"Perpetual Peace", signed October 8, 1508 between the stateliness Duchy of Lithuania and the Metropolitan State became just another temporary respite and lasted only two years. The reason for the recent war were acquired by Vasily III Ivanovich information about the arrest of his sister Alena (Lena) Ivanovna, the widow of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander majestic Kazimirovich. She was arrested after a failed test departure for Moscow. In addition, up to a maximum aggravated cases 2-contracting powers between majestically Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate. Sigismund I of old instigated the Crimean Tatars poruha the southern Russian lands. At the request of the Polish king in May 1512, troops under the command of the Crimean Tatars sons Mengli Giray Khan "princes" Ahmet and Giray Burnash Giray, the town came under Belyov, Odoev, Aleksin and Kolomna. The Tatars destroyed the Russian land beyond the river Oka and safely gone, taking large full. Russian regiments led by the emperor brothers Andrei and Yuri Ivanovich, the commander Daniel Scheney, Alexander Rostov and others, could not prevent the Crimean horde. They were of a serious order of Vasily III to limit the defense lines of the river Oka. Three more times in 1512, the Crimean Tatars invaded the Russian lands, in June, July, and October. In June, they attacked the Seversk land, but were defeated. In July, on the borders of the Ryazan principality was put to flight, "the prince" Muhammad Giray. But autumn invasion of the Crimean horde was successful. The Crimean Tatars even besieged the capital of the Ryazan principality — Pereyaslavsl-Ryazan. City, they could not take, but ruined all the regions and led many people into slavery.
The outbreak of war
In autumn 1512 in Moscow received information that the Mongol invasion of the year was directed against the consequences of the country's Crimean Russian-Lithuanian contract. Moscow in November declares war majestically Duchy of Lithuania. In the middle of November 1512 the campaign went advanced army Viazemsky governor of Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Repnoe and Ivan Obolensky Chelyadnina. The army received a puzzle without stopping at Smolensk, Orsha to go further and Drutsk. There's men had advanced together with the forces of Prince Vasili Shviha Odoevskogo Kurbskii and seeds, which were majestically from Bow to Bryaslavlyu (Braslavlyu).
December 19, 1512 the campaign moved the main forces of the Russian army under the command of the emperor Basil Ivanovich. In January 1513, the Russian army, numbering up to 60 thousand troops at 140 guns, went to Smolensk, and laid siege to the fortress. Immediately, impacts in other areas. Novgorod army under the command of Prince Vasily Shumsky and Boris Ulanova was advancing towards Knoll. From Seversky land to march on Kiev's men made Vasily Shemyachicha. He managed to surprise attack to burn the Kiev suburbs. Shelves Repnoe I. Obolensky, IA Chelyadnina, B. and C. Odoevskogo Kurbskii. Following an order stately prince, with fire and sword passed over a large area, ruining the neighborhood Orsha, Drutsk, Borisova, Bryaslavlya, Vitebsk and Minsk.
The siege of Smolensk did not give positive results. The garrison defended stubbornly. At the beginning of the siege, in January, the metropolitan army tried to take the fortress almost in stride. Participated in the attack on foot urban militias, including Pskov Pishalnik. But the garrison repulsed the assault with bolshennymi losses for the troops majestic Prince — killed up to 2 million people. Did not help, and the shelling of the Smolensk fortress. The situation was complicated by the criteria of the winter siege, difficulties associated with supply the army with food and fodder. As a result, the command after 6 weeks of siege has decided to move on. In early March, the army was already in Moscow. On March 17, it was decided to prepare a new campaign to Smolensk, was appointed in the summer of the same year.
In brand-new for the coming majestically Horde participated very significant force. The very dignified Prince Vasili braked in Vorovsk by sending to Lithuanian town of their own governor. 80 thousand. army under the command of Ivan Obolensky Repnoe and Andrew Saburova again besieged Smolensk. 24-thousand. army under the command of Prince Misha Glinski besieged Polotsk. 8 th. detachment from the forces surrounded the Vitebsk Glinski. 14-thousand. detachment was sent to Orsha. In addition, some of the capital's troops under the command of Prince Alexander Rostov and Misha Bulgakov-Golitsa together with detachments Verhovskom princes were deployed along the southern borders for defense against the Crimean Tatars.
As before the main action took place near Smolensk. The capture of Smolensk was the main objective of this campaign. The siege of the town began in August 1513. At the very beginning of Lithuanian troops under the command of the governor Yuri Glebovich (shortly before the start of the second siege of the garrison was re-hired by infantry) gave up the battle for the walls of the town. The Lithuanians were able to oust the regiment Repnoe Obolensky, but were soon put to flight reinforcements arrived. Lithuanians suffered significant losses and retreated behind the walls of the town. Capital army began the siege, exposing fortress bombardment. Gunners tried to breach the walls, so you can go on the attack. But the garrison fell asleep wood walls with earth and stones, and they kept shelling. Were only able to break the progressive strengthening and towers. A couple of times the Russian troops went into battle, but the garrison managed to repel all attacks. Yet it was clear that without outside help, the garrison of Smolensk not survive long.
At this time, Sigismund I collected 40-thousand army and moved his troops to the rescue of the beleaguered Vitebsk, Polotsk and Smolensk. Leading Lithuanian troops appeared in the area of operations in October. The stately Prince Vasili, who was in the army, he decided not to take the fight and retreat. Just behind the main forces in the area drew off his and other units. But this exception was not breached plans stately prince of the capital, the war continued.
Campaign 1514. Quest of Orsha (8 September 1514)
At the end of May 1514, Vasily Ivanovich in third just moved his troops to Dorogobuzh first, and then to Smolensk. Army commander Daniel Schenya, Ivan Chelyadnin (governor of the Great Regiment), Michael Glinski and Misha Humpback (Advanced Regiment). June 8, 1514 in a campaign made himself the majestic Prince metropolitan, left him and his younger brothers — Jury Dmitrov and Simon Kaluga. Another brother — Dmitry Ivanovich Vein stood in Serpukhov, protecting the flank of the likely impact of the Crimean horde.
The fall of Smolensk. Polish sovereign and dignified Duke of Lithuania Sigismund I the old, knowing the inevitability of a new Russian attack on Smolensk, put at the head of the garrison of the most experienced governor Yuri Sologub. 16 May 1514 80 th. Russian army laid siege guns at 140 in Smolensk
third time. There is still some troops were sent under the Orsha, Mstislavl, screaming and Polotsk. The siege lasted three months of Smolensk. Two weeks went engineering training: around the Smolensk fortress built a stockade erected in front of the gate slingshot to prevent attacks of the garrison, had a position for the guns. Sources report a heavily bombarded the town and mention the name of the best Russian gunner — Stephen, who inflicted significant damage to the defense of Smolensk. In the annals of the Resurrection is told that Russian fighters "guns and squeaking around the huge campus to install," and the majestic Prince, "Beattie commanded hail from all sides, and seizures without significant repairs otduha and fiery hail cannons in biti". Acts of the Russian artillery and long-term lack of help eventually broke the determination of the garrison.
The garrison of Smolensk proposed to begin peace talks, but the request was rejected by the majestic Prince Vasily III, who claimed immediate surrender. Under the pressure of urban residents, the Lithuanian garrison surrendered on July 31. August 1st Russian army triumphantly entered the city. Bishop of Smolensk Varsonofy held a prayer service, during which citizens swore allegiance to the capital sir. Smolensk governor Yuri Sologub refused to give the oath and was released in Lithuania, where he was executed for the surrender of the fortress.
Quest of Orsha (8 September 1514)
The fall of Smolensk caused great repercussions. Almost at once the capital of the emperor swore the coming of the town — Mstislavl, screaming and Dubrovna. Vasily III, inspired by this victory, sought by their own commanders continued offensive action. To Orsha was moved troops under the command of Misha Glinski, at Borisov, Minsk and Drutsk — Misha troops Golitsa Bulgakov, Dmitry Bulgakov and Ivan Chelyadnina.
But the plans of the Russian command, it became clear to the enemy. Prince Mikhail L. Glinski, during the Russian-Lithuanian War 1507-1508 gg. Who gave Lithuania (details in articles on: Neglected War Russian country: Russian-Lithuanian War of 1507-1508.), now tossed and Moscow. Prince Glinski was unhappy failure of Vasily III to send him to the hereditary possession of the Smolensk principality. Treason Glinski said Misha Misha governor Holice Bulgakov one of the trusted servants Glinski. Prince caught, he found a letter Sigizmundovy. Due to his treachery, the enemy received information about the size, disposition and routes of movement of Russian troops.
Power of the parties. Sigismund left to themselves when in Borisov 4 th. team and the rest of the army forces moved towards Misha Golitsa Bulgakov. He commanded the Polish-Lithuanian army commander experienced majestic Lithuanian Hetman Konstantin Ostrog and Aulic Crown Hetman of the Polish Janusz Sverchovsky.
The number of Russian forces unknown. It is clear that there was only a part of the Russian army. After the capture of Smolensk itself sir Vasily Ivanovich went to Dorogobuzh, several units were oriented to the ruin of the Lithuanian lands. Part forces moved south, to reflect the probable strike of the Crimean Tatars. Therefore, the maximum number of troops Misha Golitsa Bulgakov and Ivan Chelyadnina was 35-40 thousand historian AN cites other numbers. It bases its own calculation of the population of the Russian army near Orsha on the mobilization capabilities of the cities, the people who were in the shelf and Bulgakov Chelyadnina. Lobin shows that in the shelves, not counting the kids knights Tsar's court, there were people 14 cities majestically Novgorod, Pskov, dignified bow, Kostroma, Murom, Tver, Borowski, portage, Roslavl Viaz'ma, Pereiaslavl, Kolomna, Yaroslavl and Starodub . In the army was: 400-500 Tatars, about 200 kids knights Sovereign's regiment, about 3 thousand of Novgorod and Pskov, 3.6 million of other cities, a total of about 7.2 thousand nobles. With the number of troops fighting slaves was 13-15 thousand soldiers. Taking into account the loss in the process of coming, departures from the service nobility (the wounded and sick have the right to leave) marked in the sources said Lobin, the number of soldiers could be about 12 thousand people. In practice, this has been the so-called. "Light's Men," which was sent to the raid on a hostile terrain. The personnel of the "easy battle" especially were drawn from all the regiments and included the young, "frisky" kids knights with a significant number of good-quality stallions and with fighting slaves in spare and pack horses.
Lithuanian army was a feudal militia consisted of "povet banners" — territorial troops. The other was based on the principle of the Polish army. It as a great role was played before the noble militia, but the Polish military leaders more widely used mercenary infantry. The Poles were recruited mercenaries in Livonia, Germany and Hungary. A distinctive feature of the mercenaries was the widespread use of firearms. Polish command made a bet on the interaction of all the armed forces in the battle field: heavy and light cavalry, infantry and field artillery. The number of Polish army also unknown. According to the XVI century Polish historian Maciej Stryjkovsky number of joint Polish-Lithuanian forces was about 25-26 thousand soldiers: 15 thousand Lithuanian Commonwealth violations, 3 thousand Lithuanian nobility of the Lord's, 5 thousand Polish heavy cavalry, three thousand heavy infantry of the Polish (4 thousand of them were left with the king in Borisov). According to the views of the Polish historian H. Zhigulskiy, all under the command of Hetman Ostrog was about 35 thousand 15 thousand Lithuanian Commonwealth violations, hired 17 thousand Polish cavalry and infantry with good artillery, and three thousand volunteer cavalry exposed the Polish magnates. Russian historian AN Lobin believes that the Polish-Lithuanian forces were approximately equal Russian — 12-16 thousand people. However, the Polish-Lithuanian army was more massive, having composed the light and heavy cavalry, heavy infantry and artillery.
Battle. Troops Ostrog August 27, 1514 by clicking the Berezina, surprise attack brought down two Russian advanced detachment, which stood on the rivers beavers and wood. Upon learning of the approach of enemy forces, the main forces of the capital Drutsk troops withdrew from the field, crossed to the left Preserving the Dnipro and settled between Orsha and Dubrovno River Krapivna. Recently the decisive battle troops were on different sides of the Dnieper. Moscow governor apparently decided to repeat the victory for the Russian guns Vedroshskoe fight. They did not interfere with the Lithuanians direct ferry and cross the Dnieper. In addition, according to the Polish and Russian sources, the hetman of Ostrog began talks with Russian governors, at which time the Polish-Lithuanian troops crossed the Dnieper. On the night of September 8, the Lithuanian cavalry ran across the river and covered the tip-off ferries for the infantry and field artillery. On the home front with the troops majestic Lithuanian hetman Ostrozky was Dnieper, and the right flank rested on the swampy creek nettle. Hetman has built his army in two bands. The first band was a cavalry. Polish heavy cavalry was only just a quarter of the front page, and stood in the center, providing a right half of it. The second half of the center and the left and right flanks was Lithuanian cavalry. In the second band was infantry and field artillery.
The Russian army was built in three bands for the front of attack. Two huge equestrian squad command assigned to the wings a few at a distance, they had to envelop the enemy to break him in the rear, killing bridges and surround the Polish-Lithuanian army. It must be said that the success of the Polish-Lithuanian army helped lack of coordination between Russian forces. Misha Bulgakov was a parochial dispute with Chelyadninym. Bulgakov w
as under the control of the regiment the right hand, which he led into battle on their own initiative. Regiment stormed the left flank of the Polish-Lithuanian army. Voivod hoped to crush the enemy's flank and go to the enemy in the rear. First, the Russian attack successfully developed and, if the battle joined other Russian forces in the battle could appear radical change. Only an elite cavalry counterattack Rzeczpospolita — Hussar (winged hussars), under the command of Hetman Janusz Sverchovskogo outhouse, suspended the attack Russian forces. Bulgakov's troops retreated to the starting position.
After the failed attack Prince Mikhail Bulgakov Chelyadnin introduced in the main battle force. Advanced regiment under the command of Prince Ivan Tyomka Rostov-hit by enemy infantry positions. Left flank squad running Pronsky Prince Ivan went to the coming of the right wing of the Lithuanian Commonwealth violation Yuri Radziwill. Lithuanian cavalry after stubborn resistance deliberately took flight and turned the Russian artillery in an ambush — a narrow space between the gullies and spruce. Volley Field Artillery was the signal for the general advent of the Polish-Lithuanian forces. It is now the Prince Misha Golitsa Bulgakov befriended Ivan Chelyadninu. Final battle decided to strike a new Polish men at arms — they have already knocked on the main Russian forces. Shelves Chelyadnina fled. Part of the Russian troops was pressed against Krapivna, where Russian and suffered major losses. The Polish-Lithuanian army won a decisive victory.
The results of the fight. Of the 11 great governor of the Russian troops were captured 6 including Ivan Chelyadnina, Michael Bulgakov, and two others were killed. Lord of the mighty Duke of Lithuania Sigismund I of its own success reports and letters to European rulers said that 80 thousand defeated the Russian army, the Russian lost in killed and captured up to 30 thousand people. This message is received and the Master of the Livonian Order, Lithuanians wanted him to win over, that Livonia has acted against Moscow. In principle, the death of a cavalry detachment left-flank of the Russian army does not cause vibrations. But it is clear that a large part of the Russian troops, mostly equestrian, after the impact of volatile Polish hussars, probably just vanished, having suffered some loss. Read more about the winding up of the Russian 12 thousand or 35 thousand troops is not necessary. And how much more you can not talk about the defeat of the Russian 80 th Army (mostly Russian armed forces since then). In another war would have won Lithuania.
Battle ended in a tactical victory for the Polish-Lithuanian army and the retreat of the capital's best, but the strategic importance of the battle was insignificant. The Lithuanians were able to fight off several small border fortresses, but Smolensk was for the Metropolitan State.
Battle of Orsha. Engraving of the XVI century.
Subsequent military action. Campaign 1515-1516 gg.
As a result of the defeat at Orsha, all three of the town, who fled under the rule of Basil III, after the fall of Smolensk (Mstislavl, screaming and Dubrovna) seceded from Moscow. In Smolensk, a komplot, the head of which was a Bishop Varsonofy. The conspirators sent a letter to the Polish king, with a promise to hand over Smolensk. But the plans of the bishop and his followers were destroyed decisive actions of the new governor of the Smolensk Vasily Dumb Shumsky. With the city's residents, he opened komplot: apostate were executed were spared only the bishop (he was banished into exile). When Hetman Ostrog came to town with the 6000th Detachment, traitors were hanged on the walls of the enemy troops in sight. Ostrog took a few episodes, but the walls were strong, the garrison and the townspeople, led by Shumsky, fought bravely. In addition, he had no siege artillery, winter was approaching, an increasing number of soldiers departing home. Ostrog was obliged to raise the siege and withdraw. Garrison even chased him and grabbed part of the convoy.
In the 1515-1516 years. were a series of raids on the mutual border areas, large-scale fighting was not. January 28, 1515 Pskov governor Andrew Saburov himself as a turncoat and a surprise attack invaded and destroyed Roslavl. Russian troops were walking to Mstislavl and Vitebsk. In 1516, Russian troops ravaged districts of Vitebsk.
In the summer of 1515 the Polish troops of mercenaries under the command of J. Sverchovskogo made a foray into Velikoluksky and Toropetskiy land. The enemy failed to capture the town, but the neighborhood was very devastated. Sigismund as ever tried to make a broad anti-Russian coalition. In the summer of 1515 there was a meeting in Vienna of the Holy Roman Empire of Maximilian, Sigismund I and his brother — Hungarian King Vladislav. In exchange for the termination of cooperation of the Holy Roman Empire from Metropolitan State Sigismund agreed to renounce its claims to Bohemia and Moravia. In 1616 the small group of Lithuanians made an attack on Gomel, just repelled the attack. Sigismund in those years it was not until a major war with Moscow — one of the Crimean army "princes" Ali Arslan, regardless of the business alliance, established between the Polish King Khan and Muhammad Giray, attacked the Lithuanian border area. Was preparing to march to Smolensk was frustrated.
Moscow needed time to recover from the defeat of Orsha. In addition, the Russian government had to solve the problem of the Crimean. In the Crimean Khanate to power after the death of Mengli Giray Khan came to his son Muhammad Giray, and he was known for his aggressive attitude toward Moscow. Moscow's attention distracted by the situation in Kazan, where he fell ill seriously Khan Mohammed Amin.
At 1517 Sigismund had planned a large campaign in north-west Russia. Polotsk was concentrated army under the command of Constantine Ostrog. His strike was to support the Crimean Tatars. They paid a considerable sum arrived at Bakhchisaraj Lithuanian salting Olbracht Gashtold. Because the Russian government was forced to divert the main force to parry the danger from the south, and reflects the impact of the Polish-Lithuanian army had local forces. In the summer of 1517 the 20 th. Mongol army attacked the Tula region. However, the Russian army was prepared and dispersed on the land of Tula Mongol "pen" troops were attacked and utterly defeated shelves Basil Odoevskogo and Ivan Vorotynsky. In addition, the escape route was cut by the enemy began to retreat "Walking people of Ukraine." The Tatars suffered significant losses. In November were broken Crimean troops which invaded Seversk ground.
In September 1517 the Polish army ruler moved from Polotsk to Pskov. Sending troops to march, Sigismund immediately tried to lull the care of Moscow, began peace negotiations. At the head of the Polish-Lithuanian army was hetman Ostrog, a member of its regiments were Lithuanian (commander — Yu Radziwill) and Polish mercenaries (commander — Ya Sverchovsky). It soon became clear discrepancy coming to Pskov. September 20 enemy reached the small Russian fortress Opochki. The army was obliged forever the brakes, not daring to throw in the rear of this suburb of Pskov. Defending the fortress of the small garrison under the command of Basil Saltykov-Morozov. The siege dragged on, negating the main advantage of the Lithuanian invasion — surprise. October 6th Polish-Lithuanian forces after the bombing of the fortress moved her assault. But the garr
ison repulsed the enemy attack badly cooked, Lithuanians suffered huge losses. Ostrog not ventured to a new assault and waited for reinforcements and siege guns. Several Lithuanian troops that were sent to other suburbs of Pskov, pitched. Prince Alexander Rostov defeated the 4-th. enemy squad, Ivan Black Kolychev destroyed two-thousand. enemy regiment. Ivan Lacki pitched two enemy squad: 6 th. Regiment 5 miles from the head of Ostrog and army camps governor Cherkas Hreptova that came to join up with the hetman to Opochka. Was captured by the train, all the guns, and he squeaked enemy commander. Because of the successful actions of the Russian forces Ostrog was required to lift the siege on October 18 and depart. The departure was so hasty that the enemy left all the "military dispensation", including the siege artillery.
The failure of the offensive strategy of Sigismund was a natural. Almost a bad hike drained financial capabilities of Lithuania and put an end to attempts to change the course of the war in their favor. And the samples failed negotiations. Vasily III was firm and refused to return Smolensk.
The last years of the war
In 1518, Moscow was able to allocate for the war with Lithuania significant force. In June 1518 the Novgorod-Pskov army led SHUISKI and his brother Ivan Shuiski stepped out majestically towards the bow of Polotsk. This was an important stronghold of Lithuania in the north-eastern borders of the principality. Supporting attacks were made far deeper majestically Duchy of Lithuania. Misha's squad made a raid on the Hunchback Maladzechna and districts of Vilnius. Seeds Kurbskii regiment came to Minsk, Slutsk and Mogilev. Groups Kurbskii Andrew and Andrew Hunchback devastated districts of Vitebsk. Russian cavalry raids were applied significant economic and moral damage to the enemy.
But of Polotsk Russian army of success not have gained. First, the 16th century Lithuanians have strengthened capacity of the town, because they survived the bombing. The siege of success has not brought. The supplies came to an end, one of the units that were sent for food and fodder, was destroyed by the enemy. SHUISKI retreated to the Russian border.
In 1519, Russian troops launched a new coming deep into Lithuania. Troops marched to the capital's governor Orsha, Maladzechna, Mogilev, Minsk, came to Vilna. Russian prevent raids Polish lord could not. He was obliged to throw troops against 40-thousand. Mongolian army Bogatyr-Sultan. August 2, 1519 in the Battle of Sokal Polish-Lithuanian army under the command of the majestic crown hetman Nicholas Firleya and majestic Lithuanian hetman Prince Constantine of Ostrog was defeated. After that, the Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray broke the alliance with the Polish king and the majestic Prince Sigismund (formerly the Crimean Khan distanced himself from the actions of his subjects), justifying their actions losses from raids of the Cossacks. To restore peace Crimean Khan claimed the latest tribute.
Moscow in 1519 was limited to the cavalry raids that resulted in significant economic harm and suppress his will to resist. At Lithuanians did not have much power in the Russian band coming because they enjoyed the defense of the city and well-fortified castles. In 1520, troops raided the capital last.
In 1521, the two powers have significant foreign policy objectives. Poland went to war with the Livonian Order (the war years 1521-1522.). Sigismund resumed talks with Moscow and agreed to cede the land of Smolensk. In the world needed and Moscow. In 1521, took one of the biggest Mongolian raids. The troops had to be kept on the southern and eastern borders to prevent new attacks of Crimean and Kazan units. Vasily III agreed to a truce, abandoning part of its own claims — claims to Polotsk, Vitebsk and Kiev.
September 14, 1522 a contract was signed a five-year truce. Lithuania was obliged to come to terms with the loss of Smolensk and terrain in 23 km2 with a population of 100 thousand people. The Lithuanians refused to return the captives. Most of the prisoners were killed in a foreign land. Only Prince Mikhail Bulgakov Golitsa was released in 1551. He spent in prison about 37 years, virtually all of the surviving fellow prisoners.