Let's start with the fact that in the 1950s. in the Soviet Union, unlike the United States, the creation of the atomic bomber was seen not just as a preferred, even if it really, but as actual desired Problem. This ratio is formed in the middle of the higher management of the army and the military-industrial complex as a result of understanding the 2-events. In 1-x, the tremendous, overwhelming U.S. advantages from the standpoint of the very ability of atomic bombing of areas of potential opponents. Acting with a 10-s air bases in Europe, the Middle and Far East, U.S. planes, even owning a flight range of only 5-10 thousand km, could reach at least some points of the USSR and return back. Russian bombers also had to operate from airfields in their areas and for a similar raid on the United States had to overcome the 15-20 thousand miles. Aircraft with such a range in the Soviet Union did not exist. First Russian strategic bombers, F-4 and Tu-95 could "cover" only the northern United States and comparable to small portions of both coasts. But even these machines in 1957 there were only 22. A number of U.S. aircraft capable of striking the Soviet Union, have gained by the time 1800! In this case, it was an upscale bombers carrier atomic weapons B-52, B-36, B-47, and several years later they were joined by the supersonic B-58.
In-2, the task required the creation of a jet bomber flying range with ordinary power plant in 1950. seemed irresistibly complicated. Especially since the supersonic, which was dictated by the need for rapid development of air defense. The flights of the first Soviet supersonic strategic carrier M-50 have shown that with a load of 3.5 tons even at 2-to-air refueling it can reach a distance of nearly 15,000 km. But refuel at supersonic speed, and besides, over enemy territory, no one could answer. The need for refueling significantly decreased ability to perform combat tasks, and in addition, such a flight sought to set fuel — a total of more than 500 m for refueled and refuel aircraft. In other words, only one flight bomber regiment could spend more than 10 tons of kerosene! Even the usual accumulation of fuel supplies would grow into a huge dilemma, not to mention the non-hazardous storage and protection from possible air strikes.
At the same time, there was a strong scientific and industrial base to solve various problems the introduction of nuclear energy. It took its origin from the Laboratory number 2 of the Academy of the USSR, organized under the Kurchatov majestically in the midst of the Russian war — in April 1943 first main task of nuclear scientists was to create a uranium bomb, but then began an active search for other abilities use new type of energy. In March 1947 — just one year later than in the U.S. — in the Soviet Union for the first time at the municipal level (at a meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the central office of the First Council of Ministers) have raised the problem of using the heat of nuclear reactions in the power plant. The Board decided to initiate periodic studies in this direction in order to develop the scientific foundations of using nuclear fission power and propulsion of ships, submarines and aircraft.
But to think for themselves broken road, handy for another three years. During this period of time managed to climb into the sky first M-4 and Tu-95, in the suburbs began to work first in the world's first atomic power plant, started construction of the first Russian nuclear submarine. Our agents in the United States began to pass information held there large-scale work on nuclear bombers. These data are taken as proof of the prospects of a new kind of energy to aviation. In the end, August 12, 1955 the Resolution of the Council of Ministers № 1561-868, which forced a number of companies of the aviation industry to begin work on the nuclear issue. Namely, the Tupolev OKB-156, DB-23 and DB-Myashishev 301 Lavochkin had to do the design and construction of aircraft with nuclear power plants, the OKB-276 ND Kuznetsov and OKB-165 AM Lyulka — the development of SS.
More common is technically task was given to the OKB-301, is headed by Lavochkin — to create an experimental cruise missile "375" with a nuclear ramjet engine designed by the OKB-670 M.M.Bondaryuka. Place an ordinary combustion chamber in the engine held reactors operating in an open cycle — air flowed directly through the core. For the base of the airframe missile development have been taken by an intercontinental cruise missile "350" with the ordinary ramjet. Despite the relative simplicity of the theme of "375" did not get much, or meaningful development and destruction Lavochkin in June 1960 and completely put an end to these works.
Collective Myasishcheva, then occupied by the creation of the M-50, ordered to carry out preparatory project supersonic bomber "with special engines AM Lyulka head designer." The Design Bureau index subject was "60", the lead designer on her appointed Yu.N.Trufanova. Since in the most general terms, the decision tasks was seen in the ordinary equipment of the M-50 engines on nuclear energy, while operating in an open cycle (judgments of simplicity), it was thought that the M-60 will be the first Soviet atomic plane. But by the middle of 1956 it became clear that just because the intended purpose is not to solve. It turned out that the car with the latest SU has a number of specific features which aircraft designers have never faced. The novelty of the emerging problems was so big that no one in the bureau, and of the whole of the mighty Russian aircraft industry did not even know which side to come to their decision.
First was the problem of protecting people from radiation. What should it be? How much should weigh? How to ensure the normal functioning of the crew, a prisoner in an impenetrable thick-walled capsule, including review with jobs and emergency escape? 2nd hitch — A sharp degradation of the traditional structural materials caused by the massive flow of radiation and heat from the reactor. Hence — the need to create new materials. Third — the need to develop entirely new technology aircraft, and operation of nuclear power construction of the respective air bases with numerous underground structures. After all, it was found that after stopping the motor open-loop no one to it will not be able to come for another 2-3 months! A means there is need for a remote ground servicing aircraft engine. And, of course, prepyadstviya security — in the broadest awareness, particularly in the case of a tragedy such aircraft.
Understanding these and many other problems not a stone was left from the initial idea to use the M-50 airframe. The designers focused on finding the latest assembly in which these difficulties to be critical. With all of this major aspect of choosing the location of the nuclear power plant on the plane was considered the largest of its removal from the crew. In accordance with the preliminary design was developed by M-60, in which four nuclear turbojets housed in the rear fuselage in pairs, "two stories", forming a single nuclear compartment. Plane a layout with narrow sredneplana cantilever tapered wing and in the same horizontal tail placed on the top of the keel. Missile and bomb armament was planned to have the inside of the suspension. Overall length should be about 66 m, take-off weight — exceed 250 tonnes and the cruising speed — 3000 km / h at an altitude of 18,000-20,000 meters
Crew supposed to put in a remote capsule with a strong multilayer protection of special materials. The radioactivity of air excluded the possibility of using it for cabin pressurization and breathing. For these purposes, we had to use an oxygen-nitrogen mixture obtained in special gasifiers watery vapor-gas on board. Lack of eye vision must be compensated for periscopes, television and radar screens, installs and absolutely automatic control system aircraft. The last was to provide all phases of flight, including takeoff and landing, the yield on the target, etc. This logically led up to the idea of an unmanned strategic bombers. But the Air Force insisted on the manned version as a more reliable and flexible to use.
Nuclear turbojet engines for M-60 had to develop a takeoff thrust of the order of 22,500 kgs. EDO AM Lyulka develop them into 2-embodiments, "coaxial" scheme in which the annular reactor is placed behind the common combustion chamber passing therethrough and a turbocharger shaft, and circuits "arm" — the curved part of the flow reactor and for deducing border of the shaft. Myasischevtsy tried to apply, and he and the other type of motor, finding in each of them both advantages and disadvantages. But the main conclusion which held in detention in the preparatory project M-60, was: "… along with the creation of the motor bolshennymi difficulties, equipment and airframe appear completely new challenge of land use and protection of the crew, the public areas and in the case of a forced landing. These tasks … not yet resolved. At the same time, specifically the possibility of solving these problems is determined by the need for the creation of a manned aircraft with a nuclear engine. " A truly prophetic words!
To put the decision of naming problems into practical, V.M.Myasischev began drafting a flying laboratory based on the M-50, in which one nuclear engine be housed in the nose of the fuselage. And in order to increase the survivability of constructive bases of atomic planes in the event of war in general were asked to renounce the use of concrete runways and nuclear bomber reincarnate into the supersonic (!) flying boat M-60M. This project has been developed in parallel overland option and saved him considerable continuity. Naturally, with all this wing and engines were very vozduhopoglotiteli raised above the water. Landing device contained the nasal gidrolyzhu, ventral retractable hydrofoils and rotary floats side resistance at the wing tips.
Prepyadstviya before designers were complex, but the work went on, and evolved memory that all difficulties can be overcome in time, the least significant than increase the range of conventional aircraft. In 1958 V.M.Myasischev on the instructions of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party prepared a report entitled "Status and likely prospects of strategic aviation," in which quite accurately stated: "… In view of the significant critical projects M-M-52K and 56K [bombers on an ordinary fuel, — auth.] Ministry of Defense for the scarcity of bandwidth radius acts such systems, it seems useful to focus all work on the development of strategic bombers on a supersonic bomber with nuclear engines of providing the desired flight range for reconnaissance and bombing navesnoymi for point-aircraft missiles and missiles on mobile and immobile targets. "
Myasischev had in mind, first, a new draft of the strategic bomber-missile with a nuclear power plant closed-loop system, which designed the bureau ND Kuznetsov. This car is expected to make it the last 7 years. In 1959, she was selected for the aerodynamic design "duck" with a delta wing and front fins significant sweep. 6 Core turbojet engines supposed to put in the tail of the plane and connect to one or two packages. The reactor was located in the fuselage. As the coolant to be used watery metal: lithium or sodium. The engines had the opportunity to work on kerosene. Closed loop operation SU allowed to do the cockpit ventilated with atmospheric air and a much lower weight protection. At take-off weight of about 170 tons of weight engines with heat exchangers assumed 30 tons, the protection of the reactor and the cockpit 38 tons, 25 tons load the desired length of the aircraft came out about 46 meters in wingspan of about 27 meters
Project atomic ASW aircraft Tu-114
The first flight of the M-30 was planned for 1966, but the DB-23 Myasishcheva not had time to even begin design work. Resolution of the Government of DB-23 Myasishcheva lured to the development of a multi-stage ballistic missile designed by the OKB-52 Chelomei, and in autumn 1960 eliminated as an independent company by making number one branch of the bureau and it is re-directing to the rocket-space theme. So Makar, reserve DB-23 on the atomic planes was not realized in the actual construction.