Tiltrotor Mi-30 (draft)

Mi-30 — Russian project is multi tiltrotor, the development of which began in 1972 in the MVZ. Mil, project manager was M. Tishchenko. Inside the KB at this structural scheme had its own designation "vintoplan." The main objective of the development E-30 was to provide characteristics such as the range and speed of flight, which would dwarf the helicopter in its class. Mi-30 tiltrotor considered creators as a promising substitute multipurpose helicopters Mi-8. In the original project, the Mi-30 was designed to carry two tons of cargo and 19 passengers, but in the upcoming machine capacity was increased to 3.5 tonnes and seating capacity increased to 32 people.

To understand what all the same, in reality it is, let's deal with what is a tiltrotor. Tiltrotor — is flying apparatus, owning a rotary screws. During take-off and before landing work as lifting screws, and at level flight — like pulling (with all this, the lift provided by the wing aircraft type). Tiltrotor design on its own essence is quite close the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, but in most cases they are referred to rotary-wing aircraft because of the huge diameter screws (comparable with a wingspan) and their design features. Huge screws that hold tiltrotor allow them to manufacture vertical take-off and landing. But in level flight they are the least efficient in comparison with the classic Airplane From the smallest screw diameter.

In most cases, are not the rotary screw, and a gondola with engines and screws (as in the South American Bell V-22 Osprey), but you can meet and such structures, which have turn the screws and engines remain motionless (eg, placed in the fuselage) . An example of such an aircraft circuits, which rotate the screws can be called Bell XV-3. At the current time the more famous konvertoplanov is operated by South American military tiltrotor V-22 Osprey, which the flight weight is 27.4 tons and speed of flight in airplane mode equivalent of 463 km / h in helicopter mode is significantly lower — 185 km / h This tiltrotor able to transfer up to 24 people landing or take on board about 5 tons of cargo.

Tiltrotor Mi-30 (draft)
The most recognizable available tiltrotor V-22 Osprey

The idea of construction rotorcraft — came to naikrupneyshie tiltrotor aircraft companies of the world in the second half of the 40-ies of the last century. This cute idea implied by the union of a helicopter and an airplane. The designers of many nations fought to create a machine that could make a vertical takeoff and landing with the rotors like a helicopter, and in level flight to behave like ordinary plane, due to the presence of the wing and the aerodynamic control surfaces. To implement this idea was built a huge number of experimental models.

But, unfortunately, most of them turned out or significantly inferior to the totality of technical and economic characteristics, or unworkable. By the early 70's of the XX century, still a promising beginning to emerge from a practical point of view, the concept, which was owned by a U.S. helicopter — Bell. This company makes the helicopter twin-screw cross circuit rotor axis which during the transition to horizontal flight could turn forward, with all this rotors became Airplane-pulling screws. The use of comparable lightly loaded helicopter rotor not only ensure the safety during the emergency landing in autorotation (during power-plant failure on take-off or during hovering), and giving the car a huge energy advantages in comparison with other types of konvertoplanov.

At the same time, Russian designers, really appreciating the huge number of difficulties associated with the development of the transformed system, a long time belonged to different "bad" projects skeptical. But the concept, which was proposed by Bell, it seemed convincing. Large experience available in the company on the development of helicopters Mil transverse scheme and solving a variety of related problems of dynamics and aeroelasticity design allowed engineers to hope for success in the development of a cost center converted rotorcraft, which would pivoting axis rotors.

Tiltrotor Mi-30 (draft)
Mi-30 tiltrotor in level flight

In 1972, the designers MVZ. Mil in an active manner made project-offer transport and passenger tiltrotor, received the title of E-30. According to the available terms in the Soviet Union he initially was called a helicopter-airplane, but later he came up with Mil its own designation — vintoplan. The main objective in the design of the Mi-30 was to ensure the performance of the, first range and speed of flight. Initially, he had to carry up to 2 tons of cargo and 19 people landing.

As the power plant for the newest vehicles would be used 2 engine TV3-117, located above the cargo cabin, engines had to drive a box with two inconsequential pulling the screw with a diameter of 11 meters each. The screws were placed at the ends of the wings. The estimated speed of the Mi-30 was estimated at 500-600 km / h, and the range was to be 800 km. Take-off weight of the car — to 10.6 tons in the framework of the research programs from this Mil able to connect TsAGI. Soon jointly started construction of an aerodynamic shield for testing models of the screw. At the same time, the designers have made Mil pilot flying radio-controlled model vintoplana, so that in-flight study transients, maneuverability and stability of the machine.

During the development of the customer desired to increment capacity of Mi-30 and 3.5 tonnes and passenger capacity to bring up to 32 people. As a result of this project vintoplana was redesigned for the introduction of 3-boosted engines TV3-117F. With all this inconsequential diameter screws pulling up to 12.5 meters, and the take-off weight of Mi-30 to 15.5 tons the beginning of the 1980s, scientists and engineers from a cost center managed to work out a number of possible schemes, layouts and designs machines machines , conducted thorough analyzes of the structure behavior problems, aeroelasticity, flight dynamics and aerodynamics, suitable for converted vehicles.

Given the depth study of the project, the factory has long-standing experience in solving difficult problems, the Commission of the Presidium of the USSR Council of Ministers on weapons in August 1981 issued a decree on the development of the Mi-30 with the transformed rotor system (vintoplana). Made a technical proposal was submitted to the customer and institutions MAP. Military approved the creation of the machine, but claimed to put on vintoplan more massive engines — 2 Engine D-136, the calculated mass of tiltrotor increased to 30 tons

Tiltrotor Mi-30 (draft)
The scheme tiltrotor Mi-30C

In the following years, the development of the type used by the power plant a couple of times changed. Discussed options with 2 and 3 engines TV7-117 or with 2 D-27. Coupled with this take-off weight was equal to the Mi-30, respectively 11, 20 and 30 tonnes. In the initial step, carried out fundamental theoretical resear
ch in the field of aerodynamics and dynamics, areas of strength, including the calculation of certain types of instability, natural vibration system, balancing features, such as self-oscillation "air resonance" mode vertical autorotation "flatter pods", "chordal flutter "etc. Determined vintoplana transport efficiency, the mass of the support system were selected characteristics of the propeller, tail and wings, propeller efficiency, the characteristics of the propeller blades and the tension in it. Developed a variety of design options screws, boxes, wing and other units.

In the end, the creation of the Mi-30 was included in the state program of armaments for 1986-1995. Unfortunately, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the economic difficulties emerged, vintoplan Mi-30 and did not climb out of the stage of the analytical and engineering research. In the last year of the Soviet Union experts at OKB designed 3 different vintoplana Mi-30C, Mi-30D and Mi-30L who had the capacity of 3.2, 2.5 and 0.95 tons, respectively, and a passenger capacity of 21, 11 and 7 people. First 2 tiltrotor had the highest take-off weight of 13 tons planned to equip the power plants of 2 engines TV7-117, and the third Mi-30L (weighing 3.75 tons) power plant of 2-AL- 34. Were working on the creation and combat options.

First-1990s studied the possible role of the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil in European projects and program notes, including "Evrofar" and "Eureka," which focused on the creation of such konvertoplanov Mi-30. At the time in Russia there were no criteria for the organization of this kind of joint projects.

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