Submarine K-162 Project 661 "Upas Tree" holds the record for underwater speed — 44.7 knots (80.4 kilometers per hour). Its appearance in the middle of the 70-ies of XX century marked a new step in the construction of Russian submarines — the birth of maritime industry titanium alloys. In memory of the selfless people who built the nuclear-powered ship, and as an example of the unique achievements of Russian science and technology weekly "MIC" published memoir participant in the events.
First in the world of titanium submarine — the famous "Alpha" in March 1989 is excluded from the Navy, and in 2010 scrapped. It was decided a lot of technical, engineering, scientific and theoretical problems, almost all made it through the titanium industry, science, strength and design, science, technology, and materials science. It provided a great contribution to the general culture of the world's population since its creation for the sake of the people worked in Moscow and Sverdlovsk, Leningrad and Kiev, Novokuznetsk and Leninabad, Chita and Khabarovsk — a huge number of the inhabitants of our multinational Soviet Union countries that have invested in her mind and cognition. Made after the K-162 — Project 705 submarines, 945, power plants and many other systems, which absorbed generation "Upas Tree" — lives and benefit the people.
The absolute record
January 1970. In Severodvinsk frost 22-26 degrees. Our group — members of the State Commission for acceptance of the submarine of project 661 (factory code — ordering 501) — waiting for access to the sea. It includes employees of CDB "Wave" (CDB-16), Research Institute named after Academician AN Krylov Central Scientific Research Institute "Prometheus", heads a group of Nikolai Antonov — chief designer of the ship's hull.
The main part of the state commission has long been working in the sea, locked different acts or, as they are called, identity, and we wait. Our task — role in the work to end with a step test: plunging to the depth limit, and so referred to as the measured mile, in other words, fixing speed with acceleration by a length equal to one nautical mile. The tests must be conducted in Kandalaksha Bay, the depth of which in some places is seeking 500 meters. We need 400.
The icebreaker, bypassing the Solovetsky Archipelago, went to the north. Here we met with our boat, who walks from December. Submarine braked, the icebreaker moored, and the whole committee ran across it. The setting was, to put it mildly, intense. Staff team of the ship — 60-67 people, and on board were over 120 lessors in various systems and equipment. When tumbled besides our team, the main deliverer of SMP M. Kuzma Palkin grabbed his head, but Antonov ordered simply: "Everybody down, decompress instrumentation, sensors glue." With this work coped quite rapidly. Has been prepared in advance the layout of sensors on a tight places. Housing the ship was very difficult — a flat nose bulkhead with torpedo tubes, the transition from the cylindrical portion to vosmerochnoy, and then tapered to feed a lot of brackets shall, reinforcements, each of which is a stress concentrator. A significant number of these places we pasted sensors and were convinced of the reliability of determining the stress state of the body in the deep trials.
In the end, the team arrived to begin deep-water tests. We are ready to record the sensor readings. The setting solemnly tense. Nikolai was excited and every 10-15 meters immersion reported to the central office of the largest measured voltages. To everyone's surprise, the tension grew very slowly. We were all members of the most experienced industrial testing and in-house designs when loading is performed internal hydraulic pressure. In these tests a fixed voltage above not only the yield strength, and tensile strength. Specialists estimated the strength claimed that hydraulic tests of cylindrical shells internal and external pressure is exactly the same in the "mirror image". But in the actual design in the same "dangerous" points we are consolidating, or how much saturated stress increase. I was on one post, along with Vladimir Wulf-Girshovich Zach responsible for the strength calculations of a submarine. And the two of them with Antonov reported to the central office, "All right, stress is normal." At the working depth of the voltage do not exceed the marginal rate were either little more, and the boat went up.
Huge event after deep test was so called measured mile. High speed test showed that titanium-boat reached the highest speed properties (over the highest than in the iron boats). And when in the deep trials of the submarine was to obtain a record submerged speed (43 knots), all made sure that the Soviet Union has once again proved the world their technical advantages: all the deeper and faster all. About the submarine "Alpha" vyznat the whole world, and the U.S. Senate began seriously to open a discussion the problem of submarine warfare of.
Brand new industry
First 50 years of XX century political-military doctrine superpowers proven construction 2-major systems: aerospace to gain advantages in the air and in space, as seawater, providing missile shield. A necessary condition for solving the first tasks was a breakthrough in the creation of materials with high specific strength for all types of aircraft. The main thrust in this area was the development of production of products made of titanium alloys. It is clear that the South American engineer Krol patented process for the production of small-sized titanium in 1940.
After a couple of years of the creation of titanium was utilized in the Soviet Union, with more on the highest level. In Ukraine, the Urals, Kazakhstan has made the production of titanium concentrates on the production of titanium sponge and brands TG-1, TG-2. With all of this Russian spices, usually walked unusual method. In Giredmet (now of "Giredmet" SSC RF, leading R & D and engineering company materials science) and Podolsk Chemical-Metallurgical Plant involving scientists CRISM "Prometheus" have been developed different technologies of production of ingots. By mid-1955, the experts at come to a final conclusion to melt titanium in arc furnaces, the proposed "Prometheus." Then the technology was transferred to the Upper Salda metalworking plant (VSMOZ) in the town of Upper Salda in the Urals.
For the construction of the submarine length of about 120 meters was necessary structural rearrangement titanium industry. The pioneer in this field by the Office Central Research Institute "Prometheus" — Director Jora Ilyich Capyrin and chief engineer Igor V. Gorynin, their strong support for the shipbuilding industry minister Boris Evstafievich Butoma. These people have shown tremendous foresight and courage civilian clothes, taking a landmark decision. The object chosen for the introduction of titanium project development SPMBM 661 "Malachite" (in those days CDB-16). One of the objectives was to develop the implementation of RCC M-70 "Amethyst" — the world's first anti-ship cruise missiles with a "wet" start. Cre
ators Project submarine — NN Isanin, NF Shulzhenko VG Tikhomirov met proposal for processing into titanium performance without interest. Titan for them was a complete unknown: the smallest than steel, elastic modulus, "cold" creep, other welding methods, the complete lack of experience in the implementation of marine criteria. In the same situation are experts at Central Research Institute named after Academician AN Krylov Central Research Institute of Shipbuilding Technology, workers shipyards.
Yet, in 1958, began radical restructuring of the titanium industry in the country. In the Central Research Institute "Prometheus" appeared respective division — first division number 8, and then the department number 18, number 19. The team of eminent scientists did research area — sea titanium alloys. Collectives Zaporizhia Titanium and Magnesium Works (ZTMK) and Bereznikovsky (BTMK), together with the Special Union Aluminium and Magnesium Institute (YOU) Giredmet and with the active participation of scientists of Central Research Institute "Prometheus" did a great job to improve the technology of titanium lip. Russian industry was able to produce large ingots four — 6 tons for submarines. It was a big win. Subsequent solved the problem of getting the highest properties of defect-free bars.
Imports, but with the mind
Sources many flaws — Wrong mode melting carbide inclusions (tungsten carbides, oxidized sponge, high content of waste in the electrodes, etc.), friability and shrink the appearance of shells. All these difficulties are enormous masses fled to metallurgists from the "pilots". After the reorganization of the industry increased production volumes, the size and spread out the bars. Their mass is reached 4 tons or more.
The fight for an increase in the properties of titanium sponge and ingot turned to us by the other party. Lowering the content of impurities and inclusions led to an increase in ductility, toughness, reduce cracks in welded joints — it was a great success. But immediately decreased strength of the alloy. During the construction of the submarine of project 661 yield strength alloy grade 48 HTA after the "cleaning" of contaminants decreased by 10 percent. In one of the parties sheets were missed surface imperfections ("birds") found spices Sevmash (SMP), which was built boat. Later, head of the Technical Department of the Head of the State Committee on Shipbuilding A. Vladimirov quickly agreed on all issues on free and fixed-term replenishment of the rejected party with the Ministry of the aviation industry, which has been run by VSMOZ.
We had to decide how to bring the yield strength without losing all this achieved ductility, toughness and weldability. At no time have studied the impact of different parts of alloying on the mechanical properties of alloys of the Ti-Al (and was elected vanadium), designed to develop the production of aluminum-vanadium master alloys and inserting it into an ingot, the development of forging ingot and rolling sheets of heat treatment. The alloy was named 48-OTZV (vanadium).
For this alloy have been guaranteed the right yield stress enough the highest ductility, toughness, not a bad technological plasticity, weldability. But at the very beginning it was found out that in our country there is no vanadium in the quantities needed for mass production of the alloy. Vanadium pentoxide recognized analytical grade (unstained for analysis) were imported from Finland, and we had a decision on the purchase of Gosplan it in large quantities. Suggested another solution: more effective and cheaper (no imports) to enter into the alloy elements that were considered harmful oxygen, iron, silicon, but do so strictly regulated ways.
Once again the invaluable assistance rendered Vladimirov. At the meeting of the State Planning Commission, he lucidly explained to that the Central Research Institute "Prometheus" is not only solves the puzzle increase the strength of the alloy, but takes into account the weldability, manufacturability, anger protection and many other reasons. Because of his decision on doping vanadium correct. Then the idea of the creation of the alloy Ti-Al-V is constantly maintained by scientists aviation industry. In the end, alloy grade 48 OTZV acquired rights of citizenship. From now on, the problem has become a major vanadium alloys for our metallurgists. It took a little time, and they had cooperated in the creation of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (Leninabad, Chorukh-Dayron). So Makarov, our country has come to depend on supplies from abroad.
Sheets, sensible things
Getting ingot, chemical composition, impurities, and alloys — these prepyadstviya interminable, but the submarine, as well as at least some large engineering construction is not built from ingots, and of the sheets, forgings, extrusions, tubes, castings. The ability of the Upper Salda enterprise sheets depleted very quickly, and it was necessary to organize new production. Leningrad Economic Council in 1959, takes the decision on the development of a production base for titanium on Izhorskij and the plant "Bolshevik."
What was the difficulty? In the Leningrad Economic Council was one big rolling mill "4000 Duo" with 2 rolls four meters in length. Was powered by a steam engine, which was started in 1903. It rolled sheets for the construction of the famous "Aurora" and other cruisers in the series. This mill was equipped with a tremendous fuel oil furnaces, low-speed roller conveyors and cranes. While zabugornye scholars wrote (and we have taught them) that titanium is necessary to create a "white gloves", is heated in a vacuum furnace or furnaces with controlled atmosphere (argon), we ventured into the business of production of titanium in the "steel" criteria. It is possible to organize the creation of large-scale sheets of up to 4 and forgings weighing up to 6 tons, one hundred percent meet the needs of the metal for the construction of the submarine.
Another task was to organize the production of thin sheets. In aviation, sheet width of five to six mm — is thicker, 20 — already stove. In shipbuilding thickness 5 — 10 mm — narrow leaf, 40-100 — the usual. So, it was necessary to organize the creation of thin sheets of a width of 1500-1700 mm and a length of five to six meters. Together with the employees of our branch in Zhdanov (Mariupol now) Spices Research Institute "Prometheus" structurally changed the technology of production of sheets and one hundred percent cleaned the phenomenon of hydrogen cracking. Complex "antihydrogen" activities have been implemented in all the factories that manufacture or processing titanium. As a result of dedicated work has reached a reliable guarantee of the absence of cracks in welded joints.
In a submarine, as on any ship, there is a large number of tubes. This drainage system hydraulics, fire, seawater and fresh water. Typically, such systems were made of copper, copper-nickel alloy, carbon or stainless steel. In the titanium body is impractical to use such materials, because contact with titanium in the presence of seawater, these metals are enhanced galvanic corrosion.
First, an attempt was made to create a pipe in the Upper Salda way of pressing. But upressovannyh titanium tubes due to low anti-friction parameters appear a lot of flaws. Because in the upcoming fled on rolling techniques, and in the Upper Salda made of turned steel billets. At the Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (CTRP) had cooperated creation of hot-rolled pipes with a diameter up to 470 mm, which are used in pipe systems operating at full outboard pressure and air systems in low, medium and high pressure (up to 400 atmospheres). Of these pipes at the Volgograd plant "Barricades" manufactured cylinders GED (high air pressure). Occurred poluanekdotichesky case.
Usually, rolling pipe billet is taken, it is the axi
al cavity of a piercer and then goes for a drive pipe. SM Shul'kin suggested a different technology: VSMOZ to drill in the ingot axial cavity, return the chips to melt, and the bar with a cavity, bypassing the piercing mill, immediately run into rolling tubes. Come out significant cost and time savings.
This proposal has been tested, installed its effectiveness, and all together made the decision to lower the price of titanium cylinders (of course, based on good premium). Question everything seemed so natural that I was then still very young and inexperienced, supplied all the materials and sent to the State Planning Office prices get information about lowering the price of cylinders. I went and reported the matter to some boss and got the answer, I was stunned, "barricade" for the remaining two years of five-year planned 438 cylinders and cylinders if the cost reduced by 20-25 percent, the plant that position does not fulfill the plan "on shaft "on these same percentages. Because prices change on the final five-year period can not, and the plan — it's the law. And we expect the end of the five-year period, adjusted the price and plan for the next few years, and only then got the long awaited prize. That is, such incidents have been in the past a rigid planning system.
And then went to other tasks. Kingston valves and other valves, caps torpedo, torpedo drives, plate and coil springs, leaf springs, and a host of other items that the Navy called Delnov things. Employees of the institute have been through it all. Do they not have a clue, "This is not mine, not my specialty." They climbed into everything and faced up to at least some question, we need to build the ship. And I see this as the collective mind of the highest CRI "Prometheus."
While the experts at Central Research Institute "Prometheus" to solve their problems on the ore, metallurgical, welding and other industries, the ship was built and grew day or a day of general relativity. Chief Designer of Antonov AN Corps has introduced a rule at least once every two to three months to visit the shop and participate in the team that oversees the progress of construction.
As a general rule, and it was serious and funny. In those days, wear a helmet at the entrance to the work area was not necessary, and Antonov did not use it. And he had bald patches, as the solar disk. At this time, there was the problem of "poking". On the hull is welded inside a huge number of brackets to fit on their cables and pipes. There were thousands of. Sutures were listed malootvetstvennymi, but our welders to take them seriously, because if this is the oxidation of the seam, in a sturdy case there will crack and it could end badly. As it turned out, he was perfectly aware of this and tried to look around the welding seam of each "butting". And now, moving from section to section, he drew himself up, striking his head on the "poke", which is welded to the bottom ceiling partition or on the board, so that bald patches appear on another wound. At first this caused laughter and he, and we, who accompanied him. But when we passed two or three compartments and appeared on his head bleeding wound, it was not funny, but he was willing to spend days of climbing through the compartments, climbing into the most hidden corners, double-checking the work of supervisors and welders. He had the highest sense of responsibility as the head designer of the first case in the world tselnotitanovoy submarine.
And the factory all well aware that in the construction of complex engineering structures such as the hull of the submarine entirely new material — titanium, needed a new approach. You need to give tribute — Director of SMP E. Egorov, his assistants, designers, builders, shop workers put a lot of effort for the creation of an unusual production.
The shop number 42 was truly ground novelty: everyday cleaning floors, no drafts, light, untainted odezhka welders and other workers, the highest production standards have become his hallmark. Great contribution to the workshop has brought RI Utyushev — deputy chief of department for welding. A lot of skill and soul put into it remarkable spices — northerners Yu D. Cain, M. Gorelick, P. Thunder, military representative YA Belikov, AE Leypurt and many others — engineers, masters, workers.
In the end, it was created the most perfect welding creation with argonogelievoy protection. Argon, manual, automatic, automatic and other welding methods are common to all workers in the shop. There have been worked submerged arc welding, welding in the "gap" (without cuts), quality requirements argon (dew point), there was a brand new profession — a welder to protect the back side of the joint (podduvalschik).
In this shop there was such an effective form of co-production and research societies, constantly acting as a team. It was headed by PM Thunder, from CRI-48 members were unchanged BV Kudoyarov, JS Fatiyev, ZF Zagudaeva from SMP RI Utyushev from CRI-136 BA Eram other great spices. All the issues that arose during the construction of the shell and its saturation, the team decided on the spot. A lot of questions were: for example, how to mark the items — stamps or center punch, whether they can be welded without through-penetration (in other words, allow constructive hub), as welded "boss" (vertical rods) as repair joints with tungsten inclusions and oxidized sites, how to protect the back side of the seam welding stabilizers.
There were thousands of issues that were decided in the main based on engineering intuition and manufacturing experience. It was a fundamentally new approach to the construction of complex engineering structures such as the submarine hull of the new material, with the introduction of new methods of welding. And it paid off because it has permitted promptly and correctly make technical decisions without delaying the establishment. And now it is time to carry out hydraulic tests. The first tested the middle block. Evening workshop number 42 was relieved of all workers, there were only members of the state commission and the team of professionals, provide loading. Here are the steps increases pressure 10-20-30-40 atmospheres, exposure … and suddenly 5 minutes before the end of the exposure is destroyed. All state of shock.
The next day the water was drained and found that the crack length is almost two meters appeared in the skin — on the border between the coamings with 2 keeled Kingston, located very close to each other and to the flat bulkhead. This site has been very tough and, of course, was the site of stress concentration when elastically sheathing began to grow at an internal loading. Then it happened destruction. Then these cracks have appeared in other "hardness" — around the end of the cross-shelf as a base for the turbine, in brackets shall end.
In this experiment appeared brand new design concept of shell structures: excludes the "hard" end, there are "soft" KNITs, smooth transitions from hard parts to elastically, etc. This idea was fully realized then V. Tikhomirov and V. Krylov in the design of the PC submarine of project 705 "Lira" (NATO — "Alpha"). Based on the experience of their Antonov AN Corps was flawless. But after all the problems of housing Project 661 submarine was brought to perfection, and all units have been tested.
The "Upas Tree" was unusual not only the body of a titanium alloy. On the boat for the first time were used ASM "Amethyst" with underwater launch and outboard location of mines, made sonar and sonar system, which, coupled with the torpedo tubes intended just the latest form of nasal tip — instead of the usually sharp-nosed ball. It is reasonably led to the teardrop shape of the hull to the stern. Dual power plant with 2 turbozubchatymi units and 2 lines of propeller shafts led to the moder
n form of the aft end (so-called pants) when the two longish cone ended propellers. Luxury cabin enclosure, aft stabilizer appropriated ship elegantly beautiful view. It was excellent and the inside: ciyayuschie clean mess-room, shower room, sauna, titanium bowls. Antonov was very proud of the fact that the conditions for the submarine crew made no worse than on a surface ship. This was later confirmed by the commander of the boat, who served on it since it was built, and was walking to the Arctic and Antarctica, and in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.