South America. Peru. Volcano Uaynaputina that influenced the course of world history

Volcano UaynaputinaUaynaputina — quite a large volcano, which is located in a volcanic plateau in the south of Peru. Despite the fact that "Uaynaputina" from the Quechua language is translated as "youngest volcano", of course, his education there have been many hundreds of thousands of years ago. Generally speaking, Uaynaputina no ordinary volcano. Because it has a well-defined profile of the mountain, and is more like a large hill with a huge crater in the center, scientists still do not know what species it include volcanoes. However, the most common belief is that Uaynaputina — stratovolcano, despite the fact that he has no clear conic form. In addition, even though the story and remembers only one eruption Uaynaputiny, it was so intense, with serious consequences not only for South America, but also for the world.

As has been said before, Uaynaputina located in the southern part of Peru only eighty kilometers from Arequipa. In this part of the Andes there are many volcanoes as it relates to the central volcanic zone, passing through Peru and Chile. Such an abundance of volcanoes, according to widespread geological theory of plate tectonics is the result of moving plates in the western coast of South America. This is where, according to many scientists, geologists, continental South American plate covers marine Nazca plate.

Despite the fact that the height Uaynaputiny equal, neither more nor less than four thousand eight hundred and fifty meters, it is quite unnoticeable and little stands out from the local topography. The fact that the height is considered as the distance from the surface of the crater to the sea level. A crater is, admittedly, a Uaynaputiny big enough and deep. The width of the hole is equal to the horseshoe already two and a half miles. In addition, within the crater there are also three hundred meter tapered hole. In addition near the main crater Uaynaputiny are several maars (flat-bottomed crater, surrounded by loose shaft of eruptive products).

Interestingly, the Indians who lived at the foot Uaynaputiny as if they had known that if there is an eruption, it will be a very strong destructive. Since ancient times, they were bringing the volcano victims in the form of clothing, pottery, animals and even humans. With the arrival of Europeans on the continent, local customs and cults were banned and local tribes at the time forgot about the volcano. On the eve of the eruption, which occurred in 1600, the year of the volcano began to throw the ashes. The Indians thought that his inattention Supayya angered the god of death, and in order to appease him, they sent to Uaynaputine gifts such as flowers, livestock, and young girls. But, of course, it could not appease the eruption began.

Thanks to a book entitled "Compendium and description of the West Indies", which was written by the monk Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa, today's eruption, which occurred four hundred years ago, it is known in detail. By the 15th February seismic activity in the area Uaynaputiny significantly increased from time to time became visible tremors. By 18th February earthquakes occur several times in every fifteen minutes. February 19, 1600-the year at about five in the evening came from the crater Uaynaputiny huge cloud of volcanic ash. According to records of the time, the eruption was like a big explosion and fire at the same time. But ashes from the crater of the volcano lava gushed that before freeze overcame several tens of kilometers. According to the current scale of seven volcanic eruptions, volcanic Uaynaputiny estimated at six points. Already twenty-four hours in the area one hundred kilometers around the volcano was covered with a layer of ash tridtsatisantimetrovym. A few days later the ash has covered a radius of five hundred kilometers of territory.

But on this eruption is over, Uaynaputina periodically spewed ash up to the beginning of March. Its content in the air is so great that the sun could not break through it and the day was as dark as night. The first, which has suffered from the terrible eruption, were, of course, pueblo Kuinististakas. The settlement lay just eleven kilometers south of the volcano and almost immediately after the eruption were buried under the rubble and huge layer of ash. By pyroclastic flows were buried and residents of other Indian villages that lie closer than thirty kilometers Uaynaputine. Suffered and Spanish settlements, and their agricultural land, in order to restore the fertility of the nearby land it took a hundred and fifty years.

Overall Uaynaputiny eruption was the strongest in the history of South America. But it has had disastrous consequences not only for this continent. Accumulation of ash in the atmosphere, to escape from the crater Uaynaputiny, has caused serious climate change. It is believed that the eruption has caused even the Little Ice Age. Since the concentration of volcanic ash in the atmosphere was extremely high, the sun could not quite warm the Earth. And in consequence of this winter of 1601 and 1602 were the second coldest for six hundred years. And in the summer, it should be noted, the heat did not come. For example, in August 1601, the year in Moscow, the snow fell and the cold river. This led to the Great Famine, which exacerbated the already difficult situation in Russia. Many historians even believe that hunger has become one of the main causes of the Time of Troubles. Therefore, the theory that led to the eruption Uaynaputiny Distemper is on strong ground.

The eruption had consequences for the rest of Europe. In the 1600-1602-the year due to the very cold weather was lost most of the grape harvest in France. Therefore, the wine of the period was a rarity. Reflect the content of ash in the atmosphere and in Asia. In China, it's too late bloom peach trees, and ice ridges (known phenomenon, which is obtained by the difference of temperature and pressure on the bottom where there are hot springs) in Lake Suwa in Japan have reached epic proportions.

Fortunately, Uaynaputina volcano is not dangerous. And it pleases, because not known how many people would die and how would it affect the world economy, the eruption occured today. But the danger of the Little Ice Age now come from North America. That's where the Yellowstone supervolcano, where the eruption of which could kill millions of people around the world.

Author: Svetlana Baranova

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