Self-propelled artillery installation of the C-51

The transition of the Red Army to conduct active offensive operations at the end of 1942 showed the need to equip its mobile artillery special power. To combat the strong pillboxes and fortified buildings destruction during the conduct of urban warfare at times it was not even towed 152.4 mm caliber artillery systems. To solve similar problems in service with the Red Army had towed howitzer B-4 arr. In 1931, but her nomination to the position for direct fire was very safe for guns, calculation, and the tractor. Besides slow movement of the B-4 on the march are not allowed to use the howitzer during a rapid and profound shock, aimed deep into the enemy's defenses.

Guided by these judgments in 1942 in the Soviet Union was prepared preliminary design for placement howitzer B-4 armored SAU absolutely related to the class of assault weapons. Self-propelled planned to do on the basis of the KV-1, the project was designated the F-19. The project developed by the weight of the machine was 60 tons, for an already overburdened and unreliable boxes languid KV-1 has become a burden. A second limitation was that of ACS small elevation howitzers, which do not allow the use of its ability to conduct false fire to the highest range from the closed position. Project was canceled.

In autumn 1943, the GAC once again returned to the idea of developing ACS large and extra-large capacity. The main weapon of self-propelled artillery system was to be a 203-mm howitzer arr. 1931, which release at the plant "Bolshevik" was planned to resume in 1944. This decision is not unusual, because elected artillery system are of the highest destructive power in the case of installation on the crawler of the Red Army would have received in the order of the highest mobile devastating weapon power. By order of the People's Commissar of arms Ustinov in November 1943 was a competition for the creation of the modern self-propelled guns, which received a semi-official designation of "Hero".

After a few weeks of their preparatory projects were presented to the latest ACS factories NKTP number 100, CB Uralmasha and TsAKB. The first of them represented the self-propelled gun carriage with a trailer, in which part of the planned position of ammunition guns. In what looked like the project or French GPF 194, only the power of ACS was higher.

Self-propelled artillery installation of the C-51

KB Uralmasha submitted to the contest outright two options: 203-mm howitzer D-4 on the chassis of the KV-1S (ACS upgrade U-19) and 203-mm howitzer or two 152-mm howitzers, placed on the chassis 2-SPG SU- 122. Specifically, before firing proposed to connect the chassis, with all this preparation to fire reached up to 40 minutes compared to 20 minutes with the draft proposed by the number 100 NKTP.

With all this work exposed plants number 100 and CB Uralmasha predictably not found a tribute to the support from members of the commission, because different overestimated the technological complexity of the project. In the end, once the project was approved under the symbol TsAKB C-51. ACS C-51 has been made on the basis of the KV-1S. Pretty soon it was found that the chassis of the tank is not long enough bearing surface and needed his improvement. It was proposed to modify the chassis by extending it to 7 or 8 rollers. With all of this volume improvements required to spend quite large, and the number of issued ACS is unlikely to exceed a few 10-s, because the idea of setting up the production of the new chassis, it was decided to abandon. The final decision involves the installation of a gun system on a permanent chassis of the KV-1S, that was not the best option.

Design Features

ACS C-51 consists of a self-propelled open — one hundred percent self-propelled armored body acted as a self-propelled gun carriage to open the set on top of it heavy howitzer B-4. Armored Corps ACS was made of rolled armor plate widths of 75, 60 and 30 mm, as well as a unique body of the KV. Reservations were differentiated and protivosnaryadnym. Head-on armor plates have the best angles. In the fore part of the body was a place of the driver, and it is also ammunition carriers of the other members of the calculation howitzers were outside hulls. The box and the engine ACS were placed in the stern. To escape the critical machines in the bottom of the hull was placed emergency hatch.

Self-propelled artillery installation of the C-51

The main armament ACS C-51 was to be modified 203.4 mm howitzer B-4. The howitzer was mounted on the roof is open hulls and had a vertical angles pickup in the spectrum from 0 to 60 degrees, the sector was equivalent traverse 40 degrees (20 in each direction). The height of the fire lane was equal to 1,070 meters when firing at a target height of 3 m-blank range was 6.9 km long range shooting — 18.26 km. Shot of the howitzer was carried out using manual mechanical shutter. The gun was equipped with B-4 piston gate, and the rate was 1 howitzer shot at 1.25-2.5 minute. In the firing position calculation tool was covered by a powerful broneschitom that during the march was removed and the trunk howitzers moved back to the stowed position.

Ammunition howitzers consisted of 12 rounds of separate loading kartuznogo. Charges and shells were stored in ACS hulls, was also implemented the ability to feed them with soil. ACS C-51 could carry on consuming all the range of ammunition from the howitzer B-4, which included a concrete-and high-explosive projectiles weighing 100 kg. Explosive shells F-623, F-625 and F-625D had the initial speed of 575 m / s, concrete-G-620 and G-620T accelerated to 600-607 m / s.

ACS C-51 are equipped with four V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel engine V-2K output of 600 hp The motor was carried out with the starter ST-700 (15 hp) or by means of compressed air, which is located in the 2-5-liter bottles on the sides of the car. Fuel tanks with a total of 600-615 liters. The hulls were placed inside the machine in the power pack compartment and control compartment.

ACS was a mechanical box and included in your own composition: multi-disc main clutch dry friction "steel Ferodo", 2 multi-plate friction clutches with friction "steel on steel", 4-speed with dual (8 forward and 2 reverse), and 2 onboard planetary reducer. Insecure work boxes ACS C-51 was noted at the time of her trial. This fact was further proof of the thesis that the shortcomings boxes remained one of the major shortcomings, which was common to all tanks and armored vehicles KV series based on it.

Self-propelled artillery installation of the C-51

Chassis repeated self-propelled chassis of the KV-1S. ACS suspension torsion bar had a solo for each of the six pitched rollers (diameter 600 mm) on each side. Next to each rink was placed welded to the body stroke limiter balancing suspension. Sloths are in front and the drive wheels with removable lantern meshing gear rings are behind. The highest part of the track supported by three small support rollers.

In general, chassis, engine and body mass of
the KV-1S not undergone any configurations. Since the tank was dismantled tower in its place established howitzer B-4 in the open carriage. Because the weight of the ACS C-51 (the mass is actually 50 tons) was superior to the weight of the tank series with absolutely equipped tower, the driving properties of the machine were pretty average.

The fate of the project

First standard ACS C-51 proceeded to the factory tests in February 1944, tests were conducted on an abbreviated program there. With all this enthusiasm to the project SAU high power was so great that without waiting for the official end of self-propelled gun was passed on ANIOP. It is here in full and swam all the big drawbacks of this machine. Because of the highest band of fire control system at the shot very very swayed by inertia and went back to the lateral displacement. In this case, if the elevation of guns was quite large, the return howitzer was so strong that the crew could not stay in their places. All of this led to the totality knocking aiming and shooting at bolshennomu dispersion (needed the installation of openers) and uncomfortable for the crew ACS. Besides the chassis itself KV-1C was poorly adapted to the installation of such a massive gun.

Self-propelled artillery installation of the C-51

Putting all acquired in the course of the tests given in the GAC felt that the C-51 all the same can be sent in a batch creation, but to implement this decision in practice failed. At first, it was due to the fact that the production of tanks KV-1C was completed in December 1942 — in other words, get the right gear for the new ACS could only be remaking vypushennyh series of tanks. The second is the lack of fundamental flaw in themselves howitzers B-4, so the issue of which has not been deployed.

Also in the monograph Kolomiyts, which is dedicated to the KV, there is mention of the automatic control system of similar design, but the armed 152.4 mm gun Br-2. This ACS was held in July 1944 tests at Leningrad and even raised the question of the beginning of its production on the basis of the JS in the fall of 1944. And this project has not been implemented, and experiments with a super-powered self-propelled guns were continued after the war. Then the work had been going on creating mnogokalibernoy artillery fire projectiles capable of waging a nuclear bomb. ACS burst of this type has been around for quite a modern self-propelled gun 2S5 "Hyacinth".

Tactical and technical characteristics: C-51
Weight: 49.7 tons
Overall dimensions:
Length 9.35 m, width 3.25 m, height 3.4 m
Crew: 9-10 people.
Hull armor: 30 to 75 mm gun mask — 41 mm.
Armament: 203-mm howitzer B-4
Ammunition: 12 rounds
Engine: in-line 12-cylinder V-type diesel engine V-2K output of 600 hp
The highest speed: on the highway — 30 km / h
Progress in store: on the highway — 100 km.

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