Belarushchyna on Podlasie dying. Externally, the situation looks as if comforting — in Bialystok continue to yield weekly "Field" and a month of "Journal", year out several Belarusian booklets with poetry, prose and journalism, there Belarusian transfer to the Polish state radio and television, two or three thousand students studying Podlasie Belarusian language in school. But everyone who judges the situation on the Podlasie belarushchyny than under a "Cornfield" or the programs of Radio Radio Station, and is based on personal experience — as, for example, I — can not admit (at least to himself, deep in the soul) that the institutional belarushchyna not stop the process of assimilation of Podlasie Belarusians, as it is, this belarushchyna long ago turned into a superficially attractive, but actually dead skin minority, which is already one foot in the grave.
The clearest signal of our objective and inexorable extinction came after the announcement of the 2002 census. The results have demonstrated that the Belarusians to Bialystok NOT quarter of a million, like it was in the 1990s and earlier, and only 46,000. For this same census, around 40,000 Belarusians still spoken at home in Belarusian, say six thousand homes in Polish, nevertheless consider themselves Belarusians.
Other signals of extinction, may be less clear than the results of the census, but no less eloquent. Despite a half-century-plus of training Belarusian literary language at Podlasie (resulting in two or three dozen of thousands of Belarusians Podlasie, at least in theory, should have become literate in that language), this gramatnasts does not manifest itself in public life. There is literally no living Podljassky website or forum on the Internet, which was carried to the Belarusian language. In the Belarusian language in the Podlasie publicly and regularly writes and speaks only those who are doing this earns his bread (that is, two dozen journalists). If it were not for government support and grants, all Belarusian publishing on the Podlasie be bent in a matter of weeks. None of the Belarusians need to support the Belarusian word of his own pocket.
Slowly but inexorably goes out and the Belarusian literary creativity in the Podlasie. The youngest of the literary association "Bialowieza," which had an hour and sometimes give something in Belarusian, it is now more than 50 years. Despite various efforts to arouse the interest of the Belarusian cultural word of generations of schoolchildren and high school students, nothing good is obtained. The Belarusian language has ceased to be the language of culture for the Podlasie Belarusians. In public life, she was left alone as the language of journalism and as a subject in school.
And the fact that 40,000 people per Paddyashshy speak Belarusian language in the family, is far from clear and indisputable. More about this later on.
About the inscriptions on the graves
In 2005, Poland entered the lives of the law "On the National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Language." In a formal sense, the law is the development and clarification of the obligations assumed by Poland, joining the EU in 2004 and taking the body of European law, the EU gained earlier. Speaking more precisely, this minority law to a large extent is a Polish concretization of the "European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages", which Poland ratified in 2009.
According to the law, minority languages in Poland include, among others, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, German, Slovak. The regional languages: Kashubian and lemkavskaya.
In a practical sense, the law gives the right of the minorities in the commune, where they make up at least 20 percent of the population, use the minority language as an "adjuvant" in contacts with the local authorities (that is, to speak in their own way with the district officials placed and write your request in the Commune) and place on the road signs with the names of the traditional names of places, near the Polish.
The Belarusian case of practical importance is the only article of the law on bilingual road signs with the names of districts. Taking into account the situation of the Belarusian gramatnastsyu, which I mentioned above, no one hopes that someone will want to write a commune some paper in Belarusian (and speak in their regional offices located in the Podlasie before was not forbidden).
In other words, one can no longer stop belarushchyny care in the grave, which in fact began in the Belarusian village of Podlasie. But it is still possible to put on these graves crosses with inscriptions in the native language of the dead.
All other minorities who had a 20-percent population potential in a commune, have set themselves bilingual signs with their traditional names and managed to forget the whole thing (so, in Poland, you can not just stumble on Lithuanian and Kashubian names, but and German). But on the Byelorussian characters you stumble, despite the fact that Belarusians Germans occupy the third and Kaszuby compact area minorities living in the country, and have the right to write their names on signs in 12 communes (local, naravchanskay, naravskay, Belsky, Chizhovsky, Haynuvsky, Dubitskaya, arlyanskay, klyashchelevskay, charomhavskay and two of the city — in Bielsko and Hajnowka). Why is there no Belarusian-language road signs?
This question, I think, ever category as the question of why in Grodno, in which more than 300,000 people in This year, Only one girl's parents want to enroll your child in the Belarusian-language class? Or ask why Lukashenko, who runs Belarus almost 17 years, with no major problems can poupravlyat it and the next 17? Of course, in Podlasie no Lukashenka nor Grodno, but remains the most popular Belarusian mentality as in the Republic of Belarus.
I do not know where lies the path to the mysteries of the Belarusian mentality as such, but because here I will give only a partial answer to the above question, that is, try to formulate a provincial, Podlaski answer the question of why we were all native to the bulb.
Who's afraid of diphthongs?
Public secret Podlasie, which does not mention the "Niva", or Radio The radio is the fact that the Belarusian literary language has virtually no support in the living folk dialects. I have mentioned of 40,000 people who said they speak Belarusian at home, only about 8,000 speak dialects of the Russian language, while 32,000 — Podlasie on conversations that are the western periphery of the range of dialects Polesje Brest (this is my estimate based on Census 2002). Yes, we mean that very speech Podlasie language, which my brother and I have dedicated site Svoja.org.
Specifically, if you follow the letter and spirit of the law, the names of the Belarusian literary language can only be placed in naravchanskay and urban communes, as only do we have people speak dialects of the Russian language. In 10 other commune, where people speak a particular language Podlasie, it is necessary to write the traditional names of places in Podlaska. Of course, if you keep in mind the preservation of authentic linguistic and cultural heritage of the Belarusians of Podlasie, not a dead shell.
Without getting into the debate over whether Podljassky speech must be a member of the Belarusian or Ukrainian language, or to a particular Podlasie mikramovy, I will only say that in this case the most significant: almost all Podljassky speech arranged in a strict phonetic and morphological system, which is very different both the Polish and Belarusian and Ukrainian systems. This system can not be ignored in the name of the place where her original features (UO diphthongs, BH and ln; okanne and ukanne, lack of Belarusian dekannya and tsekannya, the lack of Ukra
inian ikannya and ykannya) appear very clearly and often.
Nevertheless, the district is pleased to Orly placed in its decision of 30 September 2009 with almost all the features of their native language ignored and adopted the "traditional" place names that with any language (either Belarusian or Ukrainian or Podlasie) do not have a lot of total. In other words, for road signs in front of their villages arlyanskiya MPs have come up with (or deputy arlyanskim someone came up with) any separate language that is not only difficult to identify, but which is also not possible to identify any logical phonetic rules.
From 26 "traditional" names that housed the district is pleased to Orly filed for approval of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration (after all, this is it takes a final decision on the equipment bilingual signs), only nine (9) are the same in the sound of the names used by local residents, Belarusian-padlyashuki. 17 "traditional" named in the list, to put it bluntly, zafalshovvayuts authentic, Belarus Podlaska names of villages.
I will not review all 17 cases of the peraynachannya, and will show only three or four names to give you a feel for both the absurdity and danger of this attempt to erase one of the last authentic traces on belarushchyny Podlasie.
Let's start with the name of the center of the commune. State name: Orla. Suggested title: Orla. The traditional name: Vuorlya / Vôrla. (I immediately fall Podlasie authentic name in the Cyrillic version, where diphthongs are indicated digraphs SI, BH, ln, and in the Latin version of standard Svoja.org, where appropriate diphthongs are designated as ô, iê, ê). The suggested title repeats the official name, ignoring the traditional addl etc. and diphthongs UO.
Koszele — Kosheli — Koshelie / Košeliê. The proposed name ignores diphthongs BH, which also determines the place of stress in the title (diphthongs in Podlasie speeches are always under pressure).
Moskiewce — Moskovtsev — Moskuvtsie / Moskuvciê. This is a record breaker, with regard to the number of zafalshavannyav: ukanne proposed version ignores the second part, diphthongs BH in the third, and besides includes uncharacteristic "in short," is alive Podlasie speech acts are extremely rare, and in the case of the commune is arlyanskay nesystemnym sound.
Czechy Zablotne — Chahi Zabolotnyaya — Czechs Zabolotnyaya / Cechí Zabolótny. Then suddenly appears akannya that any of the Podlasie village, or in any other, and did not smell!
Gregorowce — Rygorovtsy — Rygoruovtsi / Ryhorôvci. The proposed name disappeared diphthongs UO and soft c in the last part, but there nesystemnae "in short."
Dyplyamavanym not need to be a linguist to see that the proposed variants of anonymous experts do not fit into any of the Belarusian language rules — no literary or any other.
One would laugh and say that no one in their right mind such nonsense will never confirm, so it all — a waste of time.
But I do not want to have to laugh. First, because these "traditional" rather than come up with the names of my fellow-padlyashuki from Orly in which special education LINGUISTIC not, and "public commission" fighters for beloruschinu on Podlasie, which, if you believe the rumors, included people with titles Doctors and professors of science, including historical and philological.
Secondly because the "Journal" since February 2011, the article titled "historic step Orly", said: The recorded sound of place names in Cyrillic developed a team of experts, trying to connect them with conversational feature of the Belarusian alphabet and agree with the historical retellings. "Journal" adds that these titles supported the Commission by the names of places, which operates under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration (had). So, you just sign up for an appropriate order of the Minister (perhaps he had already signed up), and Orla will go down in the history of Belarus. I'm just not sure that this story movaznavchy initiative to Orly remains as a symbol of victory over assimilation, or as another victory over Belarus still quite common.
What to do?
At this point I hear a replica of readers: If you're so smart, Uncle, why do not you have tried to prevent this profanation, when it was still possible? Why do not you share his concerns with the Belarusian experts that an unnamed "public commission" on the Podlasie and the Polish linguists Commission under forced in Warsaw?
All this I did.
Believe it or not, but no Bialystok Belarusian media really has not said who actually was in the team of experts who advised the deputies placed the district council at Orly about titles. At the level of rumors that have reached me in Prague, I can tell you that among them were allegedly historian and philologist Oleg Latyshonok Michael Kondratjuk. But if they say no to such a commission were not, I have no evidence to the contrary. It must have been quite an underground commission …
Second, immediately after the law was promulgated on minority and regional languages in the April issue of "Journal" in 2005, I published an article which basically wrote what I write to you today: the law gives us the chance to do justice to our dead villages and write down their names as they sound in reality, that is, in Podlaska. Burn them to litataraturnay language does not make sense, as it would not be true. And our Belarusian identity in the Podlasie in no way hurt Podljassky name. On the contrary, keeping in mind what the language says the vast majority of Belarusians Podlasie, this step can only strengthen our beloruschinu. This article can be read here.
I was then in the worst nightmare could not have dreamed that my comrades in the struggle for a better share of the Belarusian Podlasie can choose something else in this situation, a clear choice of either-or: either the literary language or in Podlasie. And they happen to have chosen some third language, linguist who has yet to be explored and identified.
Third, in November 2009, I wrote a letter to the Commission by the names of places in stimulated, in which he set out the case for the names of Podlasie as you outlined it here. One professor, for the Commission otpisala me that the Commission is aware of the difficulties with names in Podlasie, and added that she would like to see me as an expert in the formulation of the final decision on the commune Orla. But then, apparently, someone important in the ministry changed his mind about Podlasie named. No one in Warsaw parupila not advise it, with me.
Of course, one could sue the Ministry for this profanation belarushchyny in the commune Orla. And it is possible that one could win this court, if not in Warsaw, then in Strasbourg. Polish law on minority languages explicite says that "the determination of additional names in the minority language is in accordance with the spelling of the language." According to the spelling which language defined "traditional" in the name of the commune Orla? Such a language, as I said, still have to search with a candle.
But the case "Maksimyuk against the Polish state", most likely, will not. How do I accuse the Polish state in the falsification of the linguistic heritage of the Belarusian minority, if the approval of the falsification asked is interested minority, without explicit coercion by the state?
A typical Belarusian situation, right? A person is told to come to his own hanging, and he not only did not run away aimlessly, but the foam rope brings under the gallows. Or such person may do something to help? And is it necessary?