First catapults were invented in the first millennium before the new era, in fact, it was the precursor of artillery in which the shells were used as huge stones. The first time these cars have used the Assyrians, they later appeared on the arms of the Persians and the Phoenicians. In China, the catapults were invented in the 2nd century to modern times. New weapons has changed the methods of the acts on the fields of battle.
A revolution in the development and improvement of ammunition caused the invention of gunpowder. Initially, gunpowder, invented in the 7th century Chinese sages, was used as an incendiary composition. To enhance the possibility of injurious incendiary consistency, it domeshivalis different poisons. First, the powder bomb rushed by ordinary catapults, these bombs was provided a fuse, and for the most part they have had on the enemy's psychological impact due to the sonorous sound at break. Somewhat later, in the 12th century, the Chinese were able to make the first bomb. Housing the latest bomb was made of iron, and with the explosion of gunpowder inside the pledged an unlimited number of fragments hit the enemy.
The howitzer is actually the same catapult, only significantly improved and able to hurl projectiles at the enemy. Gun provides throwing a projectile want direction. Stuffy warhead reports main projectile desired speed, which provides a predetermined range. ANCIENT charged for firing gun powder pulp, which served as a warhead, and the kernel. In Russia, the firearm for the first time appeared in the middle of the 14th century. In service with the Russian ratification were guns, mattresses and squeaked standing on arms on the extension of 3 centuries, beginning with 1382. As the shells for arquebuses and guns used stone, and later steel and lead core. In the smooth-bore guns, it was assumed that the spherical shape of cannon shell allows you to get the highest range and accuracy. The nuclei of hitting targets only its own strike force, taking into account the direct hit. It was necessary for the destruction of fortifications. Cast iron cannonballs began in 1470, which significantly facilitate the design tools, as well as lengthen the barrel and reduce the gauge. Cast iron core over time replaced the core, which was made from other materials, they continued to remain in service, with no significant changes to the mid-19th century.
In the middle of the 15th century were designed howitzers, and especially for these guns was made explosive projectile. These shells were divided into grenades and bombs, regardless of their weight. For instance, shell weighing more than 1 pounds was considered a bomb, and the least it was already pineapple. Bombs and grenades were intended to fire on placed on open space goals and defensive structures. In the end, break the shell itself was created more than 20 pieces. The special effect was achieved in the management of fire on the guns of the enemy. But there were drawbacks: in fact, every fifth shell did not burst because of the imperfection of incendiary tubes. Grenades and bombs continued to be armed with all the armies of more than 3 centuries. Howitzers had a small trunk (at arm's length). This was done with a view to charging could lay quietly breaking shell. Until the late 15th century in order to perform a shot out of a cannon, it was necessary to measure out the correct amount of powder and copper scoop enter it into the bore. Then close the wad and ram it, and only after that was invested and shall be sent to the shell rammer, the bare hole was poured gunpowder and ignited by a wick — occurred shot. In the 16th century, extensive spread was an artillery shell with buckshot. Initially canister was made of specially chopped lead later to improve the aerodynamic parameters are rolled pieces of lead, and after a while began to produce shrapnel use round rifle bullet caliber 13-23 mm.
To increase the efficiency of explosive ordnance operations in the 17th century was made with pineapple tube, it was meant for artillery fire on a public offering of units of the enemy mnogokalibernyh mortars at a distance of 350-450 meters. During the war the 1st World War grenades used in the canister was used as a benchmark in the development of shrapnel to shoot at the planes, the coming-based buckshot were made cluster munitions.
In the 18th century, has been adopted carcass, he was different from an ordinary bomb that equips special incendiary substance and had a 3-5 hole.
The onset of brand new era in the development of the artillery and the claimed invention to the new guns entirely new artillery shells. In 1728, Academician IG Leytman proved the theoretical issues related to the establishment of rifled guns and cone shells for them. In the years 1872-1877 artillery officer of the Russian army VS Baranowski made the first rapid- tool — 2.5-inch caliber gun with a recoil mechanism. To speed up the loading Baranovsky proposed to apply a unitary cartridge loading gun that is made from the liner and shell are connected into one. Unitary cartridge in combination with fast-acting piston gate simplified and significantly accelerated the loading of the gun. Ammunition used the following: high-explosive grenades and blasting, metal shrapnel. Ammunition — 140 rounds.
The main artillery shell during the First World War was the high explosive grenade, filled with explosive substances — melinitom and TNT. Shells have been used to undermine the shock-tube spacers and shock tubes. First months of the war have proved that the light gun, the base component of artillery weapons in the war of host countries, powerless against the well-covered targets and even temporary structures such as lung. In the 1 st World War II used such munitions — chemical, explosive, shrapnel, incendiary, illumination shells and communications.
Shells connection used to listen to the discussions in the camp of the enemy or the same for delivery to the vast distances of urgent and legitimate messages. In 1913, for the howitzer charges introduced new iron sleeves. With the adoption on arms projectiles with an iron sleeve was made possible the introduction of the charge as chemical warfare agents. For the first time October 27, 1914 Germany applied the chemical artillery shells fitted with shrapnel mixed with the irritating powder.
First armor-piercing projectile in a manner scientist DK Chernoff, has special tips SO Makarova made of tough steel, was created in Russia. The first time the shells were made of cast iron, then the armor-piercing projectiles launched are made of special steel puddling. When the test firings in 1897, the new armor-piercing shell with a tip, released from 152 mm guns, broke
exposed as a target armor plate 254 mm wide.
To solve the problems of combat artillery must keep a clear and powerful main fire Target — open, sheltered, mobile and immobile, unprotected and protected by armor and concrete. Because the greatest contribution to the defeat of the effect of different purposes and need to use different damaging effects on their own shells. Mines and shells with caliber least 76 mm, refer to the small caliber, with a caliber of 76 to 152 mm are middle caliber, and with a caliber of more than 152 mm — much.
Mines and artillery shells were used to defeat a variety of purposes and for smoke and illumination areas and perform other missions. They are divided into shells main, auxiliary and special purpose. The shells were used for the main purpose of oppression, destruction and destruction of different purposes. To the main shells are:
1. Fragmentation — for the destruction of enemy personnel, unarmored and lightly armored combat vehicles of medium-weapons and small caliber.
2. HE — to destroy the lung or temporary structures of large caliber guns.
3. High-explosive — to destroy equipment and manpower, located in field facilities or in the open countryside of medium-caliber guns.
4. Caliber armor-piercing — to destroy enemy armored vehicles of the guns of small and medium caliber.
5. Armor-piercing — for the destruction of enemy armored vehicles of the guns of small and medium caliber.
6. Shrapnel — to engage manpower and combat materiel located in the open countryside with bullets and shrapnel.
7. Cumulative — for the destruction of armored vehicles especially those directed cumulative jet.
8. Incendiary — to the creation of fires. During the war, widely used armor-piercing incendiary tracer rounds.
The main effect of the projectile fragmentation — the defeat of manpower and equipment of the enemy formed as a result of the explosion debris. The main effect lies in the explosive destruction of the projectile that is due as a result of the creation of the explosion shock wave.
Caliber armor piercing projectiles cause of breaks, punctures, knocking out of your jams, breakdowns and shifts armor plates, jamming towers and manholes, etc. The destructive action the armor is done by shrapnel shells and armor. Action armor-piercing shells accompanied by the destruction of armor, and on leaving the core of the pierced armor, the sudden withdrawal creates tension, the core collapses to weave fragments.
As a result of cumulative actions projectile penetrates armor and is the damaging effect of armor. Armor penetration is achieved directed action of the explosion energy bursting charge.
In the 30 years into service of the Red Army were taken completely new high-explosive projectiles special form of long-range, and concrete-piercing shells. These include the fragmentation and armor-piercing projectiles for 45mm anti-tank guns, 76 mm solid-body explosive shells, 152 mm howitzer shells of steel cast iron. These shells have been developed fuses DDM MD-5, CLF-1, CTM-2, CTD, remote handset D-1, T-3-HS. During the second world war to fight the languid tanks were designed and adopted for the new class of weapons — cumulative and piercing projectiles. Piercing projectiles were accepted for service — 45 mm in 1942, the 76-mm in 1943. In February 1944, armament was adopted by the 85-mm piercing projectiles, significantly increased the level of anti-tank fire. In 1941 year adopted adopted rocket launcher M-132, which was located on the guide up to 16 missiles 132 mm caliber, firing range was 8470 m people setting received the name of "Katyusha".
Modern artillery is armed with missiles capable of punching concrete wall widths up to 2-meters from a distance of more than 10 thousand meters. Taking into account the importance of artillery in combat missions, many countries of the world is developing not only new weapons systems, and munitions, giving them a super-power.