Not so long ago in the mass media have reported that our homeland began to establish "superpodlodki." A senior representative of the Head of Staff of the Navy, with the rank of admiral, and said it was the subsequent: "There is a development of a fundamentally new underwater ship for action in the near sea zone with a non-nuclear power plant closed cycle. These submarines will be able to offline, without surfacing, under water up to a few weeks. "
Of course, the admiral read about the upcoming development of diesel-electric submarines (DES). It should be noted that until then nedavneshnih absolute favorites in the construction of such types of submarines were the two countries with a century of experience in this matter — Germany and the USSR. So for example, during this period of time Russian and Russian designers have created, created and delivered to the assembly flow of more than three hundred projects diesel-electric submarines. The most successful was the prototype of the Russian Diesel-electric submarines 3rd Generation Project 877/636 "Varshavyanka" and its export options.
The export version of the submarine "Varshavyanka" Project 877
United States in the technological race in this direction did not take the role because all the ocean is going to lead America operations away from their own bregov. Necessary for similar operations stealth and a cruising range of diesel-electric submarines simply unattainable. That's why in the U.S. Navy includes only nuclear submarines.
But that was before nedavneshnego time, at the moment the eyes of the Yankees on diesel-electric submarines significantly changed. Now the development of non-nuclear submarines led to the fact that the latest, most modern diesel-electric submarines by certain characteristics of the performance characteristics are not inferior to nuclear-powered ships and even surpass them. In 2003 the Swedish submarine boat 4th generation Halland emerged victorious from the duel situation with the French nuclear-powered ships. Later, this same boat in a training battle "torpedoed" Now the South American icebreaker Huston. Also, another indisputable advantage of diesel-electric submarines is their low compared with the cost of nuclear submarines, they are almost 4.5 times cheaper. By the way not so long ago, the United States took the Swedes in leasing one of these boats 4th generation.
For a long time the development of non-nuclear submarines restrained one event that there were deep-rooted: diesel-electric submarines under water could max 3-4 days to recharge the batteries boats to float at times. Accordingly, in the hours of charging the boat lost its main advantage — the ability to go into the water and become easy prey for the enemy. Designers have begun work on removing this tactical shortcomings for a long time before the nuclear reactors.
In the USSR, this work began in 1935, under the control of the designer S. Basilewski. He offered to provide use of the motor has been stored in the compartment at a temperature of minus 180 degrees watery oxygen. To experience the converted submarine S-92 (R-1 after 1940). In 1939, tests on diesel this boat was able to work out without air 5 and a half hours. But, as it turns out later, watery oxygen on submarines led designers to a standstill.
A little later, during the second world war have tried to solve this problem of the Germans. They made a U-boat series XXVI whose engines are used for hydrogen peroxide. But peroxide ended pretty quickly and I had to pump oxygen again.
The German U-boat series XXVI participate in the war did not have time, but proved valuable trophies for the Allies. On the basis of these submarines were made so called anaerobic energy systems for submarines.
First serial submarine project A615 with anaerobic power plants appeared in the USSR in 1955-1958. Seafarers have given them the nickname saying "lighter", the boat went very bad and often burned.
Project A615 "lighter"
Coupled with the fact the Leningrad CDB-18 were creating another boat betrothed then 617 project, in fact it was copying the German submarine XXVI series. First boat C-99 was laid in 1951. The unit could get a boat for 6 hours delay underwater speed of 20 knots. In the spring of 1959 in the turbine compartment of the boat at a depth of vosmidesyatimetrovoy explosion occurred, but she was able to walk to the base of their own. In the course of the audit was explained the reason for the tragedy, the cause was the decomposition of peroxides in contact with the trapped in the valve mucky.
By the time the Soviet Union was actively working to create the first atomic submarine. And on anaerobic energy systems forever forgotten.
Resumed work only in the 70s. The experimental power plant with a chemical generator has received the most massive Russian diesel-electric submarines of Project 613. She received the title of "Qatran" and in 1988 successfully passed the municipal tests. And then the Soviet Union collapsed and fell into the case.
DPL C-273 project 613EHG "Qatran"
But opponents, usually, all the while working intensively and went too far ahead. The main difference between a fundamentally non-nuclear submarines of the fourth generation is the presence of anaerobic power plants that increase the duration of continuous diving to 700-1000 hours. We have the same best diesel-electric submarine is the aforementioned "Varshavyanka", which was created in the 70s, but these boats belong to the third generation diesel-electric submarines.
The first boats fourth generation Germans built. Companies Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW) and Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH (TNSW) have designed and built a four submarines fourth-generation Project 212 (export version — project 214). Anaerobic electrical installations, such as submarines, as well as at the end of the war operate based hydrogen. In 2012-2013, to the existing four boats will add two mo
The second in this technological race were Swedes. They went to his method, and in fact refused to hydrogen, equipping its new submarines type of Gotland, so referred to as Stirling engines. The basic mechanism of these engines is based on constantly alternated heating and cooling of the working fluid in a closed cylinder. In the role of the working fluid acts on the main air, but are also used helium and hydrogen. Swedish decision paid off at one hundred percent, specifically Swedish Diesel-electric submarines today among the best in the world.
In Russia, the first attempt to make a submarine fourth-generation Project 677 was the boat "Lada". Central Design Bureau "Rubin" started its development in 1989. And now, after all, only eight years old … December 26, 1997, at a private stocks of "Admiralty Shipyards" in St. Petersburg was founded the first Russian Non-nuclear Submarine 4th generation, named "Saint-Petersburg". And after 9 years in 2006 boat was launched, but it is not transferred to the Navy so far.
Compared to the two-case "Varshavyanka" surface displacement of "Lada" was reduced from 2,300 to 1,765 tons. Full submerged speed increased from 19 to 21 knots. The crew was reduced from 52 to 36 divers, the duration of continuous diving increased to 45 days. It was also intended that the boat "St. Petersburg" will be armed with the installation of an anaerobic Russian production based on all of the same hydrogen. But apparently, something went wrong as usual because we planned on testing in 2007, the "St. Petersburg" was released without an anaerobic plant.
Military experts believe nedavneshnee statement of the Head of Staff of the Navy cunning, nothing fundamentally new to create does not have to. 'll Just catch up with the more advanced rivals, apparently the ability for it. According to show in print and on the web of disk imaging, it became clear that the most likely Russian submarine fourth generation will be equipped Russian Stirling engines, the main advantage of which will be a possibility, as the underwater and surface speed. At present, the possibility of such engines with no other country. The Swedes and the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun are hard at work in this direction, we hope that our home will be the first.