Old Russian measure of length, weight, volume

Since ancient times, the measure of the length and weight has always been a man: for as he put his hand, as it can raise the shoulders, etc.
Ancient system measures the length includes the following key measures: mile, seven feet, yards, elbow, and span an inch.

ARSHIN — old Russian measure of length equal to, in modern terms 0.7112 m Against the other, as well, called the gauge, which is usually applied to the division of an inch.

There are different versions of the origin Arshin measure length. Perhaps initially, "yard" is the length of a human step (about seventy centimeters, while walking across the plain, the average rate) and served as the baseline for other major measures determine the length, the distance (Seven feet, miles). The root "AP" in the word w and p and n — in Old English (and in other, neighboring) means "earth", "the surface of the earth", and points to the fact that this measure could be used in determining the length of the path traveled by foot.

It was the other name of this measure — STEP. In practice, the score could be made in pairs steps adult ("small <simple> Fathoms", one, two — one, one, two — two, one-two — three …), or triples ("Official Fathoms", one, two, three — one, one, two, three — two …), and the measurement steps short distances, used incremental expense. In the future, were also used, under this name, an equal amount — arm's length.

For small measures of length the baseline was used in Russia from ancient measure — "inch» (c 17th century — a length of an inch is called differently — "six inches", "quarter", "chet"), which by eye, it was easy to get smaller share — two inches (half an inch) or inch (1/4 inch).

Merchants selling goods, usually, measuring him a yardstick (line) or in a hurry — measuring out 'from the shoulder. " To avoid scaling, the authorities has been introduced as a standard — "official yardstick" is a wooden bar on the ends of which riveted metal end with a state stamp.

STEP — the average length of human steps = 71 cm One of the earliest measures of length.

Inch (pyadnitsa) — ancient Russian measure of length. SMALL span (say — "span", from the 17th century, it was called — "quarter" <yard>) — the distance between the ends spaced thumb and index (or middle) finger = 17,78 cm.
BIG span — the distance between the tips of the thumb and little finger (22-23 cm).
P I L L c tumbling ("span was a topsy-turvy," according to Dahl — 'n I d b with KWDsrkoy ') — with the addition of span two joints Mace index = 27-31 cm

Our old icon painters value measured spans: "Nine icons — seven spans (in the 1 3/4 yard). Tikhvin Pure Gold — pyadnitsa (4 inches). Icon George of Acts tetyreh spans (in 1arshin) "

Miles — Old Russian waypoint measure (its earlier name — "field"). This word originally referred to the distance traveled from one turn to the other plow during plowing. Two names for a long time were used in parallel as synonyms. Known literary reference to the 11th century. In the manuscripts of the XV century. There is an entry "field seven hundred fathoms and 50" (up to 750 fathoms). Before the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in 1000 considered one verst yards. When Peter the Great was equal to one mile of 500 fathoms, in modern terms — 213,36 X 500 = 1066.8 m
"Verst" is also called the milestone on the road.

The value of a mile repeatedly changed depending on the number of yards that were part of it, and the value of fathoms. Code of 1649 has been set "mezhevaya verst" in 1000 fathoms. Later, in the XVIII century, along with it was used and a "road verst" in 500 fathoms ("pyatisotnaya verst").

Megeve miles — Old Russian unit of measurement equal to two miles. Mile 1000 yards (2.16 km) used widely as a landmark action, usually in determining pastures around major cities, and in the border regions of Russia, especially in Siberia — and to measure distances between settlements.

500 fathoms verst used less frequently, mainly to measure the distance in the European part of Russia. Long distances, especially in Eastern Siberia, determined in days away. In the XVIII century. HOAR gradually replaced mile waterway, and the only hole in the XIX century. verst is a "road" of 500 yards.

Fathoms — one of the most common measures of length in Russia. Different purpose (and therefore value) were more than ten yards. "Makhovaia fathom" — the distance between the ends of the fingers wide apart a man's hand. "Bias fathoms" — the longest: the distance from the nose to the end of his left foot a raised middle finger right hand. Used in the phrase, "he oblique broad-shouldered" (meaning — giant, giant)
This is an ancient measure of length mentioned Nestor in 1017g. Name with a and e n s comes from the verb syagat (overtaketh) — how much you can reach out his hand. To determine the value of ancient fathoms played a large role discovery of stone on which was carved Slavic letters the inscription "In the summer of 6576 (1068 G.) indiction 6 days, Gleb Prince paced … 10000 and 4000 yards". From a comparison of this result with the topography measurement value obtained fathoms 151.4 cm With this value matched the measurements of temples and the value of Russian national measures. There dimensional fathoms of rope and wooden "Triptych", had used in measuring distances and construction.

According to historians and architects, had more than 10 yards, and they had their names were incommensurable and not multiples of one another. Fathoms: policeman — 284.8 cm, no title — 258.4 cm, great — 244.0 cm, Greek — 230.4 cm, the Treasury — 217.6 cm, royal — 197.4 cm, church — 186.4 cm, folk — 176.0 cm, Mason — 159.7 cm, simple — 150.8 cm, low — 142.4 cm and another untitled — 134.5 cm (data from the same source), as well as — yard, roadway.

Makhov fathoms — the distance between the ends of middle fingers outstretched hand in hand — 1.76 m

Oblique fathoms (originally "Kosovo") — 2.48 m

Fathoms were used before the introduction of the metric system of measures.

ELBOW stood at arm's length from the fingers to the elbow (from other sources — "the distance in a straight line from the elbow to the end of an elongated middle finger"). The value of this ancient measure of length, according to various sources, ranged from 38 to 47 cm from the 16th century and gradually replaced yardstick in the 19th century is rarely used.

Elbow — originally old Russian measure of length, known in the 11th century. The value of ancient cubits 10.25-10.5 inches (on average about 46-47 cm) was obtained from a comparison of measurements in the temple of Jerusalem, made abbot Daniel, and later measurements of the same size in a replica of the church — in the main church of the New Jerusalem Monastery River Istra (XVII). Elbow is widely used in the trade as particularly convenient measure. In retail, canvas, cloth, canvas — a l o t o b a primary measure. In large-scale wholesale trade — canvas, cloth, etc., is in the form of large cuts — "put" in length at different times and in different locations ranged from 30 to 60 cubits (in the field of trade, these measures have had specific, well-defined value)

PALM = sixth elbow (elbow shestiladonny)

Inch equal 1/16 yard, fourth quarter. In modern terms — 4.44 cm The name "Vershok" comes from the word "up." The literature XVII. meet and share an inch — half an inch and chetvertvershki.

In determining the growth of a human or animal bill was conducted after two yards (mandatory for normal adult): If we say we measured was 15 inches of growth, which meant that it was 2 feet 15 inches, that is, 209 cm

Growth in the tops 1 3 5 7 9 10 15
Height in meters 1.47 1.56 1.65 1.73 1.82 1.87 2.09

For a man used two ways to the full expression of growth:
1 — a combination of "growth elbows ***, *** spans"
2 — a combination of "the growth of a yard ***, *** inches"
from the 18th century — "*** feet in. ***"

Small animals for home use — "growth *** inches"

For trees — "height *** yard"

Linear measures (Used in Russia after the "Ordinance" in 1835 before the introduction of the metric system):

1 verst = 500 fathoms = 50 bars = 10 chains = 1.0668 kilometers

1 fathom = 3 = 7 feet of foot = 48 inches = 2.1336 meters

Oblique fathom = 2.48 m
Centrifugal fathom = 1.76 m

1 yard = 4 quarters (inch) = 16 inches = 28 inches = 71.12 cm
(A yard is usually applied to the division of an inch)

1 cubit = 44 cm (according to various sources, from 38 to 47 cm)

1 foot = 1/7 fathoms = 12 inches = 30.479 cm

One quarter <Six inches> (span, m and n and I n I d L pyadnitsa, pyada, span was, pyadka) = 4 inches = 17,78 cm (Or 19 cm — according B.A.Rybakova)
I n the name of A, b is derived from the ancient word "pastern," ie, hand. One of the oldest measures of length (c 17th century, "span" was replaced by "six inches")
Synonym for "quarters" — "chet"

Large span = 1/2 cubits = 22-23 cm — distance between the ends of elongated large and medium (or pinky) fingers.

"Span was a topsy-turvy" is a small span plus two or three joints index or middle finger = 27 — 31 cm

1 inch = 4 noktya (width — 1.1 cm) = 1/4 inch = 1/16 yard = 4.445 cm
— old Russian measure of length equal to the width of two fingers (index and middle).

One finger ~ 2 cm

New measures (introduced with the XVIII century):

1 inch = 10 lines = 2.54 cm
The name comes from the Dutch — 'thumb'. Equal to the width of the thumb or the length of three dry barley grains taken from the middle part of the ear.

1 line = 10 points = 1/10 inch = 2.54 millimeters (example: "trehlineyka" Mosin — d = 7.62 mm.)
Line — the width of the grain of wheat, about 2.54 mm.

One one hundredth fathom = 2.134 cm

1 point = 0.2540 mm

One geographical mile (1/15 degrees equator) = 7 miles = 7.42 km
(From the Latin word "Milia" — one thousand (steps))

1 nautical mile (1 minute of a meridian) = 1.852 km

1 statute mile = 1.609 km

1 yard = 91.44 centimeters

In the second half of the XVII century yardstick used with tops in various industries. In "Opisnyh books" Armory Cyril-Belozersky Monastery (1668) reads: "… gun brass regimental, smooth, prorank Kashpir, the Moscow case, the length of three yards polodinadtsaty inches (10.5 inches) … arquebus large cast-iron, iron lion with belts, six feet long with three mosques poluvershkom. "ancient Russian measure of the" elbow "was continued for use at home to measure cloth, linen and wool. As follows from the trading book, three cubits equal to two yards. Span as an ancient measure of length has continued to exist, but as its value has changed, because of the coordination with six inches, then the name (span) is being phased out. Span was replaced by six inches.

Since the second half of the XVIII century units inches, in order to bring the yard to fathom and multiple relations with the British measures were replaced by small British measures: an inch, a line and a point, but caught only an inch. Lines and points used is relatively small. In the lines expressed by the size of glass tube and calibers rifles (eg, ten-or 20-linear crystal, known in common parlance). The points were used only for opredelenyya size gold and silver coins. In mechanics and engineering inches divided by 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 pieces.

In the construction and engineering division was widely used fathoms to 100 parts.

Foot and inch, which were used in Russia are equal measures of English.

Decree of 1835 defined the relationship Russian with English measures:
Seven feet = 7 feet
Yards = 28 inches
Abolished a number of units (units a mile), and enter the new use of measures of length: inch, line, point, taken from the British action.

Volume measures

Bucket

The main Russian dometricheskaya measure liquid volume — bucket = 1/40 = 10 mugs barrel = 30 pounds of water = 20 vodka bottles (0,6) = 16 wine bottles (0,75) = 100 = 200 charok Shkalikov = 12 liters (15 L — according to other sources, rarely) VA — iron, wood or leather ware, mostly cylindrical, with ears and bow to wear. In use, the two buckets on a yoke must be "in the rise of a woman." Division into smaller steps carried out on the binary principle bucket poluvedra divided into 2 or 4 quarters or 8 buckets poluchetvertey, as well as mugs and goblets.

Until the middle of the XVII century. in a bucket containing 12 cups, in the second half of the XVII century. the so-called state-owned bucket containing 10 cups, and in the circle — 10 charok, so that the bucket has 100 charok. Then, by decree 1652 goblets made three times as much as in past ("goblets three goblets"). In trading bucket holds 8 cups. The value of the bucket was variable, and the value of the same circles, 3 pounds of water (1228.5 g). Volume was equal to the bucket 134.297 cubic inches.

Barrel

Drum, as a measure of liquids, mainly for use in the course of trade with foreigners, who were forbidden to conduct retail wine on small steps. Was 40 buckets (492 liters)

The material chosen for the production of barrels, depending on its purpose:
oak — for beer and vegetable oils,
Spruce — under water
lime — for milk and honey.

Most often in country life used small drums and barrels from 5 to 120, and liters. Large barrels hold up to forty buckets (the forty)

Barrels used also for washing (spacing) of laundry.

In the XV century. were still common old measures — golvazhnya, Lucknow and cleanups. In the XVI-XVII centuries. along with a fairly common warp and belly common Vyatka grain measure marten, Perm saptsa (A measure of salt and bread), the old Russian bast and poshev. Vyatka marten assumed to be equal three-quarters of Moscow, saptsa housed 6 pounds of salt and about Three pounds of rye, bast5 pounds of salt, poshev — About 15 pounds of salt.

Measures of household liquids were very diverse and widely used even in late XVII century.: Smolensk barrel, boccia, seledovka (8 pounds of herring and a half times less Smolensk).

Dimensional barrel "… from the edge of the edge of a half a yard, and across the yard, and to measure up as vedettsa, polarshina."

In everyday usage and trade used various household vessels: boilers, jugs, pots, Bratina, valley. The value of domestic measures in different places was different: for example, the capacity of boilers ranged from poluvedra to 20 buckets. In the XVII century. introduced a system of cubic units based on 7-foot fathoms, and introduced the term cubic (or "cubic"). Cubic fathoms contained 27 cubic yards or 343 cubic feet, cubic yards — 4096 cubic inches, or 21,952 cubic inches.

Wine measures

Charter of wine in 1781 is established at each drinking place to have "witnessed in the Exchequer measures."

Bucket — Russian dometricheskaya measure liquid volume equal to 12 liters

Quarter <quarter of buckets> = 3 liters (previously it was narrow neck glass bottle)

Measure "bottle"Appeared in Russia under Peter I.
Russian bottle = 1/20 buckets = 1/2 = 5 damask charok = 0.6 liters (half-liter bottle came later — in the twenties of XX century)

As in the bucket contains 20 bottles (2 0 * 0.6 = 12 l), and in the trade account was in the bucket, the box still contains 20 bottles.

Russian Wine bottle was more — 0.75 liters.

Russia produces glass factory way started with 1635. By this time that the issue of glass vessels. First domestic bottle released at the plant, which was built on the territory of modern suburban station Istra, and production was, at first, is designed exclusively for pharmacists.

Abroad, the standard bottle holds one sixth gallons — in different countries, it ranges from 0.63 to 0.76 liters

Flat bottle called a flask.

Damask (from it. Stof) = 1/10 = 10 buckets Chark = 1.23 liters. Appeared in Peter I. A measure of the volume of all alcoholic beverages. The shape was like a flagon quarter.

Mug (The word means — 'to drinking in a circle') = 10 l = 1.23 Charco.

Modern faceted glass used to be called "doskanom" ("planed boards"), consisting of a rope tied round fret-boards around the wooden stems.

Charka (Russian jar) = 1/10 = 2 damask Miniature = 0.123 liters.

Pile = 1/6 = 100 gram bottle consider the value of a single dose administration.

Miniature (common name — 'kosushka' from 'squint', by the characteristic movement of the arm) = 1/2 Cups = 0.06 liters.

Quartered (polshkalika or 1/16 of the bottle) = 37.5 grams.

Coopers ware (that is, for liquid and dry), features a variety of names depending on the location of production (baklazhka, thumbs, bochata), the size and volume — Badia pudovka, the forty), its main purpose (resin, salt, wine, Tar) and used for the manufacture of wood (oak, pine, basswood, aspen). Ready coopers' products divided into buckets, tubs, vats, barrels and drums.

Valley
Wooden or metal utensils (often ornamented) used for serving up drinks. Is a low bowl with a spout. Metal valley are made of copper or brass. Wood valley made of aspen, linden or birch.

Leather bag (goatskin) — up to 60 liters

Pots — 12 l
Nozzle — 2.5 buckets (Nogorodskaya jar, XV century)
Bucket
Jug

Tub — crockery height — 30-35 cm diameter — 40 cm, volume — 2 buckets or 22-25 liters

Krynki
Sudentsy, Misa
Baskets

The oldest (first?) "International" measure of capacity — r o r s t v (hand with fingers folded boat). Most (good, good) handful — folded so that it covers a larger volume. Handful — two hands joined together.

Box — one piece of bast, bast strips sewn. Donets and top cover — from the boards. Sizes — from small to large korobushek "drawers"

Balakirev — slotting wooden vessel, volume of 1/4-1/5, buckets.

Typically, in the central and western parts of Russia measured capacitance to store milk were proportional daily needs of the family and were a variety of clay pots, pots, milk pail, Krynki, jugs, gorlany, dairy cows, bark Burachki with lids, baskets, a capacity of about 1 / 4 — 1/2 buckets (about 3.5 liters). Capacity as mahotok, Stavtsev, tueski that kept sour-milk production, sour cream, yogurt, cream, approximately corresponded eighth bucket.

Kvass prepared for the whole family in the vats, tubs, barrels and tubs (lagushkah, izhemkah, etc.) up to 20 buckets, and a wedding — 40 or more pounds. In Russian kvass drinking establishments usually served in Kvasnikov, decanters and jugs with capacities varied in different localities from 1/8-1/16 to about 1/3-1/4 bucket. Trade measure kvass in central Russia were large clay (liquor) and ctakan pitcher.

When Ivan the Terrible, Russia's first appeared zaorlennye (branding Eagle), that is standardized drinking measures: bucket osmuha, poluosmuha, stop and circle.

Though remained in the valley go, buckets, Stavtsev, stacks, and for small sale — hook (goblets long hook on the end instead of pens, hanging on the edges of the valley).

In old Russian actions and in containers used for drinking water, the principle of the volume ratio — 1:2:4:8:16.

Antique volume measures:

1 cu. seven feet = 9.713 cubic meters. meters

1 cu. = 0.3597 cubic yards. meters

1 cu. inch = 87.82 cu. cm

1 cu. ft = 28.32 cu. decimeters (liters)

1 cu. = 16.39 cubic inches. cm

1 cu. line = 16.39 cu. mm

1 quart — a little more than a liter.

In commercial practice and in the home, according to L.F.Magnitskogo, long time to use the following dry measures ("grain measure"):
Fins — 12 quarters
quarter (chet) — 1/4 of the qadi
osmina (Eighth — eighth)

Kad (tub, Wintergrasp) = 20 buckets and more
Large tub — more tubs

Tsybikov — box (tea) = 40 to 80 pounds (in weight).
Details: Tea tight stuff down in wooden crates, "tsibiki" — leather-covered frame in the shape of a square (side two feet), braided outside rushes in two or three layers, which could carry two people. In Siberia, a box of tea called Fit ('Location' — option).

polosmina
chetverik

Liquid measure ("wine measures"):

barrel (40 buckets)
boiler (half a bucket of 20 buckets)
bucket
polvedra
quarter buckets
osmuha (1/8)
krushka (1/16 buckets)

Measures of volume of liquid and granular materials:

1 quarter = 2.099 hl = 209.9 liters

1 bushel ("measure") = 2.624 = 26.24 liters decaliter

Garnets 1 = 3.280 liters

Standards of weight

In Russia, used in trade following measures weight (Old Russian):
berkovets = 10 pounds
pood = 40 pounds = 16.38 kg
pound (UAH) = 96 spools = 0.41 kg
Lot = 3 spool = 12.797 g
slide = 4.27 g
share = 0.044 g

Hryvnia (later British) remained unchanged. The word "hryvnia" is used to refer to both the weight and the monetary unit. This is the most common measure of weight in the retail and trade. It was used for the weighing of metals, particularly gold and silver.

Berkovets — this large measure of weight, was used primarily in wholesale weighing wax, honey, etc.
Berkovets — from the name of the island Bjork. So in Russia is a measure of weight at 10 pounds, just a standard barrel with wax, which one man could throw on a merchant boat, sailing on this very island. (163.8 kg).
Berkovtsa known mention in XII century charters Vsevolod Gabriel Mstislavovitch Novgorod merchants.

SPOOL is 1/96 pounds, in modern terms, the 4.26 It was said, "but the roads in small packages." This word originally meant zolotuyu coin.

Pounds (from the Latin word 'pondus' — weight, weight) is 32 lots, 96 valve, 1/40 pounds, in modern-day terms, the 409.50 is used in combination: "not a pound of raisins," "know how much Pound Down and Out."
Russian pound was adopted with Alexis.

Sugar sold pounds.

Tea bought on spools. Spool = 4.266 g

Until recently, a small packet of tea, weighing 50 grams was called "ounces" (1/8 lb.)

LOT — Old Russian unit of weight equal to three spool or 12.797 grams.

SHARE — the smallest unit of Old Russian mass equal to 1/96 or 0.044 grams of the spool.

PUD was 40 pounds, in modern terms — 16.38 kg. Has already been used in the 12th century.
Pud — (from the Latin pondus — weight, weight) is not only a measure of weight, but weight measuring device. When weighing the metal pounds was the unit of measurement and counting unit. Even when the results were weighing tens and hundreds of pounds, they are not transferred to berkovtsy. Back in the XI-XII centuries. used different scales and with equal-neravnoplechim rocker "pud" — a kind of balance with variable and fixed fulcrum weights, "skalvy" — equal-scales (dvuhchashechnye).

Pud as mass unit was abolished in the USSR in 1924.

Of weight, which were used in the XVIII century:

Standards of weight The value in
slide
The value in
grams
In kilograms Note
Berkovets 38400 10 pounds
400 hryvnia (£)
800 grivenok
163 800 163.8
Flipper 72 pounds 1179
(1 ton)
Kad 14 pounds 230
Congar (Kontarev) 9600 2.5 pounds 40950 40.95
Pood 3840 40 pounds 16380 16.38
(0.1638 quintals)
Twenty pounds 1920 8190 8.19
Steelyard 240 2.5 hryvnia 1022 1,022 (1,024)
Polubezmen 120 511 0.511
Ansyr 128 546 0.546
Grivenka large (UAH)
Pound trading
96 32 Lot
1/40 pounds
409.5 0.4095
Pound Apothecary 307.3 according to other sources — 358.8 g
Libra 72 72 spool 307.1 0.3071
Grivenka small (grivenka) 48 1200 Kidney
4800 pies
204.8 0.2048
Polugrivenka 24 102.4 0.1024
Lot 3 3 spool 12.797 Old Russian unit of weight
Slide 1 96 shares
25 kidney
1/96 lbs
4.266 Old Russian unit of mass; spool used for weighing small but expensive goods. Measure the amount of loose bodies — many of them will fit on the plane lifted coins
Scruple (apothecary) 20 Grand 1.24 grams antique apothecary unit weight
Kidney 171
milligram
Grand Prize (drugstore) 0.062 grams was used in the old Russian chemist practice
Share 1/96 0.044 grams
44.43 mg
Pie 43
milligram

Note: Select the ones most useful at the time (XVIII century)

Square measures

The main area is considered a measure of the tithe, and the same share of the tithe: poldesyatiny, quarter (chet — sazhen length of 40 and 30 N) and so on. Surveyors used (especially after the "Cathedral of the code" 1649) mainly breech treharshinnuyu fathom equal 2.1336 meters, so the tithe in 2400 square yards equals approximately 1.093 hectares.

The use of tithes and quarter grew in line with the development of land and the increase in the state. However, in the first half of the XVI century, it became clear that the measurement of land in quarters of total inventory of land go on for many years. And then in the 40 years of the XVI century, one of the educated people Yermolai Erasmus offered use of a larger unit — chetverogrannym field, which refers to the area of a square with a side of the 1000-mile fathoms. This proposal was not accepted, but played a role in the process of introducing large plow. Yermolai Erasmus — one of the first theorists of metrologists, also seeks to integrate the solution of metrological and social issues. In determining the area of meadows tithe inculcated with great difficulty because land due to their location and the irregular shapes were unsuitable for measurement. Harvest frequently used measure — shock. Gradually, the measure gained importance, linked to tithe, and are divided into two polukopny, 4 stacks of quarters, at half past three in eight stacks, etc. Over time, the shock, as a measure of the square, was equated with 0.1 acres (ie, believed that tithing was removed, on average, 10 stacks of hay). Labor and planting measures expressed in terms of geometric measure — tithing.

Square measures surface:

1 square. verst = 250,000 square yards = 1.138 square meters. kilometers

One tenth = 2400 square yards = 1.093 acres

1 shock = 0.1 acres

1 square. seven feet = 16 square yards = 4.552 square meters. meters

1 square. yard = 0.5058 square meters. meters

1 square. inch = 19.76 square meters. cm

1 square. foot = 9.29 square meters. = 0.0929 square inches. m

1 square. inch = 6.452 square meters. centimeters

1 square. line = 6.452 square meters. millimeter

Units in Russia in XVIII century

In the XVIII century there were about 400 different sizes of units of measures used in the different countries. Variety of measures hindered trade. Therefore, each state sought to establish uniform measures for their country.

In Russia, in the XVI and XVII centuries were identified common to the whole country of the system of measures. In the XVIII century. due to the economic development and the need for a strict accounting of foreign trade in Russia was a question of measurement accuracy, the creation of standards, on the basis of which to organize the verification case ("metrology").

The question of choice of a variety of standards (and otechestvennnyh and "overseas") was not easy. In the middle of the XVIII century. foreign coin and precious metals were weighed at offices of admission, and then repeatedly outweighed the mints, while weight is different.

By the mid-30s of the XVIII century. it was felt that an accurate scale at the St. Petersburg tamozhne. It was decided to make a model of the Customs offices of weights, put them in the Senate, and for them to make verification.

Sample measures of length in the determination of a yard and served fathom line, previously owned by Peter I. On the line was designated poluarshin. For this poluarshinnoy as we prepared samples of measures of length — yards of copper and wood yards.

Filed with the Commission of the measures loose bodies was selected bushel big Moscow customs that are subject to verification measures loose bodies in other cities.

The basis of measures adopted fluid bucket sent from Kamennomostsky liquor court in Moscow.

In 1736, the Senate agreed to the formation of the Commission of Weights and Measures, led by the general manager Troy Board Count Mikhail Gavrilovich Golovkin. Commission created model arrangements — References, found on various measures to each other, the project organization span business in the country. Introduced a draft of the decimal building measures in view of the fact that the system of Russian cash account was built on the principle of the decimal.

Decided on the starting units of measures, the Commission launched a communication between the different units with measures of length. Determine the volume of the bucket and the quadrangle. Volume was 136.297 cubic bucket inches, and the quadrangle — 286.421 cubic inches. The result of the Commission's work was "Rules …"

According to yards, the value of which was determined by the Commission 1736-1742 gg., Recommended in 1745 to manufacture "in all Arshins Russian state." In accordance with the volume of the quadrangle by the Commission in the second half of the XVIII century. were made chetverik poluosminy and osminy.

Under Paul I Decree of 29 April 1797 on "services everywhere in the Russian Empire faithful weights, drinking and bread measures" was started a lot of work to regulate weights and measures. It refers to the completion of the 30-s of the XIX century. Decree of 1797 was drawn up in the form of the desired recommendations. Decree relating to the four questions of measurement: weighing instruments, measures, weights, measures, liquid and granular materials. As an instrument of weighing and all measures to be replaced, which was supposed to cast-iron steps.

By 1807 had made three standard yard (store in St. Petersburg): crystal, steel and copper. The basis for determining their value was the casting yard and fathoms to multiple relations with the English. measures — in seven fathoms English feet, a yard — 28 Eng. inches. The standards were approved by Alexander I, and deposited with the Ministry of Interior. To be sent to each province produced 52 yards of tetrahedral copper. It is interesting that before this, saying: "Measured by their own yardstick" — literally match reality. Arshin measure vendors measure off a length of fabric — sling on his shoulder.

July 10, 1810 the State Council of Russia decided to introduce nationwide single measure of length — standard 16 Vershkova yards (71.12 cm). Official branding yardstick, the price of 1 ruble silver were ordered to enter in all provinces, with the simultaneous removal of old Arshin templates.

Stage

Stage [the Greek. stadion — stages (ell)] — this ancient measure distances more than two thousand years (from it — in other Greek Stadium, Greek stadion — a place for the competition.) Value stage — About two hundred meters. 'Directly against the city … <Alexandria> lying island of Pharos, which stood at sev.okonechnosti famous lighthouse of the same name, built of white marble, coupled with the city long pier, called septastadion (7 stages)"(F.A.Brokgauz, I.A.Efron Collegiate Dictionary)

Old measures in the modern language

In modern Russian the old unit and the words denoting them survived, mostly in the form of proverbs and sayings

Saying:

"You write letters yardstick" — large

"Kolomna verst" — humorous title a very tall man.

"Oblique broad-shouldered" — broad

in poetry:

Mind can not understand Russia, yardstick (state) — not measured. Tyutchev

Dictionary

Denezhnye unit

Quarter = 25 rubles
Gold coin = 5 or 10 rubles
Publey = 2 poltinas
Ruble — a colloquial name of a metal ruble
Poltina = 50 cents
Bits = 25 kopee
Pyatialtynny = 15 cents
Altyn = 3 pennies
Dime = 10 cents
= 1 bud mite
2 = 1 penny dengi
Half copper dengi (mite) = 1 penny.
Penny (copper g r o w) = 2 pennies.

Mite (otherwise — poludenga) equating one penny. It is the smallest unit in the old denezhnom account. Since 1700 penny minted in copper = 1/2 copper dengi was 1 penny.

Foreign-language titles:

Pint — Former French measure liquids, about 0.9 liters, in Britain and the U.S. — a measure of the amount of liquids and bread, about 0.57 liters
An eighth (eighth of a pound) = 1/8 pound
Gallon English. — 4.546 l
Barrel — 159 liters
Carat — 0.2 g, weight of wheat grain
Ounce — 28.35 g
Pound Eng. — 0.45359 kg
1 stone = 14 lbs = 6.35 pounds
1 handredveyt small = 100 lbs = 45.36 kg.

Keith. measures: 1 Do = 576 m, 1 liang = 37.3 g, 1 fen = 1/10 cun = 0.32 cm — chzhentszyu therapy.
individual i at n s = about 2.5 cm

In Tibetan Medicine: 1 lan = 36 grams, 1 </ u> en = 3.6 g, 1 <n / p> = 0.36, the University

Yard -91.44 cm
Mile sea — 1852 m
1 cable — the tenth of a mile
Rumba — 11 1/4 ° = 1/32 share of the circle — a unit of angular measure
Marine Knot (fast) = 1 mile per hour

Old Russian values:
Chet — a quarter, quarter-
'Quarter of wine = a quarter of a bucket.
'H e r a t e r v grain = 1/4 kadi
kad — old Russian dry measure (usually — four pounds)
Osmina, osmuha — Eighth (eighth) part = 1/8
Eighth of a pound called ounces ("ounces of tea").
'A quarter to eight' — time = 7:45 am or pm
Pyaterik — five units of weight or length
Stop — a measure of paper is 480 sheets before and later — 1000 sheets
'One hundred days osmdesyat osmago noemvriya osmago' — 188 years old in November eighth
Take — a burden, an armful of how much you can clasp hands.
Two thirty — two and a half
Half past four = 4.5
Polodinadtsaty = 10.5
Poltretyasta — two hundred and fifty
Field — 'arena, stadium' (115 steps — option value), later — the first name and synonym of 'mile' (field — a million — mile) in Dahl is a variant of the value of the word "day's march, about 20 miles away"
"Printed fathom" — the Treasury (reference, with the public stigma), dimensional, three feet of
Interval — the amount of matter in the whole canvas, enough to make any clothing (like a shirt)
"Budget no" — no number
Sverstna, svershna — fittingly, to match

Further Reading Reading:
New domestic research on the topic: "The names of the measures of length, weight and money in old language" I.N.Germogenova (Yakutsk State University) /

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