in decent quantities were removed from the cellars of the Peter and Paul Fortress to implement abroad. Wage war is not going to, but the sad experience of the Polish uprising in 1830 led the War Department "to itch." To reserve tightened border and in the south launched a "force frisky response" in the form of "flying body" (6 regiments of infantry, cavalry division, two regiments of Cossacks, a battalion of sappers). Did not want to wage war, and had to …
So why, why? Interventions could not happen if the revolution is not stolen up to the Danube frontier, in connection with which the Russian troops stepped Moldovan grouping and Hungarians were really threaten Vienna. Then arrived in Warsaw to the Emperor Nicholas and the governor of the Austrian Paskevich Cesar knees begged for Russian military assistance.
The decision was not immediately. The governor wrote Paskevich: "Sema edge facing the invasion of Transylvania with the Poles and the rabble, rather than it be so, our troops will come by Seret, though, I confess, I really do not want this." But when near the border of Russia there are not quiescent Polish troops troublemakers Józef Bem and Henry Dembinski, the decision was taken. Entering into the next power limited contingent of Russian troops was justified real danger the stability of the Russian Federation itself. Nicholas, whose reign began with the Decembrist revolt, revolution could not stand it at all, and was willing to assist in Austria, with an emphasis on speaking in a modern way, "the accepted system of international relations" — the Holy Alliance.
In addition, the government reserved the option to save the impact on the Austrian administration, particularly in helping the Balkan Slavs, which was worse Magyarization Austrian oppression, and so they voluntarily join the ranks of the Austrian army and fought fiercely against the Hungarians, as, for example, , mountaineers, motsy.
By the way in Russian society traditionally views were divided. Ivan Turgenev made sure that the "managerial revolution in the face of the evil power of rich bourgeois and financiers, as the ill-fated men served as a toy in the political struggle" and supported the campaign, and Nikolai Chernyshevsky in his diary in 1849 called himself a "friend of the Hungarians" and expressed the hope that the defeat of the royal troops. Can not be forgotten and "Englishman then Herzen", who coined the term "gendarme of Europe."
Is noteworthy that the invasion open a discussion with European offices. He was supported by Lord Palmerston, and the hero of Waterloo Baron Arthur Wellington generally offered to crush the Hungarian one massive blow.
Start of the hike. Task to restore order rests on the shoulders of an old friend of King and tested in battle by Ivan Paskevich. He headed for 2-position fundamentally — Russian troops to act autonomously, and their base should raspolozhitbsya in Galicia. For the protection of Vienna there were transferred Consolidated Division of General Panyutina, which was the first railway redeployment of troops in the history of the Russian army.
And after Paskevich with characteristic thrift he began to prepare for war. For a man who has had the experience of "small wars" in Poland and the Caucasus, it was natural that even the tiniest requisition of the population may be a precursor of guerrilla warfare. Entrust to help the Austrians (as it turned out) in the supply was not necessary. But the basic and that emphasize letters Paskevich was not the desire to shed, and how much in vain Russian Magyar blood. Warlord with fifty years of experience was that the insurgency is necessary to solve the case "not battles and maneuvers." It is interesting that it is in a similar "indecision" and blamed his opponents Paskevich and envious.
Obviously, the above does not diminish the negative-intervention in internal affairs, but still the same Paskevich wrote to the king: "I do not know your thoughts about Austria, but if it is necessary for the existence of your policy, you need an amnesty and the former constitution is needed."
Military historians Paskevich much criticized for being slow and continuous marches, which do not meet the de "Suvorov school." But no one (even the Hungarians) have accused his troops in excess ruthlessness. In the conditions of the outbreak of a cholera epidemic army went around half of Transylvania, exhausting himself and the enemy.
It is said — made! Field Marshal Paskevich specifically professed such a position. Grasp the case, he quickly and without many losses fulfilled the task.
Chief of the Hungarian Gergely professional Arthur tried to go to Pest, where to organize his defense. Russian expecting languid fighting near weizen and Losonczi also fights in Transylvania, where Liders opposed heroic warriors Boehm. Fierce battle was under Shegeshvarom during which Tipo died Sandor Petofi.
August 1 Arthur Gergely in counties Vilagosh village near the town of Arad resigned gun with an army of thirty thousand at 144 guns. Russia reacted to the Magyars as a worthy opponent and kept the gun. But the Austrians claimed the issue of prisoners. Paskevich was unwilling to do this and wrote to the king, "May I give the gallows all who put their trust to your goodness? For what they gave up just in front of your troops? ".
Magyar gave a guarantee of preservation of life by the Austrians, but the majority of those sentenced to the death penalty, 13 generals made history under the name of Arad sufferers. Emperor Nicholas I, wanting to alleviate the plight of the Hungarians and their leaders, sent to Vienna even his own heir and asked Franz Josef Gergeya give him bail, and to save lives.
The operation to restore order has been finished in a laconic term. Army substantiated her fighting ability, glittering names of commanders Gasforda, Panyutina, Sasse, Labyntseva, Tolstoy, colonels Khruleva, Baumgarten, Captain Alekseev and Dekonsky, future governor of Trans-Baikal region of Zhukovsky and hero Gen. Verevkina Khiva campaign. During the campaign Russian Army suffered combat losses in 708 people, with all this about 9 thousand cholera has claimed …
The need for a similar operation caused and will cause controversy. The governor then faced a long and desire, knowing the Austrians' will thank for your help. " According to the stories, Nikolai Pavlovich said the Austrian ambassador Count Esterhazy George: "Did silliest 2-Polish rulers? And I will say, then were John Sobieski and me. We were both rescued Austria, but of gratitude from her for not shake it. " So it soon came when Austria practically throw their own saviors in the Crimean War.
Certainly, the Hungarian campaign Paskevich not be viewed as only a peacekeeping operation. Democrats see it mandatory attributes and reactionary totalitarianism. But the Hungarian revolution was not able to connect people, but on the contrary, separate them and led to civilian war. And, apparently, a punitive expedition against Paskevich Hungarian Revolution de facto become the salvation of the inhabitants of other nationalities and cultures. Peace in the empire was returned against their will, but that time sought …
Viktor Shestakov, "Poltava"