Historians there is an unwritten rule that before you give reliable estimates of those or other events must complete a minimum of 15-20 years. But in the case of the first Chechen war, the situation is quite different, and the more time passes since the beginning of the events, the less of them trying to remember. It creates the impression that someone is deliberately trying to force people to have forgotten about those bloody and disastrous in the pages of the new Russian history. But society has a right to know the names of the people that started the conflict, which killed about 3 thousand Russian soldiers and officers, and which practically started the whole wave of terror in the country and second Chechen War.
Actions led to the first Chechen to be divided into two steps. 1st — the period from 90 th to 91 th year, when there was a real possibility of a bloodless overthrow the Dudayev regime and the second step from the beginning of 92-th year, when the time to normalize the situation in the country had already lost, and the question of a military solution prepyadstviya was only a matter of time.
The first step. How it all began.
The first push to the top of the event can be considered as Gorbachev's promise to give all the autonomous republics of the status of the union and the phrase Yeltsin — "Take independence as much as you can carry." Desperately struggling for power in the country they wish to receive such makarom support among the inhabitants of these republics, and probably not even meant to what will their words.
Just a few months after the announcement of Yeltsin, in November 1990, the Supreme Council of Chechen-Ingush ASSR, led by Doku Zavgaev adopted a declaration on municipal sovereignty Chechen-Ingushetia. Suppose that in fact it was only a formal document adopted with a view to obtaining greater autonomy and opportunities, but all the same the first bell had already been given. At this time in Chechnya until now there is not much popular figure who Dudayev. The only Chechen general in the Russian Army, who was never a Muslim and having municipal services for military operations in Afghanistan began to rapidly gain popularity. Maybe even very rapidly. In Chechnya, many of the same to this day believe that Dudayev were harsh for the people sitting in the metropolitan offices.
Maybe these same people to overthrow Dudayev and assist the Supreme Council by its Chairman Doc Zavgaev September 6, 1991. After the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet authorities such as in Chechnya was not there. Warehouse was looted KGB of the Republic, in which there were small guns on a regiment of prisons and detention centers were released all who were there offenders. But all this did not prevent already 26 October of the same year to the presidential election in which as expected, beat himself Dudayev, and the first of November to adopt a declaration of sovereignty of Chechnya. It was no longer a bell, and a real buzz bell, but the country did not seem to notice what was happening.
The only person who attempted to do something, was Rutskoi, specifically, he tried to declare a state of emergency in the country, but no one has not supported. Yeltsin was in these days are in their own suburban residence and did not show any attention to Chechnya, and the Supreme Council USSR document about the incident and did not accept. Almost all of it came out because of the brutal behavior of the Rutskoi who said the discussion document practically follow — "Cobra these must be pressed." This phrase it almost ended in a hassle in the building of the Council and of course the adoption of emergency speech can not be.
However, despite the fact that the document has not been adopted, the Khankala (a suburb of Severe) still landed a few sides with the soldiers of internal troops, numbering about 300 people. Of course, that 300 people had no chance to fulfill their intended target and overthrow Dudayev and opposite themselves held hostage. Little more than a day fighters were surrounded and eventually the buses were taken over the border of Chechnya. After a couple of days was inaugurated as president Dudayev and his authority and power in the country were limitless.
Step second. The war becomes inevitable.
After the formal entry Dudayev as president of the republic of Chechnya situation grew tense with each of days. Every second inhabitant Severe freely walking with a gun in his hand, and Dudayev declared openly that all tool and technology that is on the ground in Chechnya, was his. A gun in Chechnya was weight. In only one 173-m Grozny training center was gun on 4-5 infantry divisions including 32 tanks, 32 infantry fighting vehicles, 14 armored personnel carriers, 158 anti-tank units.
In January, 92 th at the training center actually there is not the 1st fighter and all this mass of guns guarded the only remaining city officers in the military. Despite this federal government did not direct any attention to it, preferring as before to share power in the country and until May 93rd year, Severe for talks with Dudayev came Defence Minister Grachev. As a result of negotiations, it was decided to divide all available in Chechnya gun 50 to 50, and in June left the country last Russian officer. What is needed to sign the document and left in Chechnya a lot of guns so far remains unclear, because the 93-year has been saying that the peaceful method to solve the problem of not.
At this time, due to the ongoing Dudayev very nationalistic policies in Chechnya in a massive final of the Russian population of the republic. According to the then Minister of the Interior, Kulikov passed the border every day to 9 Russian families per hour.
But anarchy is happening in the country, influenced not only by Russian residents in the republic, and the inhabitants of other regions. Thus, Chechnya was a major producer and supplier of heroin to Russia, too, about 6 billion. dollars were seized by the Central Bank as a result of the well-known stories with fake Aviso and most importantly earned on this, not only in Chechnya, received financial benefit from it in Moscow. In another than you can explain that in 92-93 years in harsh Hardly a month came the famous Russian politicians and businessmen. According to the memoirs of the former mayor of Severe Bislana Gantamirova before each arrival of the "dign
itaries" Dudayev personally gave instructions to purchase expensive jewelry, explaining that's how we solve our problems with Moscow.
Turning a blind eye to it and then it was unrealistic, and Yeltsin instructs the head of the capital of the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) Savostyanov an operation to overthrow Dudayev Chechen opposition forces. Savostjanov made a bid for control Nadterechnyi Umar Avturkhanov region of Chechnya and to the republic began to direct funds and tool. October 15, 1994 began the first assault Severe opposition forces, but when the palace had Dudayev least 400 meters, with Avturkhanov contacted by someone from Moscow and ordered to get out of town. According disk imaging former chairman of the Supreme Soviet Ruslan Khasbulatov this "someone" was none other, as the organizer of the assault Savostjanov.
A subsequent attempt to assault by opposition forces was held November 26, 1994, but it also failed miserably. This is followed by the storming of the Minister of Defense Grachev will make every disown Russian tank crew who were captured and claim that the Russian army would take harsh for an hour the forces of the 1st Airborne Regiment.
Apparently, even in the Kremlin is not particularly believe in the success of this operation, because for a couple of weeks before the assault took place in Moscow for a secret meeting of the Security Council, one hundred percent dedicated to the Chechen dilemma. At this meeting were made with 2 polar reports Regional Development Minister Nikolai Yegorov and Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. Yegorov said that the setting for the invasion of Chechnya is very appropriate, and 70 percent of the population will certainly support this decision, and only 30 will be neutral or would resist. Grachev, on the contrary, in its report emphasized that the deployment of troops in what is not a great result, and we will meet fierce resistance, and offered to transfer the input for the spring, so it was time to cook troops and draw up a detailed plan of operation. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin in response to this openly referred to Grachev's a coward, and said that such statements to the Minister of Defence is not allowed. Yeltsin announced a break and with Rybkin Shumejko, head, and a few other unknown members of the government held a closed-door meeting. It resulted in the requirement Yeltsin prepare a plan within two weeks of entry operations troops. Grachev refuse the president failed.
November 29 in the Kremlin was the second meeting of the Security Council, which Grachev presented his own plan, and the decision to invade was quite taken. Why adoption decision was in such a hurry that present unclear. According to one version Yeltsin personally wanted to solve the problem of Chechnya until the new year and thus raise makarom own very small rating. According to another member of the international committee of the State Duma, Andrei Kozyrev had information that the Russian Federation will decide if the problem of Chechnya in recent years, and for the short term, it will not cause a negative reaction in particular the U.S. administration.
So, or another, the invasion took place in the last rush that led to the fact that outright 5 generals who lead the operation Grachev offered rejected this and only in the middle of December it agreed Kvashnin. Before the New Year Severe storm had the least 2-weeks …