Self-propelled laser systems

Self-propelled laser systems"But on the second car, which you have indicated in your own fax machine, for we can not tell you. Since it is not yet declassified "- the person on the other end was not even say for himself the title of a self-propelled laser system 1K17" Compression "

NPO "Astrophysics", the walls of which were developed this impressive setting, refused to give any comments about its design, the principle of an act of tactical problems and technical features.

Meanwhile, our enthusiasm was caused not disdain to state secrets. We have seen and photographed freely SLK "compression" to the Military Technical Museum, recently opened in the village of Ivanovo Metropolitan area. There is also a rare exhibit exposed without instruction. They say a copy of the written off in a very sad state gave the museum some military units near Kolomna. On the destination machine thence warriors are not told: not as secret as well as themselves once thought. According to another to no avail.

We tried to figure out why "laser tank" sixteen "eye" and a secret that put up for public display under the heading of privacy.

"Stiletto": dead souls

The second half of the XX century can rightly be called the era of laser euphoria. The theoretical advantages of laser guns, the speed of light striking a target point-blank range, regardless of wind and ballistics were are conspicuous not only for science fiction. First working standard laser was created in 1960, and in 1963 a group of professionals in the design office "Vympel" has begun to develop an experimental laser radar LE-1. That's when scientists formed the backbone of the future of NGO "Astrophysics". First, the 1970 special laser KB quite took shape as a separate entity, has received its own production facilities and bench-testing facilities. Was created Interdepartmental Research Center OKB "Rainbow", who had taken refuge from the prying eyes and ears in the town of Vladimir-dimensional 30.

Self-propelled laser systemsThe tower SLK 1Q11 "Stiletto" housed military laser guidance system on the basis of large mirrors

In 1978 was founded the NGO "Astrophysics", as General Designer in any ranked Nikolay Ustinov, the offspring of the Soviet Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov. Hard to say whether it has affected the already successful development of NGOs in the field of military lasers. Either way, already in 1982, the Russian Army was put first laser jet-propelled 1Q11 "Stiletto".

"Stiletto" was intended to damage the optic-electronic system pointing guns of the enemy. His potential targets — tanks, self-propelled artillery, and even low-flying helicopters. Finding the target by means of radar, "Stiletto" created its laser probing, trying to find the optical equipment for lens flare. Precisely locate the "electronic eye", the unit hit its massive laser pulse, blinding or burning sensor (photocell, the image sensor or even the retina SIGHT fighter).

Military laser guidance horizontal produced by turning the tower vertically — with the help of precisely positioned oversized mirrors. Pointing accuracy "Stiletto" vibrations do not cause. To get an idea of it, quite remember what lidar LE-1, which begins with the NGO "Astrophysics", was able to shred for 196 seconds to put the laser beams in place of goal — ballistic missiles flying at a speed of 4-5 km / s.

The laser system mounted on the chassis 1Q11 HMP (tracked minelayer) Sverdlovsk plant "Uraltransmash." Were made of two cars that differ among themselves: in the process of testing the laser part of the complex being finalized and varied.

Formally, the SLK "Stiletto" to date is used by the Russian army and, according to historical booklet NGO "Astrophysics", meets the modern requirements of doing the military and tactical operations. But sources in the "Uraltransmash" say that instances of 1Q11, excluding the 2-experienced, the plant did not intend. A couple of decades later, the two cars were found in dismantled form, with the removed part of the laser. One — on recycling in a sump 61-BTRZ near St. Petersburg, the second — on a tank repair factory in Kharkov.

"Sanguine": the zenith

The development of laser guns in the NGO "Astrophysics" was Stakhanov pace, and in 1983 was put into service SLK "Sanguine". Its main difference from the "Stiletto" was the fact that the tide began to battle laser at the target without the use of large mirrors. Simplification of the optical system had a positive effect on the possibility of lethal weapons. But a more fundamental improvement was the increased mobility of the laser in the vertical plane. "Sanguine" intended to defeat optoelectronic systems of air targets.

Developed specifically for the complex system The fire allowing it to move around to shoot at targets. In tests SLK "Sanguine" has shown the ability to identify and strike a measured optical systems helicopter at ranges of over 10 km. At short distances (up to 8 km), the device absolutely incapacitates the sights of the enemy, and at maximum range blinded them to the 10's minutes.

Laser system "sanguine" was mounted on the chassis self-propelled anti-aircraft "Shilka". In addition to military laser mounted on the tower of a low-power laser probe and a receiving device guidance system, fixing the reflection of the beam sounder glaring object.

Three years after the "sanguine" Russian army arsenal ship filled with laser complex "Aquilon" the principle of the act, the same ground SLK. Marine basing a fundamental advantage over ground: Energy System warship can provide significantly more energy to pump the laser. And if you can increase the power and rate of fire weapons. Complex "Aquilon" intended to defeat optoelectronic systems Coast Guard enemy.

Self-propelled laser systems

Optics Optics against
The upper and lower rows of lenses SLK "Compression" — a multi-combat laser emitters with personalized guidance system. In the middle row are placed lenses guidance systems

"Compression": laser rainbow

SLK 1K17 "compression" was put into service in 1992 and was far superior "Stiletto". First difference, which is on the mind — the use of multi-channel laser. Any of the 12 optical channels (upper and lower line of lenses) had a personal guidance system. The multi-channel scheme to allow the installation of a multi-band laser. As a counter similar systems enemy could defend its optics filters that block the radiation of a certain frequency. But the damage to the joint rays sraznoy wavelength filter powerless.

Lenses in the middle row are aiming system. Small and big l
ens on the right — this is a sounding laser and receiving channel automatic guidance system. The same pair of lenses on the left — it's scopes: a small day and a great night. Equipped with night sight with 2-laser range finders highlighter. In the stowed position ioptika guidance systems, radiators and locked armored shields.

In the SLK "compression" was used solid-state laser pumping with fluorescent lamps. These lasers are fairly small-sized and reliable for use in automotive systems. This is evident from foreign experience: the American system ZEUS, mounted on the Humvee all-terrain vehicle and designed to "ignite" the enemy mines from a distance, mostly used a laser with a hard working body.

In amateur circles strolling tale of a 30-kilogram ruby crystal grown specifically for the "compression". In fact ruby lasers are outdated almost immediately after his own birth. In our days are except that they are used for the creation of holograms and information tattoos. The working fluid in a completely 1K17 could be yttrium aluminum garnet with the addition of neodymium. So called YAG-laser in pulsed mode are able to develop imposing power.

Is generated in the YAG with a wavelength of 1064 nm. This radiation of the infrared spectrum, which vslozhnyh weather criteria is subject to dispersion in the least degree than visible light. Due to the high power YAG-laser with a nonlinear crystal can be obtained by harmonic — pulses having a wavelength of twice, three times, four times shorter than the initial one. Makar is formed in such a multiband radiation.

The main problem at least some of the laser is very little efficiency. Even in the most modern and sophisticated gas lasers ratio of the radiation energy to the energy of the pump does not exceed 20%. Pump lamp require much much electricity. Massive generators and auxiliary power unit occupied most of the larger cutting self-propelled artillery 2S19 "MSTA-S" (already rather big), on the basis of which was built SLK "Compression." Generators charge the capacitor bank, which, in turn, gives a powerful pulsed discharge on the lamp. At the "gas station" capacitor takes time. Rate SLK "Compression" — this is perhaps one of the most mysterious of its characteristics and, perhaps, one of the major tactical shortcomings.

Self-propelled laser systems

SLK "Sanguine" is almost an anti-aircraft laser unit and serves to defeat optoelectronic devices aerial targets

In secret around the world

An important advantage of laser weapons, direct fire. Independence from the vagaries of wind and a simple circuit without aiming ballistics mean accuracy, hard-ordinary artillery. If you believe the official brochure of NGO "Astrophysics", which states that "Sanguine" could hit targets at a distance of 10 km, the range of acts of "compression" of at least twice the range, say, a modern tank. A means that if a hypothetical tank is approaching 1K17 in the open, it will be out of action earlier than the open fire. It sounds intriguing.

But laying flat — this is the main advantage and main drawback of laser guns. For his work need a smooth visibility. Even if you fight a war in the desert, the 10-kilometer mark will be hidden behind the horizon. To meet a blinding light, self-propelled laser to put on the mountain for all to see. In reality, the criteria for such a strategy is contraindicated. In addition, the vast majority of the theaters of war have at least some relief.

But when the same is hypothetical tanks are shot at a distance from SLC, they immediately get advantages in the form of rate of fire. "Compression" can neutralize a tank, but so far capacitor is charged again, the second will be able to take revenge for a blind friend. In addition, there is a much more long-range weapon than artillery. For example, the Maverick missile with radar (Blinding) guidance system is run at a distance of 25 km, and overlooks the neighborhood of CLA on the mountain — good for her target.

We should not forget that the dust, fog, rain, smoke screens if not nullify the effect of infrared laser, then at least significantly reduce the range of its actions. So propelled laser system has to put it mildly, very a narrow area of tactical deployment.

Why were born SLK "Compression" and its predecessors? On this account, there are many views. Perhaps, these devices were considered as test beds for developing future military and space technologies. Maybe the military administration of the country was ready to invest in the technology, the efficiency of which at the time seemed incomprehensible, in the hope experienced by grope superweapon future. And maybe three mysterious machine to bukovku "C" were born as chief designer was Ustinov. More precisely, the son of Ustinov.

There is a theory that CLA "Compression" — a tool mental acts. Just the possibility of the presence of such vehicles on the battlefield forces spotters, observers, snipers are wary of the optics under the terror of losing vision. Contrary vserasprostranennomu opinion, "Compression" is not covered by the UN Protocol, which prohibits the use of blinding weapons, because that is created for the defeat of optoelectronic systems, not personnel. The introduction of guns, for which blinding people is the chance of side effects is not prohibited.

This version is partially explained by the fact that the announcement of the development of the USSR was strictly a secret weapon, including a "Stiletto" and "Compression", promptly appeared in the free American press, namely in the magazine Aviation Week & Space Technology.

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