For the Russian Central Asia who left the world will be remembered with 2 conflicting trends. On the one hand, reducing the scope of the military and political influence in the region of the Russian Federation did not. Russian newcomer management failed to agree with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan for an extension of stay of Russian military facilities, and, despite the withdrawal of Uzbekistan, in the development of the CSTO seen a positive trend. Outlined the contours of strengthening the economic presence of Russia in the region. With other hand, cultural and civilizational influence of in the region continues to weaken.
The narrowing of the Russian peace in areas of the former Soviet republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan due with 2 interrelated processes: a decrease in the number of Russian (Slavic) population and a reduction in the scope of the consumption of Russian language. Moreover, if the first of these processes is impartial and as a natural disposition, the second in nearly all of the authorities is the result of language policy. Both of these processes have on each other reciprocal effect: reducing the number of Russian leads to a narrowing of the upcoming Russian cultural and information space, which, in turn, generates the remaining desire to emigrate to a country with a more comfortable ethno-cultural environment.
With all of this language policy of the authorities is one of the major events that cause the Slavic population to focus on moving to Russia.
Is noteworthy that the deterioration of the Russian language in last year was in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan — Union of the Russian Federation states that are its partners in the CSTO. In addition, Astana together with Moscow and Minsk are part of the Customs Union (CU), and one economic space (SES) and Bishkek is a candidate for accession to the organization. The Russian language in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, being an official, up to this time had a more appropriate in comparison with other Central Asian legal status, which, incidentally, is a constant target of the nationalist opposition. Elsewhere in the region special configurations in the position of the Russian language in the past year did not work out. In Tajikistan, is also a member of the CSTO, it has yet to come, even in 2011 status the language of international communication, and in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the Russian language the status of the law so far not defined.
Prerequisites exacerbation of the language problem rooted in the peculiarities of the political development of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. In over 2012 in both republics had the difficult political situation, involving the strengthening of nationalist sentiment and increase the status of municipal requirements (title) languages. In Kyrgyzstan, the situation around the status of the Russian language has escalated in the spring of last year, when a number of politicians and public figures invited to deprive him of the official status, retaining only one municipal language — Kirghiz. The founders of this solution were deputies from the ruling political party, the "Republic", which was headed by the then Prime Minister Omurbek Babanov. First, in March Urmat Amanbaeva, Member of Parliament (Parliament) of the "Republican" party, brought it to the law "On introducing changes and additions to certain laws of the Kyrgyz Republic", which included the introduction of penalties for officials who do not have at least pay tribute to the municipal language. In an interview with the newspaper kirgizskoyazychnoy "Achyk Sayasat plus' member suggested deleting the paragraph of the Constitution of the official status of the Russian language as" Kyrgyz language is on the verge of extinction "and save it to force all officials have the Kyrgyz language" on the level at which can do their duty. "
Parliament's press service tried to smooth over the situation, saying that the U.S. offered Amanbaeva not change the Constitution, but only to make some changes and additions to the Law on Municipal language. Still, the news has received considerable attention. March 27th chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko at a meeting with the Speaker of Parliament Asilbek Jeenbekov noted that the reduction in the scope of the introduction of the Russian language is bad for the style of the republic, because the Russian is the language of international communication. A. Jeenbekov response was required to declare that deprive the Russian language official status of the Kyrgyz authorities do not plan to. "Even though there is no question as to deprive the Russian language official status — he said at the meeting of Parliament. — This rule is spelled out in the Constitution, and we should pochetat Basic Law. "
Soon, but Y. Amanbeva again launched a similar statement. May 15 at a meeting of the Parliamentary Committee on Education, Science, Culture and Sport is troubled by the fact that bureaucrats act in the Russian language.
"… It is necessary in order to conduct all of mandatory records management in the Kyrgyz language — she said. — All official statements are necessarily at the municipal language. In state institutions need to enter the exam for officials on the knowledge of state language, while the multi-level, and in the event of a breach of the law on state language shall be subject to administrative responsibility. "
The requirement to use instead of the Russian language in Kyrgyzstan soon became one of the major trends in the political life of the country. First took place on May 1st kurultay students Kyrgyzstan. Adopted by the results of its resolution said that the municipal language in Kyrgyzstan should have official status. At a press conference on the results kurultay, a member of the student council of the Kyrgyz-Turkish Institute "Manas" Adilet Orozbaev said Russian language, according to the views of students, hinders the development of the municipal. In general, he said, the formalization of the Kyrgyz language does not mean that students should not be taught Russian, British or other languages. The resolution also referred to the need to translate Kyrgyz language Computer applets, social networks and resources of the Web.
In June, with the requirement to make all the laws of the Kyrgyz language at a meeting of the committee on legal affairs and the rule of law acted as Deputy of Parliament Gulasal Sadyrbaev. In her opinion, the translation of documents from Russian to Kyrgyzstan and opposite happen gross grammatical and semantic errors. If the preparation of draft legislation in the Kyrgyz language with translation into Russian legitimate, it will be a special examination, eliminating mistakes. After a week and a half has made a similar move MP Torobaev Zulpukarov, troubled by the fact that the version of the concept of reforming municipal government was not represented at the municipal language. June 12, a document obliging cook all the bills at the municipal language, was approved by the Parliamentary Committee on Constitutional Legislation, municipal government and human rights. According to the deputy Kurmantaya Abdieva, all texts to eliminate errors must go through a linguistic unit with Parliament. Translation into the Russian language does not mean a literal and semantic. The same legislators who do not have the Kyrgyz language, he offered to lure consultants and translators.
In Kazakhstan, the desire to strengthen the position of the municipal language
expressed in the intensive care ideas of his translation of the Latin alphabet.
In December, President NA Nazarbayev's message "Strategy" Kazakhstan-2050 "commissioned in 2025 to study the issue of transfer of the Kazakh alphabet to the Latin alphabet. Language, according to the president — one of the main reasons for consolidating Kazakh civilization, and therefore it must be modern and intensely consumed in all spheres of society. For this it is necessary not only to translate it into Latin script, and the upgrade itself language in order to make it able to do communicative functions and to have the respective terminology. Romanization of the alphabet will be accompanied by an extension of the scope of the implementation of the Kazakh language. By 2025, it should have 95% of the inhabitants of the country. In the end, after 10-12 years must seem a generation, entirely owns the Kazakh language, which will be the universal language of communication.
The idea of switching from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet in Kazakhstan have been intensively open a discussion after when, in October 2006, Nazarbayev expressed the need to see the issue. In July 2007 the Ministry of Education and Science has been prepared analytical note "On the transfer of the Kazakh alphabet to Latin," in what was considered the experience of other countries and peoples of the East for the introduction of the Latin alphabet, was justified by the need to translate the Latin script Kazakh alphabet, and if the calculation of cash costs. The main initiator of the transition to the Latin alphabet is the Minister of Culture of Kazakhstan M. Kul-Muhammed. "I am fully confident that at some point we get on to that — he declared — life forces to do it." With all this M. Kul-Muhammed urges that this issue has no political agenda, as the alphabet, in his opinion, does not have a "national entity".
In Central Asia, the Latin alphabet is already fled Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. With this experience they move faster, bad, since cons (lowering of the level of literacy of the population, problems with the translation of scientific literature, etc.) proved to be more than the pros.
In particular, the example of Uzbekistan, where the translation to the Latin alphabet, starting in the middle of the 1990s., And has not been brought to an end in connection with the emerging neuvvyazkami. For Kazakhstan, the introduction of the Latin alphabet will have even more severe consequences. Around one fifth of its inhabitants as before are Russian and Russian-speaking inhabitants of the total fraction of the republic is seeking 85%. The transition to the Latin alphabet will inevitably increase the ethnic and cultural differences between the Kazakh and Russian, and will strengthen the migratory movement of Russian and other European ethnic groups. In cultural terms, the rejection of the Cyrillic alphabet will lead to increased alienation from Russia. When all this is no integration of Kazakhstan into the global communication environment can be expected, because with alphabets for these processes are not directly related.
Meanwhile, the emigration of the Russian population of Kazakhstan and other countries of the region, having decreased markedly by the middle of the last decade, re-amplified. In October, the number of participants resettlement programs from citizens exceeded the psychologically significant figure of 100 thousand people. Almost half of them moved to Russia in the course of last year. Popularity grows applets, and the main stream of immigrants coming from countries in Central Asia. According to the Federal Migration Service, 32% of our citizens arrived in Russia from Kazakhstan, 20% — Uzbekistan, 10% — in Moldova, 9.7% — Ukraine, 8% — Kyrgyzstan, 7.2% — 4% and Armenia — Tajikistan. The share of Central Asia, so Makarov, has almost two-thirds of immigrants. Leading position in the region is particularly Kazakhstan, who continue to leave the Russian and other Slavic peoples. According to the Statistics Agency of the Republic in 2011, almost three quarters were Russian immigrants (71.9%), followed by "a wide margin" followed by Ukrainians (7.9%), Germans (5.4%), Kazakhs (4 , 5%), Tatars (2.3%), and Belarusians (1.8%). Among immigrants contrast, 2/3 are Kazakhs (70.3%). In other words, leaving Kazakhstan priemuschestvenno European and arrives — Asian population. In the end, the number of Russian decline, though not as the highest rate as in the 1990s. In the three years that have passed since the time of the 2009 census, their share in the middle of the inhabitants of Kazakhstan decreased from 23.7 to 22%.
The integration of the economies of the countries of the Customs Union, and what is happening in parallel compression of its historical civilization base — Russian world — is one of the fundamental contradictions of forming this association.
At the same time, these processes take place in a close Russian Federation countries, a critical principle in geo-political and strategic terms. In the future, the future place of de-Russification of the Eurasian Economic Union can become a mine of slow action, which undermines its cultural foundations. So how does the development of these processes over time will only increase, their neutralization of the Russian Federation should think now. According to another of its "soft power" in Central Asia at all will come to naught, being superseded by other, more powerful, lively and brutal cultures.