Ecology: threat to Baikal, summer and roasted red mud in Europe

Ecology: threat to Baikal, "hot" summer and red mud in EuropeEnvironmental News Feeds in 2010 were filled epithets "abnormal" and "unprecedented." While the United States attempted to curb the oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, Russia languished otnevidannoy heat, and fire could hardly contain the onslaught of fire in the forests of the country, occasionally going on the defensive.

The year began with the launch of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill, then the controversy blew up around the Khimki forest, there was a leak of toxic waste in Hungary.

Major events with a positive sign was the meeting of the State Council of the Russian Federation, entirely devoted to the issues of environmental protection, Tiger Forum in St. Petersburg, Biodiversity Conference in Nagoya, the reform of the Federal Forestry Agency and the beginning of the program for the return of the leopard in the Caucasus.

Lethal spot

"Black spots" in 2010 remain EcoNova accident in the Gulf of Mexico as the largest environmental disaster in U.S. history. In April, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion, which killed 11 people, and the waters of the Gulf of Mexico spilled nearly 5 million barrels of crude oil.

At the time of the accident the platform was managed by BP, which had to ustranyatposledstviya disaster. Only 4 August, after more than 100 days after the accident, managed to finally stop the leak by uploading a special emergency well heavy drilling fluid and cement.

In addition to the spots on the reputation, the accident in the Gulf of Mexico has cost BP more than $ 9 billion and the top manager Tony Hayward, whose actions in a crisis situation heavily criticized around the world, has replaced BP CEO Robert Dudley, in 2003-2008 head of the Russian- British TNK-BP.

Threat to Baikal

The Government of the Russian Federation in January eliminated the production of pulp, paper and cardboard from the list of prohibited activities in the central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory, paving the way for the reopening of the plant. Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM) immediately began testing equipment and made a few test batches of unbleached pulp vzamknutom loop water circulation.

In early July 2010 BPPM resumed its activities after a half years of inactivity, dumping sewage into the lake. This decision led to protests of environmental organizations, as well as UNESCO, because Baikal was included in the list of World Natural Heritage. Therefore, at the end of October, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin instructed to study the issue of the transfer in 2011 of the Baikal pulp and paper mill closed loop water circulation.

Meanwhile, the Arbitration Court of Irkutsk Region on December 22 introduced at the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill external control procedures for a period up to 22 June 2012.

Cut down the forest for the road

Plans to build a high-speed highway Moscow-Petersburg through the Khimki forest caused numerous protests by local residents and environmentalists, and after the August clashed Khimki forest defenders with builders, President Dmitry Medvedev ordered the government to suspend the construction and hold additional public and expert discussions on the draft.

As a result, the government commission yet made a final decision on the construction of a highway through the Khimki forest. The authorities promised to fully compensate for deforestation. Work could begin on January 15, said the governor of the Moscow region Boris Gromov. Residents of Khimki, in turn, are not going to give up and carry on January 15 people gathering against deforestation, promised the leader of "Movement to Defend Khimki Forest" Eugene Chirikov.

"Green State Council"

In May, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev holds meeting of the State Council, which was entirely devoted to ecology. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Russia called it a new page in the conservation of our country.

As a result of the Board Medvedev instructed to restore ecological expertise especially dangerous objects, dramatically improve the effectiveness of state environmental control, The greening of public procurement, to develop a draft framework for environmental policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030.

In addition, it was decided to improve the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of protected areas.

"Fried" summer

Violent summer fires of the past summer in Russia killed a lot of birds, forests and ecosystems, but helped the swamps, which can now count on the attention of officials. Preliminary damage to animals and plants from the fire can be estimated at 30 billion rubles.

The Russian government has allocated the Moscow region, where summer raged natural pozharyi could hang from them, 300 million rubles for the irrigation of peat. Just outside Moscow will supply water to more than 70 sites peatland area of over 60,000 hectares. The total cost of the federal program may reach 20-25 billion rubles only Shatura program is estimated at 4.5 billion rubles.

FFA shakeup

Forest fires raised the efficiency of the organization of forestry in the country. In late August, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree on the transfer of the Federal Forestry Agency directly subordinate to the Russian government. Medvedev also spoke of the need to conduct a detailed inventory of the Forest Code. Was also dismissed by the head of the Federal Forestry Agency Alexei Savinov, and the place of the head of department appointed his deputy Viktor Maslyakov.

Forest Code managed to improve by the end of the year. The State Duma in December passed the third reading of the amendments to the Forest Code and the number of regulations that need to protect the forests from fires. Changes are intended to clear lines of authority in the control of forest management.

"Tiger" Petersburg

In November, "Northern Capital" of Russia brought together representatives of 13 countries on a very urgent issue of — Tiger Conservation on Earth over the past 100 years, the number of this species has declined from 100,000 to about 3.2 thousand individuals, and the area of their habitat "shrunk" to 7% of the original area.

Now the salvation of the striped predator has a strong legal framework in the form of global tiger recovery program years 2010-2022, which aims to double the number of tigers in 12 years. To finance the program in the next five years will be collected at least $ 350 million.

Global biodiversity

In the past, negotiations and at the global level, within the UN, pleased with the results. Nagoya, Japan, 18-29 October which brought together by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), "revived" a global environmental policy: after lengthy debate the participants adopted a new ten-year strategic action plan for the conservation of biodiversity and the Protocol on genetic resources.

In particular, the governments of the Parties to the Convention have agreed to increase the territory of national parks on land from the current 12.5% to 17%, as well as to expand the area of marine reserves to 10% (now it is less than 1%).

Red mud in Europe

The explosion that destroyed a dam reservoir with toxic waste — the so-called red mud, — occurred on October 4 alumina refinery Ajkai Timfoldgyar Zrt company MAL Zrt, 160 kilometers west of Budapest.

After the explosion of the tank spilled about 1.1 million cubic meters of toxic substances, which flooded several nearby communities, ten people were killed and about 150 were injured.

As a result, Europe's largest ecological disaster Martsal river ecosystem in western Hungary, which resulted toxic waste, was completely destroyed, the fault in the accident the company was nationalized by the state, and the victims of the accident will be in five years, some 5.5 million euros compensation.

Return of the leopard

In the past year, the Caucasus began to hope again to see one of the most beautiful wild cats, killed a man in the 20th century. In cages of Sochi National Park settled four leopard — two males from Turkmenistan and two females from Iran. Their descendants have to start a new population leopard.

Now, to ensure that the breeding and release of leopards in the country, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Russia is seeking funds for the construction of cages in the area of 6 hectares in the Caucasian Reserve, which will bring "kittens" at the age of one and a half years to train hunting.

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