Deploy an army of invasion of France and a strategic plan to combat

Deploy an army of invasion of France and a strategic plan before the start of hostilities

French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte had a long and painstakingly prepared its own campaign in Russia. He realized that our home has a great military power, because Napoleon gathered a huge army at the time — so-called. "Grand Army." Napoleon wanted a crushing blow to break the Russian army, forcing Alexander to fulfill the conditions. French emperor took two years to mobilize forces for the invasion of the Russian Empire.

Concentration of the French armed forces began in 1810 and was carried out in a major secret. Their movement to the east facilitated by the fact that after the defeat of Prussia and the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, Paris was the right to keep garrisons in several Prussian castles. The French troops were in Spandau Kustrin, Stettin, and several other forts. French troops will soon have the right to take Konigsberg and Pilau.

By the end of 1810 on the Lower Elbe was stationed 60000th Elbe observation (observation) of the 1st Corps of the more prominent generals of France, the "Iron Marshal" by Louis Nicolas Davout. This body consisted of the best parts of the French army and was the basis for the deployment of all other troops. On the Rhine, was located 100 thousand army Confederation of the Rhine, it is controlled by Napoleon. Duchy of Warsaw was under arms 30 thousand people. So Makar, the first echelon of the French invasion of the governor was about 200 thousand people. In addition, the disposal of Napoleon were: 45000th supervisory body, which was based in Northern France and the Netherlands; 40000th Franco-Italian corps stationed in Northern Italy, plus 20000th Saxon body. In other words, in the 2nd tier was about 100 thousand soldiers and officers. This is despite the fact that France was at war in the Iberian Peninsula, and held there for about 250-300 thousand people. Napoleon Bonaparte to multiply their own abilities, when in 1810 read as a trustee of the ruler and the Russian military-diplomatic agent of the Russian Federation Alexander Chernyshev, that it has in Europe 300 thousand French troops available and can bring them in 1811 to 600 thousand fighter.

In particular, intensive Napoleon began to prepare troops from the end of 1810. In December 1810 was declared a set of 80 thousand konskriptov (from Lat. Conscriptus, fr. Conscrit, from Lat. Conscribere — «inscribe, to be listed," entered the military service on konskriptsii to recruit, rookie). Three divisions were transferred from southern Germany to the coast of the Baltic Sea. Immediately gave orders for even more massive strengthening of Danzig, strengthening his garrison, translation artillery depots in Magdeburg and the Duchy of Warsaw.

First, in 1811, Napoleon set about reorganizing the "big army." Elbe corps was reformed in two cases: 1st commanded by Davoust (about 70 thousand), 2nd, headed by Marshal Nicolas Oudinot (35 thousand, most of the fighter were French, but there were Poles, Croats, Swiss) . The supervisory body in Northern France and the Netherlands (3rd Corps) led the Marshal Michel Ney. Italian case (4th Corps) commanded by the Viceroy of Italy, Eugene de Beauharnais. By mid-1811 the number of French troops in Central Europe (including the Confederation of the Rhine forces) has been brought up to 240 thousand fighter. The number of troops of the Duchy of Warsaw was adjusted to 60 thousand people. 5 th Corps (Polish) commanded the Prince Jozef Poniatowski. Was reformed 20000th Saxon Corps (7th housing). Straight from France were new troops to reinforce the garrison in Central Europe. Was prepared to march Imperial Guard (35-47 thousand). The Guard was divided on the old guard, the young guard and the Guards cavalry. As a result, in 1811, was ready to march about 400 thousand soldiers and officers. Napoleon continued to increase its military. He brag AI Chernyshev, "In a few years I'll be able to have 800 or 900 thousand fighter — and then whether our homeland oppose me so much!"

In December 1811, has been declared a new set of recruits: 120 thousand for the Army, 12 thousand for the Navy and the collection calls konskriptov past years — up to 60 thousand people. Including new recruits, the number of Lofty army was brought up to 600 thousand infantry and cavalry. But you have to take into account the fact that not all parts are of the highest military qualities. A lot of deserters was a German, and French troops recruits, their numbers have gained some 10-thousand people prefer. The younger brother of the French governor of Jerome Bonaparte (with the ruler of Westphalia in 1807) Napoleon wrote in 1811: "Fermentation is increased to the highest degree; wildest hopes are excited and are supported with animation, put the example of Spain, and if it comes to war, the whole area between the Oder and the Rhine will be the focus of a broad and proactive rebellion. " Napoleon, these tasks are not confused, he continued to prepare for war. In principle he was right — Germany did not for the French, "the second by Spain."

In the middle of 1811 the French government has not considered likely meet a Russian army at the Vistula. Because the main base was on the Oder. To those forces in the event of the coming of the Russian troops had to rely Davoust. And with his flanks were to support the garrison of Danzig and the Saxon Corps. Exclusively at the end of 1811 Davoust was ordered to transfer troops to the Vistula. At this time, the French government directly read Russian Ambassador to France Alexander Borisovich Kurakin that has at its disposal 500 thousand army. In addition, Napoleon Bonaparte was convinced to participate in the war on France's side auxiliary buildings Prussia and Austria.

By February 1812 the "great army" has been generally formed. All cases received their rooms has been set and the total numbering divisions. In the 1st Corps Marshal Louis Davout came 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th Division. In the 2nd housing Uda included 3 infantry divisions — the 6th, 8th and 9th, plus two light cavalry brigade. In the third corps of Ney included three French divisions — 10th, 11th, 12th and 25th Infantry Division of Württemberg. 4th Corps Beauharnais had in the Council composed of 2 French infantry and one Italian infantry divisions — the 13th, 14th, 15th, plus Italian Guards Cavalry Brigade and two lungs. 5th Corps (Polish) Poniatowski — 16 th, 17 th, 18 th Division and the Polish light cavalry. 6th Corps (Bavarian) headed by General Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, he was the 19th and the 20th Bavarian divisions, 2-Light Brigade. 7th Corps (Saxon), under the command of General Jean-Louis Reynier consisted of 21 th and 22 th Saxon divisions, 2-Light Brigade. Saxon Corps was to act on the southern strategic direction, together with the Austrian subsidiary 30 th. Corps, commanded by Karl Schwarzenberg. 8th Corps (Westphalia), under the command of Jerome Bonaparte and his deputy was more experienced in the military, General Joseph Dominique Vandamme. The corpus consisted of the 23rd and 24th Infantry Division, a brigade of light cavalry.

In addition, in the "great army" were: 9th (emergency) body-Marshal Claude Victor Perrin. There were three infantry divisions and light cavalry. The case consisted of the French, the Poles and Germans. 10th Prussian-French 30 th. Corps commanded by Marshal Jacques Etienne Macdonald. The case consisted of two Prussian divisions,
the French division and the light of the Prussian cavalry. MacDonald had a puzzle to cover the left flank of the army stateliness, to act on the north. 11th 60000th body was spare and placed in Prussia (in the garrison). In addition, the body was to provide a rear stateliness of Napoleon's army. Took part in the invasion and the Imperial Guard, and three cavalry corps under the command of Marshal of the kingdom and the king of Naples, Joachim Murat. The structure of each Cavalry Corps consisted of Light Cavalry Division and 1-2 cuirassier division, corps numbered first campaign over 30 thousand riders.

According to General Georges Shambre ("History of the Expedition to Russia" in 2 volumes), on 1 June 1812 as part of the French army was majestically 491 953 people in the infantry, 96,579 cavalry in, in the artillery 21,526 people, 37 non-combatant 100.

Back in 1811 it was assumed that the main basis for the operating band of troops would be a system of fortresses on the Oder River. Because of the town on the Oder, also Danzig and Stettin were provided with large food supplies. When they decided to move the base of the river Vistula, moved here, and reserves the invading army. Large food base laid in Warsaw, Bromberg, Thorn, Modlin, Marienburg, Marienvedere and Elbing. The main grocery store was created in Danzig (Gdansk). Here first in 1812 was concentrated in store food for 50 days to 400 thousand people and fodder for 50 thousand horses. This allowed us to begin the strategic deployment of the army stateliness. Supporting stores launched in Vyshegorod Plock and Vlotslavske. Already at the time of moving troops to the Russian border made additional warehouses in Koenigsberg, Osterode, Gutshtadta, Willenberg, Rostenburge, Soldau, Wayland, Insterburg, Gumbinene, Tilsit and other towns. The obligation to fill these stores has taken the Duchy of Warsaw. Ammunition depots were located at Thorn (4 million rounds), Modlin (1.7 million rounds) Pilau (2 million rounds), in addition to all 25 charges were for an instrument. The main emergency warehouse was located in Magdeburg. Artillery regiments concentrated in Glogau, Danzig, Stettin and Kustrin. It should be noted that all of the operating line has been further strengthened, in case of attack Russian troops. So were given in full readiness Modlin Fortress and Thorn, reinforced bridgeheads in Warsaw and other cities. Great attention is paid to the fortifications of Danzig.

To deliver food to the troops in the army battalions formed 20 denoted 6-latitude composition, they were able to translate the month in store food. 12 battalions had heavy vehicles, a 1.5 tonne any, with the four horses. State divined the existence of such battalions of 771 people, 1,227 horses and 252 wagons. True, at first trek carts had to change ts who have withdrawn from the local population. 4 battalions had a one-horse cart that could carry 600 kg of cargo, from 606 wagons in each piece. 4 battalions were provided with 600 ox cart, any transported to 1 tonne of cargo.

The plans and the deployment of troops

Another first in March 1812 the main forces of the French army stationed on the Elbe. Only the 1st and 7th Corps stationed on the Oder. Prussian troops were concentrated in East Prussia, the Polish near Warsaw. Napoleon some time thinking about the impact on the main north — taking Dinaburga and Riga. And then with a focus on developing them coming. But the plan soon threw back, the situation in the Baltic Sea is not permitted to carry out this intention.

By early April, deployment of troops has been changed. The main forces were pushed to the Oder. In the first echelon of the Vistula placed 1st, 5th Infantry Corps and the 4th Cavalry Corps (eight thousand) under the command of General Marie Victor Latour-Maubourg de Fe. In April, the main forces began advancing toward the Vistula: 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 8th Infantry and the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Corps ran across the Oder and walked through Prussia. 4th Infantry and 3rd Cavalry Corps came from Italy through the Tyrol and Austria. Prussian troops (10th Corps) concentrated in Königsberg. In the rear of the Rhine, collected spare parts 9th and 11th corps.

First, in May 1812 the army Majestic is located on the Vistula River. On the right flank in Lemberg (Lvov) was an Austrian auxiliary corps Schwarzenberg. In Radom 7th Saxon body. 5th and 8th Corps in Warsaw and Modlin, in Plock — 6th Corps, from Kalisz — 4th Corps, from Thorne — 3rd Corps, in Marienvedera — 2nd Corps, in Elbing and Danzig — 1st Corps, in Königsberg — 10th Prussian corps. The Guard has advanced from Berlin to Thorn. So Makar, in May 1812 approximately 640 thousand army invasion was deployed at the front of 500 square meters. km and was ready to attack.

On the Vistula Napoleon's army stood for about 20 days. At this time of Danzig and Elbing was a diversion of food for 11-12 days of the Niemen. The stores were concentrated in Tapia, Vela, and Insterburg Gumbinene. Immediately organized a military road, steps from the through shops and hospitals. Basic Communication: Thorn (Torun) — Berlin — Magdeburg — Mainz. The right flank of Grodno — Lomza — Pultusk — Warsaw — Thorne. Left wing: Kovno — Insterburg — velayat — Osterode — Thorne. To hide the direction of head impact, on the orders of the French governor disbanded various false rumors performed demo movement of troops in the southern direction (typical preparing a blow to Ukraine).

Napoleon planned to capture Moscow. Moscow was an important historical, political and economic center of. It read: "If I take Kiev, I will take Russia's legs, and if I'm having mastered Petersburg, I'll take her by the head, taking Moscow, I will strike her in the heart." Need to see that Ukraine plans to the French ruler occupied a special place. He knew that in the Ukraine has strong positions of the Polish nobility, who wants to be part of the stateliness of Poland. It sends agents to Ukraine with the aim of encouraging people to unrest. Ukraine could become a springboard that will provide majestically army for coming to Central Russia. Right-Bank Ukraine was to enter into the kingdom of Poland, headed by Poniatowski, and the Left Napoleon wished to organize two vassal principality. But to put the brunt of the southern direction with the help of Napoleon was about 100 thousand Turkish army. Bucharest peace treaty 16 (28) May 1812 between the Ottoman and Russian empires graduated from Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812. Napoleon's plans for an alliance with the Porte, and the strong role of the Turkish army in the war with Russia were buried. Southward was ruled out. Napoleon was well researched shopping experience Charles XII of Sweden and was not going to repeat his mistakes.

The North's strategic direction and fell off, although the development and conned. Sweden did not become an ally of France in the war with Russia. In addition, Sweden has taken a cool neutral and could become an ally of Britain and the Russian Federation (as it happened). The domination of the Russian and Swedish fleets in the Baltic Sea is not allowed to stuff Lofty army by sea. This limited the ability to conduct military operations in the north. In the end, you only central — the metropolitan area.

And, initially, Napoleon apparently still hesitating whether to invade deep into Russia. It said the Austrian diplomat Metternich, that the final campaign in Minsk and Smolensk. After the capture of these centers, Napoleon wished to gain a foothold in the city during the winter of 1812-1813 to do the problem of the organization of the "independent" of Lithuania. French Brigadier General Philippe-Paul de Segur, a member of the environment and left a memoir on the history of the Napoleonic Wars, also reports that Napoleon wished the brakes at the turn of the Dvina. He wanted to break the Russian army in the border skirmishes general, forcing the Alexander I ac
cept it. There was hope and Russian nobility, Armand de Caulaincourt in the memories recalled the words of the ruler: "He spoke of the Russian nobleman who in the event of war would have feared for their palaces and after much struggle would force the governor to sign the peace of Alexander." Traffic on Moscow became inevitable after the Russian army was unable to break in border skirmishes. The very logic of Napoleon's invasion pushed to move deeper into Russia.

In addition, Napoleon knew enough condition and the deployment of Russian troops. In fact, until the beginning of the war, he maintained the view that there is a big possibility of the Russian coming. Russian troops were well prepared, had the highest morale (both commanders and fighters) because the full transfer combat actions on the terrain of the enemy. On this assumption, and based deployments. Russian coming to Warsaw met barrier, and Napoleon with the main body was ready to hit to the right, covering the Russian troops. To solve the puzzles troops were divided into three groups. On the right side stood a group of Jerome — the 5th, 7th, 8th Infantry, 4th Cavalry Corps (about 80 thousand fighter). These forces were to defend the main base and hamper enemy forces. The central group was the 4th, 6th Infantry, 3rd Cavalry Corps under the common control of Prince Eugene de Beauharnais (about 80 thousand). Group Beauharnais was the main force should support and assist as needed troops to the right. The left flank were the best forces of the army — the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Infantry and 1st, 2nd Cavalry Corps (up to 220 thousand people). This group ran the ruler himself, she had to make the coverage and kill the Russian forces. The wings were covered Prussian and Austrian armies. As a result, Napoleon gathered on the left and selected major powers, hoping to repeat Ulm, where in October 1805 was surrounded and defeated the Austrian army of General Mack.

In accordance with this plan in June French first army was nominated to a new level. Infantry units left flank reached the line Insterburg — Calvary; force center — near Rostenburga, right wing — Ostroleka — Warsaw. Located in front of the cavalry. Left group to 10 (22) June came the Niemen, and was ready to cross, but the delay troop center and right groups, forced to postpone the start of the invasion, 12 (24) June 1812.

In general, the plan was not bad: the troops were ready to strike, the means prepared, majestic army was superior to the Russian army, both individually and connected. At the head of the army was the stateliness of the military genius of art and brilliant group of French marshals and generals. The French army had a halo of invincibility, having won a number of victories over the sparkling Italian, Austrian, Prussian and Russian troops.

The question was how to behave Russian troops — will move in and apprehend the coming general scramble, or will depart? Napoleon was afraid most of the second option — escalation of the war in a protracted conflict. In the rear was hectic, and to keep Europe under control can be extremely frisky in the case of success. Austria and Prussia exposed auxiliary corps, but did not declare war on the Russian Federation. Napoleon had to keep significant forces in all the great castles of Germany. Many Germans were irritated by the French dictate. It is trust could only be French and Polish troops (nearly two-thirds of all the stateliness Army). The Germans were mentally unstable, and if signs of trouble could falter. Large forces are mired in a protracted war in the Iberian Peninsula. In France, sang komplot headed by Talleyrand, Napoleon suspected him of having links with Britain. Could uprising supporters of the Bourbons, using the discontent of the population — the constant war, sets a fighter, a currency crisis, a strong crop failure in France, did not a good atmosphere in the country.

Almost Napoleon wanted to hold a "lightning war", defeating the Russian army in several big fights and then dictate the terms of peace Petersburg. It was his fatal mistake …

Deploy an army of invasion of France and a strategic plan before the start of hostilities
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