Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

Part I here

Part II

The archives preserved many documents showing the extent of the personnel "clean up" in the industry. Here's an excerpt from the 1st of the document itself:

Report of the Metropolitan Regional Department of the NKVD on the situation in the aviation factory-24 (there made massive engines designed by AA Mikulin) in 1937:
"… opened and liquidated 5 espionage, sabotage and terrorist sabotage groups, with the full number of 50 persons, of them:
1. Anti-Soviet Trotskyite-right group of former plant manager and technical director Maryamov Kolosov.
2. Espionage and sabotage group of Japanese intelligence of 9 people.
3. Espionage and sabotage group of German intelligence of 13 people.
4. Espionage and sabotage group of French intelligence as part of 4 people.
5. Terrorist and espionage and sabotage group of the Latvian intelligence, consisting of 15 people, headed by party and made the Latvian fascist organization, being. Deputy. 24 Gelman, director of the plant.
Also arrested head of the technical sector OTC plant Trotskyist Tarahtunov, in the case under investigation with the expectation of opening Trotskyists organized at the plant. Plant before that day or clogged anti-Soviet social and strange and suspicious of espionage and subversive elements. Existing account of these parts by only one official data achieves 1,000 people. "

(Russian Municipal Archives of the economy — RGAE. F.7515. Op. 1. D. 153.)

Ivan Platonovich Grave — the founder of the Russian school of ballistics.

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

Specifically Grave assured Tukhachevskogo in fact the creation of combat aircraft guns, and Deputy Commissar in 1933. ordered the development of Jet Research Institute (RNII), which was being developed jet engines and missiles. Ivan Rakhmanov "spent" three times: in 1919., In 1937-38g. — On "komplotu" Tukhachevsky and 1952. — In connection with another "komplotom" substantially artillery control. He was released only after the death of Stalin.

Work in the Institute of Jet in the 30-ies were carried out on two fronts: the missiles developed by the department, which was run by Jora Langemak (a part of this department, and entered himself I.P.Grave), another department RNII developed missiles in a watery fuel, it leading spices were Sergei Queens and Valentin Glushko. RNII was appointed director of the Ivan Kleimenov. The works were carried out in the departments of success, but more advanced developing excellent rockets. In 1937, it completed the creation of the first combat RS-82 and RS-132, as launchers for them. In the presence of Russian Union of Marshal Tukhachevsky were conducted firing the PC to the machine ground and from aircraft. Shooting were successful, and in 1938. First Russian combat jet system would be taken on board. But after his arrest Tukhachevskogo virtually all the management institutes and eminent spices were arrested. At least some vague time as the foam makes up petty little people that selfish pursuit of their career interests, go up over the heads of their own comrades. The reason for the arrest was the series of denunciations of the Institute A.Kostikova in different instances of 'subversive activities' in RNII.
As a result, virtually all control RNII and prominent designers have been arrested. Branding Langemak and three others were shot. Queens was the Kolyma; Glushko, Grave and certain other employees immediately sent to "sharashka." Without any trace of vanished into the depths of the repressive system created by high-explosive version of the missile Vasily N. Luzhin, sentenced in 1940 to eight years. A watchful companion Kostikov in 1938. became manager of the reincarnated in SRI-3 Institute, received the Hero of Socialist Labor, and for a long time he was considered the sole creator of 'Katyusha'. After coming to the management of the institute KOSTIKOVA work started: Rich came to identify "enemies of the people '. Exclusively at the end of 1939 came the directive of the General Staff of the Red Army, which required speed up work on the creation of rockets. NII-3 subordinated Commissar weapons Boris Vannikov, which change of directors, headed for release I.P.Grave, S.P.Tsaritsa and other officials, has also attracted a pre-production three companies own commissariat. In the short term was organized by the completion of rockets, which have received the name of the M-82 and M-132. Have also been designed for use launchers of missiles on the aircraft and on car chassis — BM-13 (which became known 'Katyusha'). But, although the BM-13 missiles and to them were one hundred percent worked out and successfully passed the tests, the first production aircraft were collected much later. The premise was another case of 'sabotage' in the People's Commissariat of arms, as a result of which all the management Commissariat himself Commissar Boris Vannikov hit the Lubyanka cellars. The work of the Institute was once again frozen, and the beginning of the war were able to issue only one battery 'Katyusha', which for the first time applied the summer of 1941. near Orsha.

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)
Langemak Erihovich Jora (1898-1938), file photo NKVD.

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

Father — Teuton, mother — Swiss. Elizavetgradskuyu finished high school and in 1916 entered the Petrograd Institute. In October 1916 he was drafted into the army in 1917 graduated from high school Ensign on the first level, he served in Russian and then in the Red Army. In 1928, Jora Langemak finished the Military Technical Academy and was oriented in the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, where he developed missiles RS-82 and RS-mm 132 mm. In January 1934, GE Langemak appointed to the position of Deputy Director for Research of the (head engineer) Jet NKTP Research Institute (SRI since 1937 Room 3 ICPC). During his time at the institute Jora Langemak actually graduated from the fine-tuning of missiles RS-82 and RS-132, then became the basis of rocket mortar 'Katyusha'. During this period, GE Langemak corresponded with KE Tsiolkovsky, thinking about the non-military use of missiles, the ability to use them in astronautics. The term 'astronautics' introduced specifically GE Langemak. In 1937, as the 'brainchild' Tukhachevskogo Jet Research Institute has undergone 'treatment'. Management of the Institute have been arrested. November 2, 1937 GE Langemak was arrested (order number 810 A) by the NKVD in Moscow. The indictment, dated December 31, 1937, based on a single record of the interview. For 'wre
cking in preventing new models for service' and the role of 'anti-Soviet terrorist organization' sins under Art. Art. 58-7, 58-8 and 58-11 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR Jora Erihovich Langemak was sentenced to capital punishment — death and confiscation of all personal property belonging to him. In the day the court sentence was executed. Rehabilitated in 1955. Decree of the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev on June 21, 1991, GE Langemak was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

Boris V. Rauschenbach — Russian physicist, engineer, scientist naikrupneyshy of reactive systems, one of the founders of the Russian astronautics. In March 1942, he was arrested on the orders of the NKVD of the deportation of German nationality, and sent to a labor camp in Nizhny Tagil swing a pickaxe. Fortunately, he sent a note recognizable aircraft VF Bolkhovitinov, and arranged with the NKVD on the use of prisoners as a "settlement of labor." Then the new manager RNII MVKeldysh headed for the return Raushenbaha to college. Formally link Raushenbaha ended only in 1948.

In those same years, were planted in the bullpen M.A.Ruditsky marine engineers who created then the first Soviet submarine cruising type "K"; K.V.Starchik, who developed the first project of a small radio-controlled submarine, the designer and builder of submarines gm . cowards; designer miniature submarine V.L.Bzhezinsky.
K.V.Starchik manage the development of the project without the midget submarine crew "APSS". Ruled from the plane. Were built seasoned standards, tested in 1935-1936,. In 1938 Starchikov shot as "enemies of the people and a pest."
Naval engineer in 1935-1936, F.V.Schukin. has developed an ultra small Submarine "APL", and then — a better submarine "pygmy". Four boats were built, but they were not finished, because recognized as "wrecking". Released earlier from the bullpen and re-arrested in 1937, Shchukin was shot in the coming year "for subversive activities."

In 1933, a group of design engineers and submariners, which included S.G.Turkova, V.N.Peregudova, V.F.Kritskogo, V.V.Perlovskogo, Z.A.Deribina and A.G.Sokolova, was sent to Germany to test the drawing medium submarine developed by a secret contract with the company "Deschimag." In addition to Germany, the Russian experts at also visited Spain, where he has built a similar boat, and Italy. After the return of the group, based on the drawings of the German company, has developed a similar project as the average submarine type "C" (IX series).
S.G.Turkov managed the project, the development was completed in 1934 when these submarines were built, and has successfully operated in 1937, the NKVD did Turkova denunciation of his "connections with zabugornom intelligence." In the future, the Turks had been shot. Together with Turkova was arrested and his friend V.N.Peregudov on similar charges. Some time Peregoudov was sitting in the same cell with the future Marshal Rokossovsky. Fortunately, a year after his arrest Peregudova released. He was appointed principal designer of the submarine type "C", designed by his friend Turkova.

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

By the way, particularly in the "C" was walking on combat missions the most famous Russian submarine Marinesko. V.N.Peregudov then became the founder of the first Russian nuclear submarine.

Vladimir Peregoudov:

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

Naval engineer Sergei K. Bondarevskiy was arrested in 1937. as head of the production department shipyard 'Dalzavod' (Vladivostok). A search of the desk drawer he found a pistol clip of ammunition, which he never was. NKVD officers immediately took all the more valuable things out of the apartment without any inventory and act. During interrogations by Bondarevsky sought to give incriminating testimony at his colleagues, and to confess to a standard set of charges of 'pravotrotskistskogo, sabotage and subversive activities. " For the year interrogations 'pipeline' he cooperate with the investigation and did not, refused to sign the indictment. He was convicted in absentia of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Soviet to 10 years in prison and five years' disqualification. From Vladivostok bullpen was exiled in Bolshevo, which contained a huge amount of technical professionals who have worked on different assignments defense character. Bondarevsky and then transferred to a group of professionals g.Molotovsk Arkhangelsk region (the future Severodvinsk), where they worked as prisoners at the shipyard. Sergei K. served as head of the department in which the ships were built a series of 'Great Hunter'. Released him in 1947. During his "his release" daughter died, and the wife became an invalid. In 1949 Bondarevsky was arrested again and sent into exile in Igarka (Krasnoyarsk Territory), where he worked for temporary work on the farm. He was released only in 1954., And in 1957 received a certificate of full rehabilitation. In the upcoming worked in the profession in Nikolaev, participated in the construction of many ships, including the position of head technologist in the construction of anti-submarine cruiser 'Moskva' and 'Leningrad'. When getting help with the KGB gave him acquainted with his 'business' of materials which Bondarevskiy learned that in the database the charges against him were lying false readings, his colleague Egorova EP This subject has not been convicted, and later became a director of a large factory, and even received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. Another colleague and friend Bondarevsky — Klopotov BE — Recently arrested belonged to his house, and no one, except him, could not shove the table clip of ammunition. Klopotov also made a good career. S.K.Bondarevsky nainteresneyshie wrote a memoir entitled 'It was', which is on the Web.
Here's one of the episodes of memoirs Bondarevsky:

'In the chamber there was a military pilot Illes — Latvian. Not so long ago, who was arrested, he was summoned for questioning once. This is what he said:
'I did not realize — or investigator kidding me, or it was a rare fool, does not understand anything. After telling me that they received information that I, Illes, wanted his own plane to China to smuggle Marshal Blucher, he asked, 'Is it true?' I replied with a laugh: "Of course it's true! I'm a military pilot, flying the 1-seat fighter, wanted to bring a wave Blucher and abroad with him. ' And he did not seem aware of humor and kept asking, like I did. I said, 'Yes, very simply: be tied up his hands and feet under the fuselage, and even hung an hour or two until we could reach. " And he, the eccentric investigator, all recorded in the minutes and me, asking me — I'm not lying? — He gave me a sign. '
We believed that he knowingly signed, but Illes laughed lightly, saying, who would believe them signed heresy? '

Methodically destroyed naikrupneyshie spices in the field of communication organizati
on in the country and the army:
Large organizer of the communication system in the Soviet Union, who held senior positions in the People's Commissariat of communications from 1919 to 1934gg., Lyubovich Artemy Moiseich shot 06/28/1938
Large organizer of the communication system in the Soviet Union, who held senior positions in the People's Commissariat of Communications and the Office of Communication of the Red Army from 1919 to 1937gg. Corps Commander Khalepsky Innocent A., shot 29.07.1938g.
Head of the Liaison Office of the Red Army (1924-1935) Commander Sinyavskii Nikolai Mikhailovich, shot 29.07.1938g.
Head of the Liaison Office of the Red Army (1935-1937) Corps Commander Longva Roman Voitsekhovitch, shot 8.02.1938g.
Head of the Liaison Office of the Red Army (1937-1938) Corps Commander Aksenov Alexis, shot 22.08.1938g.
In 1939. Chief of the Office of Communication of the Red Army was appointed I.T.Peresypkin, which in 1932. commanded a squadron, and in 1937. graduated from the Academy of Electrotechnical and was promoted to captain.

Paul Kondratievich Oshchepkov — an outstanding Russian scientist, the founder of Russian and world radar and imaging, "father" of the first Russian radar.

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

At the initiative of M.I.Tuhachevskogo 16 January 1934. Oshchepkov presented his scheme for the detection of different objects on the significant distance using an electric beam at a meeting of the Academy. At the personal request Tukhachevskogo Sergei Kirov, which Tukhachevsky was on friendly terms, Oschepkov provided the right conditions for R & D in Leningrad, which resulted in the creation in the same 1934. first Russian radar 'Vega' and 'cone'. Zabugornyh according to many scientists, including the U.S., the value in the development of the first active radar belongs specifically the USSR. But in 1937. Oshchepkov was arrested on Tukhachevsky and served exactly 10 years. Stately country met the Russian war, with the number of errant radar. Severe attention was paid to this area only in the second half of the war, when the July 4th 1943. was formed by the working body dilemmas radar — radar Council for ICT. In the meantime, British scientists have made significant progress in this direction and have adopted a working radar with the best features in the world that lend-lease supplied to arm the Soviet Union during the war.

Designer Taubin Yakov

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

invented an automatic mounted grenade launchers to fire support to infantry units. Apart from this, the OKB-16, he and his co-author M.N.Baburin developed 23-mm aircraft gun MP-6 (BT-23) and 12.7 mm aircraft machine gun AN-12, 7. May 16, 1941. Taubin and several employees were arrested on EDO common charges (anti-Soviet activities, sabotage). October 28, 1941. Jacob Taubin was shot in the village of Barbysh along with a large group of prominent military on the orders of Beria.

Automatic grenade launcher AG-2 designs Taubina:

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

In 1931. Spetsmashtrest received terms of reference GAC on development of a range of self-propelled guns. As the main fire offered: 107, 152, 203 and 305mm. By 1934. a seasoned model SAU under the code name SU-14 with 203mm gun, developed by designer Syachintovym. During the 3 following years has been working on the elimination of numerous tehproblem was replaced engine, and instead of the 203mm guns put more successful 152mm with a unique range: 27km. In February 1937. 2 experienced the standard SU-14 and SU-14-1 successfully completed the full cycle of state tests, and they could begin serial production. But December 31, 1936 was arrested P.Syachintov, who was convicted under Article 58 claims 6, 7, 8 and 11. The head designer Russian ACS accused of "spying, sabotage, acts of terrorism, sabotage and subversive work in a team." The Tribunal held Syachintovym on May 5, 1937, and the subsequent day he was shot. The same fate has understood and creator of the howitzer B-4 director of the plant "Bolshevik" Magdisieva — a charge of sabotage, and shooting. In Lofty Reddish Russian army entered the war without "harmful" ACS, whose production has been launched only in 1942., In other words, for 5 years later than it could have been the usual approach to business.

First Russian ACS "SU-14" design Syachintova:

Repression of the defense industry of the USSR (Part II)

Narrowly escaped the fate of many prominent members of the NKVD murdered the defense industry chief designer T-34 M.I.Koshkin. NKVD arrested colleagues Koshkin: A.O.Firsova designers, NF Tsiganova, AJ Dick. The position of head designer was fatally unsafe — for any error and misfortune, he was threatened bullpen, and shooting.

Document of the NKVD:
memorandum "On the design shortcomings and delays the creation of the issue of new A-34 tanks in the factory number 183 in the city of Kharkiv."

"The design of the tank A-34, under the control of head designer of the plant number 183 Eng. Koshkina has revealed a number of flaws that affect the properties of the fighting machine …
Koshkin and his deputy Morozov replaced in order to work towards the creation of designs with hatches and side visibility, raised the question: either the hatches without a review, or a side view, but without sliding …
CAT'S replaced in order to take into account the comments and instruct experienced designer-korpusniku make the project without flaws identified, ordered to urgently Detailer booth driver by architect Baron. Pointing to shortcomings booth design, engineer Tarxien he proposed the creation of a draft final, but was sent off in the Cat's trip to the mountains. Mariupol, although the need to go specifically to him, there was no …
To cover up the squandering of funds KOSHKIN preparing to launch a series of booth driver by architect Baron, a project engineer for some reason the ready Tarshinova will run as a prototype …
Koshkin said that in the final machine will show up where Tipo can arrange additional machine-gun drive, but in the configuration of space in the car is not …
Essentially made aware of the NKVD to take corresponding measures through Narkomsredmash ABTU and the Red Army. "

Deputy. People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR Gorlinsky "7" in February 1940 551/sn number of GDSs SBU. Ty
pewriting, F. 16. — Op. 33 (1951 p.). — Ref. 90. — Ark. 213-217. A copy of the.

Alexander was arrested twice Porokhovshchikov, the "father" of the first in the history of the Russian Federation tracked armored vehicle (1914g.) and own grandfather is popular actor Alexander Shalvovich Porohovschikova. A.A.Porohovschikov became an aircraft, as a prisoner worked on the White Sea-Baltic Canal, was engaged in the construction of gateways. After a couple of years in the camps, he was released, but in 1940. again arrested and shot.

In November 1936 he was arrested head of the department of tanks and tractors of the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army nonpartisan Dr. V. Zaslavsky, author of the first book about the Russian tanks. According to the known spices in the South American tank development Dr. MK Christie, Zaslavsky was a great Russian scientist in the field of tank development, pioneered the science of tanks and tank manufacturing. A number of other recognized professionals were characterized him as a great Russian scholar and theorist, who started the business in the development of armored Russian Union. He was arrested Nov. 19, 1936. Signed in repression by the first category (shot) in the list of the "Moscow Center" on June 14, 1937 for 56 people. to report early. 4th division of the NKVD GUGB M.I.Litvina. Signatures: "For" — Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov. ECCU sentenced June 20, 1937 on charges of involvement in subversive anti-Soviet organization. Shot on June 21, 1937. The remains buried in the terrain of the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow. Rehabilitated November 5, 1955.

In August of 1937. Arrests at the largest Russian GAZ car factory. Initially arrested professionals and heads of departments, by April 1938. made it to the Director S.S.Dyakonova. According to the director of the NKVD was existent Satan: he worked on the intelligence of the country of the rising sun, Germany and several other countries 'ripping operation of the plant', 'specially appointed' to positions of anti-Soviet elements, etc., etc. After 5 months of investigation the director shot. At the same time it became clear that the 'enemies of the people "were the chief accountant Chujko, 19 senior accountants, nearly all engineers, designers, technologists, managers and kindergarten kinofotobazoy, head physician of the district. Were exterminated spices, trained in the United States and South American spices, helped build the plant: I.Tuchelsky, D.Sigler, M.Kadaryan and others. According to the NKVD, only the first half of 1938. at GAZ were 'unmasked' 407 'spies of foreign intelligence services' from countries such as Germany, Japan, USA, Italy, Latvia, France, Romania, Bulgaria. Many of them worked for the intelligence of several countries at once. Curiously, specifically spice GAZ State NKVD commissioned to create and release a batch of special vehicles for the transport of prisoners, which is then popularly dubbed the 'black crows'. In these 'craters' of professionals and later transported. A similar situation was at another auto giant — the factory "VMS" in Moscow. The chief designer of the plant VMS Vazhinsky EI under management were made by such famous models as the ZIS-5 and ZIS-6, in 1938, he was arrested and then shot as a manager and project office VMS Bondarev DD ; the same fate as the director realized the Yaroslavl Automobile Elenin VA and many other prominent members of the industry.

In 1940 began execution in the Commissariat of ammunition, were arrested in the autumn: the chief of the 2nd Head Control Boris Efremov, Deputy People's Commissar Nikolai Khrenkov, Basil Shibanov and Misha Inyashkin in May 1941 came the turn of the People's Commissar Ivan Sergeyev and a member of the Defense Industry in SNK Alexander Khodyakova. In the summer of 1941. took another 3-ranking officers of Weapons: Sergey Gorin, Daniel Irlina and ZHoru Tolstova. In his own testimony they are a carbon copy accused each other of sabotage and other standard for long sins. To save time, investigators organized cross-accusation exposes Inyashkin Sergeeva, Sergeev exposes Inyashkina. This method was used extensively and was considered a sufficient basis for making death sentences.

Conclusion

Short repression results in the defense industry: at the end of 1939. on average, only 35-40% of the plant managers had higher education, about half of the directors had experience of management experience at least 1 year. It is logical that when a technological backwardness industry added uninformed management, high quality products has been a huge issue. Fell and the number of features: for example, in Gaza in 1938. were produced 139 thousand cars in 1939. — 110 thousand, and in 1940. — Only 65 thousand. In total auto industry, 1937 was produced 200 thousand vehicles, and for 1940 — 145 thousand. In general, it is impossible to deny that the development of Russian defense industry was made very many and the USSR entered into a sublime Russian war not with the worst standards of weapons and military equipment. But it is quite clear that many had been destroyed badly needed professionals in the industry, and repression could not say a bad temper on the work of the defense.

Sources:
Marshmallows MV, Degtev DM, 'All for the front', ACT-Moscow, 2009.
Mozohin O., 'Cheka — OGPU. On the protection of economic security and the fight against terrorism ', Moscow, 2004.
LL Kerber 'Tupolev sharaga'
http://www.urantia-s.com/library/kerber-tupolevskaya_sharaga
"RUSSIA, Twentieth Century. DOCUMENTS. Lubyanka. STALIN AND HEAD OFFICE STATE SECURITY NKVD in 1937-1938. "Compiled by VN Khaustov VP Naumov, NS Plotnikov. MOSCOW, 2004.
Bondarevskiy S., "So it was"
http://www.memorial.krsk.ru/memuar/Bondarevsky/0.htm
DA Sobolev 'Repression of Russian aircraft industry'
http://www.ihst.ru/projects/sohist/papers/sob00v.htm # doc2

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