The fall in the 41 th of the Red Army soldiers appeared brand new specialty — anti-tank riflemen. It has come to fighters with anti-tank guns (MFR). The story of creation and implementation of TBT worthy of a separate and very detailed story.
New type of guns
For the first time anti-tank guns — 13.37-mm single-shot "Mauser Tankgever" used German Reichswehr in 1918, in the final step of the First World War. This experience was faster than negative, because in the next few years in the armies of the leading countries of the world intended to hit enemy tanks with light guns and a "universal" mnogokalibernyh guns. But the scale mechanized troops did the idea of a light infantry anti-tank weapon with a range of a few hundred meters more and more tempting. In the 30 years of work on the PTR were activated, including in our own country. By the way, the term "anti-gun", apparently taken from the German Panzerbüchse — because it really is about the rifles.
In the years 1936-1938 have been tested 15 different systems PTR caliber of 12.7 mm to 25 mm, until it became clear that the claims made by anti-tank rifle, initially overestimated. November 9, 1938 the Red Army Artillery Administration has identified a new job, which provided for the development of the 14.5-mm semi-automatic anti-tank guns, which would constantly be on the parts of a rifle company at least some areas and in all of the criteria for a fight. Work on the new cartridge 14.5mm began on Scientific Testing of small arms firing range (NIPSVO) and continued at one of the capital works.
With the expectation of this ordnance officer of the same polygon NV Rukavishnikov skonstrui-plated PTR taken into service October 7, 1939. And yet, by June 22, 1941, the troops were not mass-produced anti-tank rifles. This dramatic situation is often explain the position of Marshal Kulik, who led before the war Main Artillery Administration and states in the spring of 1940, the ineffectiveness of light anti-tank weapons in the fight against the "new German tanks." Alignment Marshal may contribute to insufficient work on the PTR (as, incidentally, is phasing out 45-mm anti-tank guns), but did not stop them. Where played a huge role technical prerequisites — the plant number 2, who was assigned to the first batch, in the winter of 1939-1940 the main power used for the production of RPE. Vpribavok retested PTR Rukavishnikova showed its highest sensitivity to dirt, dust unmasking position, lifting gas from the muzzle brake. The gun was in need of improvement and 26 July 1940 was withdrawn from service. Tests have been converted PTR in June 1941, with a report on the results of NIPSVO dated 23 th number — second days of stateliness Russian.
Urgent establishment of production of anti-tank guns in the criteria of the war, when all the available power companies Commissariat weapons were zanaryazheny, sought solutions to many organizational and technological problems. Meanwhile, in July 1941, interim measures for the early supply of the army PTR.
One of them — an attempt to express the organization of production at the Tula Machine-Tool Plant (plant number 66) 7.92-mm guns on the model of captured German Pz.B.39. His armor (at a distance of 300 m bullet sews armor width up to 23 mm) was sufficient to deal with light tanks Wehrmacht. Well and medium tanks enemy it could hit when firing into the side. The plant number 66 was to make a 5 thousand of MFI. And in September remained prepyadstviya work devices rifle. In October, a machine-tool plant evacuated. In the troops got on one data — up to 1 thousand, on the other — only 426 of MFI. In any case, 7.92-mm guns were used in the defense of Tula (Tula got a few pieces of work Regiment).
Remembered at the time and a 12.7-mm guns singly, similar in type to the German "Mauser Tankgever" — in the 30 years they were made in small quantities for testing in Tula 12.7 mm cartridge, and NIPSVO in 1938 -m suggested creating this magazine-based MFI. Now there was an offer on the issue of single-shot anti-tank gun under the 12.7-mm cartridge DSHK small workshops (called him a pioneer engineer VN Sholokhov). Artisanal creation began in Moscow in the workshops of Mechanical Engineering Institute. Bauman, then — in the OKB-16. Conventional Design German PTR "Mauser" was supplemented with a muzzle brake, shock absorber stock and folding bipod. Especially for these rifles produced 12.7 mm cartridges with armor-piercing bullet, which allowed the 400 meters punching width of 20 mm armor.
Lasted debugging and 14.5-mm cartridge: for service in August took his version with a bullet BS-41 with a hard core. This is often referred to as metal-ceramic core, although it is not about ceramics, but the use of powder metallurgy. If the 14.5-mm bullet B-32 at a distance of 300 m pierced the armor of 21 mm wide, the BS-41 — 35 mm.
Engaging the creation of PTR Rukavishnikova as before was the problem of. To speed up the work on the more technological 14.5mm DPT's memoirs Ustinov, Stalin at a meeting of the T-bills offered to entrust the development of another, and for safety — two designers. First got the job in July VA Degtyarev and SG Simonov. Soon there were ready for testing standards — from setting tasks to the first test shots passed all day or 22. New SSS had to fight with medium and light tanks and armored vehicles at distances up to 500 m
Degtyarev with the staff's own CB-2 on the tool factory number 2 in Kavrov developed two options with varying degrees of automation. Already on July 14 drawings transferred to the creature. July 28, the project PTR Degtyareva spotted at a meeting in the Office of small arms. July 30 to accelerate the organization of mass production Degtyarev proposed to simplify one of the samples, making it a one-shot, because the specific power system usually provides the greatest number of problems in finishing tools. After a number of days that variant was introduced.
August 28-29 PTR Degtyareva experienced NIPSVO. And August 6-12 there have been a joint test of self-loading PTR Simon (made on the basis of his own most experienced self-loading rifle in 1938) and revised PTR Rukavishnikova. Etalon Simon showed the best results.
August 29, 1941 single-shot rifle and semi-automatic Degtyareva Simon had adopted under the designation PTRD and PTSD, respectively. This was done even before the end of the test PTR (tests for durability held on September 12-13, and the final — 24 September).
Rotary lengthwise rolling shutter gun Degtyarev had two lugs at the front of the line and the handle at the back. The firing mechanism — striker type with a helical mainspring, tail drummer went outside the back gate and had a hook. Cocking the hammer performed when unlocking the gate. The barrel was equipped with an active PTRD muzzle brake, absorbing up to two thirds of the recoil energy. Tubular butt could hold spring shock absorber. Smartest feature of the design was borrowed from the artillery cr
eative principle of automatic shutter release when rolling back. After the shot the barrel to the receiver retreated back, startled by the gate handle follower profile, mounted on the butt, and turned, opening the shutter. After a stop valve stem by inertia retreated back and got up on the slide stop, the reflector bolt hitting the spent case in the lower box receiver. In the frontal position of the movable system vorachivalas spring shock absorber. The gate was open, and to prepare for the subsequent shot was necessary to put a new cartridge into the top box receiver, hand in these and lock the gate. This allowed the military to increment rate in the calculation of the coordinated work of 2 persons. The sighting device was delivered to the left on the fixtures and included a fly and a change-over rear sight at a distance of 600 m and above (MFR first pillar issues of moving in the vertical slot).
Butt had Myagenko pillow, wood fence to keep the gun with his left hand, wood pistol grip, cheek to stop the shooter. Were attached to the trunk stamped folding bipod and carrying handle. In affiliation included two canvas bags for 20 rounds any. Total weight PTRD with ammunition was about 26 kg. In the battle rifle bore one or two rooms of calculation. Imagine the load for the calculation on the march and in battle.
A minimum of parts, the introduction of the pipe instead of the butt frame simplifies the creation of ATR, which in those criteria was crucial. Create PTRD started the Kovrov plant number two: first of October here predict the assembly of the first batch of 50 rifles, 28 October made special creation — a task for anti-tank gun was the priority. The first batch of 300 PTRD made in October and November, first sent to the 16th Army Lieutenant General Rokossovsky. Later the release PTRD hooked plant number 74 (Izhmash). By December 30, 1941 17,688 PTRD done, but for the whole of 1942 th — 184800. Main creation PTRD conducted in Kavrov until November 1943, when the plant has finished number 2 release. But from October 1943 to collect PTRD began in Zlatoust factory number 385.
PTSD had a semi-automatic automation based powder combustion gases through a transverse hole in the wall of the barrel. The barrel is locked performed warp core shutter down. Percussion — trigger with a helical mainspring. Double row store with hinged lever dispenser attached to the receiver, fit clip (pack) with 5 rounds in the lid folded down. In affiliation included 6 clips. By using up ammo to get up to the gate delay. Targeted adapted tion included a fly with a fuse and sector sight, notched 100 to 1500 meters SSS had myagenkoy wood stock with a pillow and Shoulders, pistol handle. Neck Butt used his left hand to hold. The barrel was equipped with a muzzle brake, it fastened folding bipod and carrying handle.
Lock and PTSD was easier PTR Rukavishnikova (at least a third of the number of parts by 60% less than the machine-hours), but significantly more difficult PTRD. It was planned to produce PTSD in Tula, but after the evacuation of parts of the production plant number 66 in the ready Saratov PTSD established there, the factory number 614 (the last "Traktorodetal"). For frolicsome production organization had neither the equipment nor facilities. Found a way out in cooperation of companies: the ready box stores instructed harvester plant, the striker — a mechanical workshop of the local institution. 7 November 1st PTSD successfully passed the tests in December in Saratov started its mass creation. By the release of PTSD also lured Izhevsk plant number 74: November 6, he was ordered to PTRD production company, and already 11 November — in addition to the creation of PTSD. In November izhevchane did PTRD 36, and the first two PTSD could pass only in December. First, the creation of parts PTR distributed through the shops of the plant, then built a separate timber barracks. Used evacuees production Tula Arms Podolsky and mechanical plants. 1 July 1942 at the base of the plant number 74 was isolated plant number 622 (later IMZ), which produced including anti-tank guns of both systems, and from the middle of 1943 — just PTSD.
In 1941 he produced only 77 PTSD, in 1942 — 63 308. The establishment of mass production possible to lower the cost of PTSD — from the first half of 1942 to the second half of 1943, it decreased almost by half.
Since PTR taken urgently, the defects of new systems — tight extraction sleeve at PTRD, twin shots from PTSD — had to revise the production process. Because of the tight extraction cartridges recommended grease chamber PTR before firing and after every 10-12 shots. It is sensitive enough and returns, reduced the rate of real fighting in comparison with the stated in the manuals. The deployment of mass production in the criteria of the war still sought a certain period of time — the needs of troops are met adequately only in November 1942.
Create PTRD finished in Izhevsk factory number 622 in July, and in Kavrov the plant number 2 — in November 1943, in Zlatoust factory number 385 — in December 1944. PTSD produced in Saratov factory number 614 to June 1944, in Izhevsk factory number 622 — until December of the same year. Total designated five plants produced 471,726 SSS — 281 111 190 615 PTRD and PTSD. In the troops supplied 469,700 MFI both systems. Peak production — 249,642 units — accounts for 1942 year, when the role of ATR in the anti-tank defense was more significant. Number of 14.5mm ammunition, issued in 1940-1945 is estimated at 139.8 million units, the peak of production — 1942-1943 years.
With a fairly large ballistic A 14.5-mm PTR different agility and adaptability. Naturally, they were not even the substitution of light anti-tank guns, but eliminated the significant gap between the "anti" abilities of infantry and artillery. Although in 1941 the MFI had to play a specific role of the latter — in August of the battalion and division level and seized a 45 mm gun and handed it to build anti-tank regiments and brigades.
The first new ATR received the Western Front, defending Moscow (here, by the way, was used, and a certain amount of MFI Rukavishnikova). Directive front commander, Army General Georgy Zhukov on October 26, 1941, saying the dispatch of 5, 33 and 16 army platoon 3-4 DPT sought "to take measures for the immediate use of this exceptional strength and effectiveness of weapons. .. giving their regiments, and battalions. " And in his own order of December 29, Zhukov pointed to deficiencies in the application of TBT: the introduction of their calculations as the shooters, the lack of interaction with groups of tank destroyers and antitank guns, abandonment PTR on the battlefield.
The most famous in the defense of Moscow became the battle in passing Dubosekovo November 16, 1941 the 4th Company of the 2nd Battalion, 1075th Regiment of the 316th Infantry Division, Major-General IV Panfilov. Of the 30 German tanks that took part in the attacks, 18 were destroyed, but of the entire company, which took place at the front of attack, to live there were less than 20% of the Red Army. This fight has shown not only the ability of MFI calculations (in the battalion was only 4 of calculation) to fight with tanks, and the need to cover up their hands, and support for anti-gunners and artillery regiment. Form of organization is closely interact anti-tank artillery, DPT fighters — fighters tanks and automatic weapons have become anti-infantry strong points.
Since December 1941, the company introduced the infantry regiments PTR (to 27, then to 54 guns), but with illumine 1942 in battalions — PTR platoons to 18 guns. In January 1943, a company incorporated
in the MFI motor-rifle and machine-gun battalion, a tank brigade, there will exist SSS company until March 1944. Rota DPT introduced into artillery and anti-tank battalions, and battalions PTR — of the anti-fighter crews. Anti-tank guns with machine guns provide self-defense artillery batteries from unexpected attacks.
It should be noted that the effectiveness of combat operations PTR calculation is estimated differently in Russian literature in recent years taken to focus on their shortcomings and to believe that they had only a "psychological significance" in the criteria for the apparent lack of anti-tank artillery. But last Lieutenant General Wehrmacht E. Schneider wrote: "In 1941, the Russian was 14.5 mm PTR … deliver a lot of our Wraith tanks and armored personnel carriers, light had appeared later. " Past Major General von Mellenthin said: "create a memory, that every infantryman has anti- gun or anti-tank gun. Russian is very handily located the funds and do not seem to have such a place where they were not found. " In general in a number of German works of the second world war and the memoirs of German tank crews Russian PTR referred to as "worthy of respect" tool, but pay tribute to the courage and their calculations. Russian commanders of the same in 1942 celebrated the new features of the Germans attack with the role of tanks and assault guns — they sometimes stayed at 300-400 m from the advanced trenches, supported the infantry with fire place. This range, which features a fiery Russian PTR. As you can see, the fire of anti-tank guns had not merely "psychological significance".
Having played a huge role in the anti-tank defense in 1941-1942, DPT from mid 1943 — with growth of body armor of tanks and assault guns, 40 mm above — have lost ground. In January 1942, the number of troops in the MFI was 8116, in January 1944 — 142 861, in other words, grown in two years at 17.6 times, in 1944, it began to decline and by the end of the war the army was acting only 40 000 MFI.
October 30, 1944 Chief of Staff of the 1st Baltic Front, Colonel-General Vladimir Kurasov reported: "The experience of the use of TBT during Russian war indicates that they had a greater effect in the period up to July 1943, when the enemy used light and medium tanks and the battle lines of our troops were comparably less saturated with anti-tank artillery. Starting from the second half of 1943, when the enemy began to use the languid tanks and self-propelled guns, having a strong armor protection, efficiency PTR has declined substantially. The main role in the fight against tanks at the current time is completely made artillery. PTR owning good marksmanship fire priemuschestvenno used today against gun emplacements, enemy armored vehicles and armored personnel carriers. " Unit commanders be successfully used the main advantages PTR — agility, the ability to constantly be in the combat formations of small units, ease of concealment — in 1944 and in 1945. For example, when fighting in an environment populated Fri, Capture and securing beachheads, when you do not have the ability to use artillery.
PTR used to fight not only with tanks and armored vehicles. Anti-tank riflemen often led to silence the enemy bunkers and pillboxes. Snipers are used instead of a sniper rifle PTR to engage the enemy in the vast distances of either closures (sample scope mounts on the PTR were unsuccessful because of the very strong recoil guns). Anti-tank guns and used to fight against low-flying aircraft — there were advantages in self-loading PTSD.