The family Tu-22/22M

Finally made it to the requests Vladimir: Tell the family about all of the Tu-22. At the moment I do not know what will happen first — no matter how long, but one thing I can say for his translations of "Bekfayru" from the magazine "Interavia" made in the distant 1980s, I found. This alone may be the enthusiasm.

The family Tu-22/22M

The history of the family is likely begins with the April, 1954, the Resolution of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers on the development of bombers at 1300-1400 km / h at an altitude of 10-11 km and 1150-1200 km / h in 7.6 km. The decree was written out by OKB -156, in other words on the office Tupolev. The designated speed would be achieved at the highest, but still besforsazhny operation of engines, the range required more than 2300 km with a load of 3 tons, and the critical load — 5 tons Range with additional tank up to 2700 km, 13.5 km to the ceiling. The car dubbed the Tu-98, and it was to be presented to the state tests in December 1956.

Useful right here to write this.

In the United States in December — please! — 1951, the Air Force issued a requirement to own supersonic bombers: combat load of 4.5 tons (10,000 pounds of conventional Anglo-Saxon), the range of her 4260 km (2300 nautical miles usual Anglo-Saxon) and 7410 (4000 miles) from refueling. And — the ability to leap at M = 2.1 on a plot of 370 km (200 miles) at an altitude of 16,760 m (55,000 ft conventional Anglo-Saxon)

Here's the thing. Obviously Americana feel much more confident …

But they started a very innovative aircraft, faced with an abundance of problems, the final configuration of the machine has been chosen exclusively in 1954, and the first flight of the layout in November 1956. In late June 1957, the aircraft exceeded the two sounds, and in the middle of October was flying with M = 2 for 70 minutes. In other words, mind you, proparhal obviously more "ordered" 200 miles.

The plane that was — Convair B-58 "Hustler". August 1, 1960 the first car, it is equipped with all systems, was transferred to the customer.

The family Tu-22/22M

Still, not in vain, they feel more confident. Cool machine, if you keep in mind what year it was made. Here in 1960, the Air Force was only a few 10-s MiG-21 — the first of our series of fighters, capable of flying at Mach two …

The plane … made on the instructions of 1954, flew for the first time in September 1956. Tupolev did it, how could aerodynamically untainted — the engines in the fuselage, even gave up his own "brand" solutions — cleaning the chassis fairings on the wing, landing gear cleaned, too, in the fuselage.

The car was called the Tu-98:

The family Tu-22/22M

And it is completely out. The maximum that failed to flight test — get 1,238 km / h at an altitude of 12 km, which corresponds to M = 1.15. There were a lot of problems, among them are those that can hardly be overcome. For example, vozduhopoglotiteli for engines installed in the fuselage, were very longish, gave a very great resistance, so that the engines could not develop full thrust. Later, it affected the assembly of the Tu-22 …

In general, in 1958, closed the topic by focusing on the "product 105" — the first version of the future Tu-22.

***

His story begins in 1954, too, and also on the basis of the Resolution, but in August, as they say, taking into account the news of the American work on the "Hustler". They tried to make a supersonic car as a development scheme Tu-16, but quickly abandoned.

Naturally, there were a variety of options in the main on the engine, type of aircraft, too, was not formed at once, to study arrangements took 18 months. Timeout: sagittal midwing, two motors at the bottom of the keel, cleaning the main pillars in the thickened basal part of the center section.

That is what is required of the machine speed, up to 1580 km / h, the ceiling at supersonic speed over 15 km. Subsonic — fly combat loaded with an estimated three tons to 6080 km and 1300 km / h — 2250 km. Normal take-off weight was determined to be 60 tons, overload — 80 tons, with all this bomb load was supposed to reach 9 m Small arms — one 23-mm cannon firing forwards and twin of the same caliber — in a remote turret on the tail, it was governed by radioman operator, who was sitting in the common pressurized cabin, his back to the commander. The third was a navigator in the crew.

Under such flying characteristics examined several types of engines that existed largely still in project form. And, based on the most powerful of these projects are being worked article 106, which had to develop in 1800, and then the 2000-2200 km / h — same again, regardless of what it will be ready slider.

The family Tu-22/22M

105th flew for the first time in June 1958, and buried the hopes of his tests for the execution of the request. Developers, of course, had to figure it out a little earlier, and therefore before the end of the test of 105 working on a version of 105A.

On this machine is to put the engines NK-6, double-circuit, forced, with an unusual draft 21.5 m in afterburner. Seasoned ensure high standards are expressed even more — 22 tons, it was then the most massive air-jet engines in the world. But — did not work out, and work on the NK-6 in 1963 were closed.

The plane got VD-7M with afterburning thrust of 13 tons. Was later increased to 14.5 tons, and later even up to 16 tons (take-off — 10.5-11 m). But it is fundamentally less than 22 … Why am surprised that the airplane could not fly as fast as he sought from.

Yes, we must also say that the product is 106 "found peace" in 1962, never came out of a cardboard stage.

First flight took place on 105A September 7, 1959, and this machine was the layout of the series. It has been used so-called rule areas, the implementation of which provides a significant reduction of resistance to trans-and supersonic regimes. In addition, due to the imminent already developing missile-carrying aircraft version (about it — below) was enlarged bomb bay, which required the circuit configuration of the landing gear — on the wing of the aircraft appeared "brand" Tupolev gondola.

Real aircraft had the following properties: the maximum take-off weight of 84 tonnes (during takeoff from the accelerator — 94 tons), the usual combat load 3 tons, the largest 9 and even 12 tons, the highest speed 1,510 km / h (this is when traction engines to 16 tons), the practical range of 4,900 km. The number of 23-mm cannon was reduced to one in the tail set, with radar and television sights.

It should be noted that the indicated speed is adequate (or nearly match) requirements, written in later rulings on the aircraft: 1475-1550 km / h But, again, 1,510 km / h were reached far not once, not on the first framework of the 10-series machines.

The aircraft was built commercially
until 1976, 311 cars were produced. In 1965, began mass creation of machines equipped with refueling system — Tu-22RD scouts. This version was equipped with engines RD-7M2 with increased thrust and had the highest rate of 1640 km / h Wanted to say about this later, but I will say it is better for the moment all the intelligence machinery modification of the Tu-22P provide an opportunity for conversion into a variant of the bombers. In the missile — no, but svobodnopadayuschie bomb — yes.

We operate the Tu-22 over: in the Navy — in 1995, in the distant aircraft — in the late 1990s.

The aircraft is exported — to Libya and Iraq was delivered about 30 cars. Arab pilots were taught in Novobelitse near Gomel, and I'm in the 1970s beheld them — and planes over the city, and airmen in the city …

The family Tu-22/22M

Gaddafi has used its Tu-22, we can say how much in vain. In 1978, Tanzania bombed at the request of the Ugandan ruler I. Amin. In the future, the bombing of the suburbs of the capital of Chad helped one of the warring factions. In 1986, war broke out again in again to help her, bombing, namely, in February, the capital's airport runway at the sight of the French anti-aircraft gunners. But after 5 months actually in the same place they played, knocking one Tu-22 missile "Hawk".

In 1984, Gaddafi used his bomber in Sudan …

Iraqi Tu-22 were used extensively during the Iran-Iraq war, striking targets in Tehran and Isfahan. For the scale of it was really strategic aircraft.

By the way, I read somewhere that there was a case where the anti-aircraft rocket exploded inside the open (probably already empty) Tu-22 bomb bay, and the plane then flew safely to their own base. I do not know if it was true, and now I do not find, where he taught.

***

And now, for sure, it's time to start about migraine. In fact, I think because of that my remarks — that "Bekfayry" gave a migraine "us and them", — Vladimir and asked me to write about Tu-22/Tu-22M.

"Twenty-second" in the main tortured us. Tests were accompanied by tragedies and disasters. The first "covered" the most experienced of the 105th: not graduated one leg landing gear, after the emergency landing of the device did not recover, because it was clear that the need to work with 105A.

December 21, 1959 the second most experienced machine, already 105A, soon after entering the supersonic run across in an uncontrolled dive, saved only operator-gunner. The cause led to a flutter of the elevator, and the aircraft was set all-moving horizontal tail.

September 2, 1960 On the first test flight after the crash crew barely put the car came into the mode of progressive longitudinal vibrations. In November, because of trifling damage besides the commander-tester had to land the plane on its belly in the field.

Later, there were two crash during testing, and later went to the aircraft and troops there began to fight already massively. If we add that Tupolev judgments of weight reduction performed with the system bailout "shot" not up and down, it is not surprising that some Air Force crews simply refuses to fly on the new bomber.

However, it should be said that numerous scrapes revealed a sudden dignity machine: it turns out that this is a supersonic miracle Yudo, for which airfields specifically brought to the level of the first class with the extension of the runway to 3 km, it's magic can sit down on the ground!

I do not want there to rewrite all of the problems with the aircraft. Who are curious, you can read here. Namely, it says here that

"Estimated distinguished test pilot of the USSR Hikonova to 1975 was broken more than 70 Tu-22 of various modifications, many of them from the death of the crew."

And in the other source is found here:

"Lost 68 aircraft in crashes, killing 96 people personnel. Data on 12.04.2005. "

And it's not only in the accident. The aircraft had a lot of nasty features and in normal use.

***

But, you know, I need to get used to the correct size of the text. The article is longish, but I do not regret it: it was undertook to speak, so there is nothing to flog a fever. Especially since I have little problem — not just put a picture and list LTH (aircraft performance characteristics), and give some "portrait in the interior."

So let it be long, who do not need to, just do not be read. But the plan announced in November, the likely changes I have longish break up the posts to the applicable size, which I dubbed the value of 9-10, well, 12 million printed characters. Well, to be honest, me and most profitable way, except any future changes. It's a shame, you know, write, day after day, and later all the time to hang out. And a day later, again writing for the day, and a blog by two weeks did not occur.

Oh and I wish to say. As sources, not counting those that are already referenced, I served as the website and the book airwar.ru Ganin, Karpenko and Kolnogorova "Domestic bombers, Part 2."

So, here I interrupted. But know this: the second part is already written, it will be no later than one day or two on the third.

I draw your attention: hover your mouse over the picture should appear in a second tekstik. Maybe so fun — instead of the classic illustration of the signatures?

The family Tu-22/22M

A fascinating picture comes out. Here I am writing (in other words, not me, of course): a terrible plane accident-prone, and did painfully long, and did, in general, is not what we want, and what came out (remember the massive projects of engines, and has not got on the plane) served w … But it is not much less than the subsonic Tu-16, all disappeared from the ranks in 1993. This is despite the fact that 16 minutes was measured plodder, in fact, the same as the Tu-95 and B-52, which to this day still a long fly and will fly: Put on a proven, not very zamudrennuyu new instrument platform, electronics, and play …

Something as possible to keep the Tu-22 in service right up to the end of the 1990s — or is not allowed, and led? Why they were so long — what for long years the exploitation of their whims and diseases have been cured by the sly? Because, being normally mastered crew, they ceased to be quite so frank bugaboo? Either because they are very willing to change, but do not have the means to do this substitution?

It seems however, to call the Tu-22 is very much great success Russian scientific thought I would not Just as I would not say that it was a complacent machine, with which the pilot just deal.

Take, for landing speed, 350 km / h — it's hard lot. If the crew was flying slower, he was subjected to harsh threats: at a speed of 290 km / h the car is having a very pronounced alignment of the back, lifted up her nose and a candle fell on the tail and rudder are no longer enough for a conclusion. At the same time, the conventional approach to pilot always had to be on guard, because the engines, thrust vector which is far above the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, made remarkable moment on the dive.

The plane was jumping on the run because of the sustained oscillations in carts chassis. From time to time from the drop-down locks racks …

There were fatal problems with avionics and engines. In addition, the mass acted for various reasons, the restrictions imposed. Because of wing flutter highest speed had to limit the number of M = 1.4. The
angle should not exceed 50 °, and the vertical speed that up, that down — 100 m / s. Operating load was limited to some unconvincing to combat supersonic aircraft size — 2 units.

And yet the mass of all, the least "talking" to a layperson (I did not you, it's me and myself, too.)

However, even in this part there is a "ray of light". If you take the number of accidents and disasters on a plane released, then this value will be significantly higher than that of subsonic predecessor — the Tu-16. But the number of victims (estimated for the period 1960-1989.) Was three times less — thanks to the third generation of the ejection seat, KB Tupolev developed in light of the experience of previous operating machines.

But even the highest accident rate — is not all.

***

From the Tu-22 bomber went bad!

More precisely, I can not exactly say that specifically in the case that the plane performed poorly with the functions of the bombers. But from the first 20 vehicles produced by the Kazan, none was a bomber. Those that have been made in the bomber version, used in the military as training, a lot of copies has been transformed into seasoned scout standards Tu-22P aircraft and electronic warfare (EW) Tu-22P (from "director" [noise]).

And actually bomber Tu-22B, "intended to bomb attacks during the day and in all weather conditions NIGHT MODE", was built only some of 20 copies. Ah, described the situation in the Air Force Commander Vershinin letter to the Minister of Defence Malinowski from March 31, 1965:

"… Just in the Air Force and naval aviation in the current time is 105 Tu-22 engines with VD-7M (83 Scouting, 5 bombers, 6 jammers and 11 training)."

(Quoted from the book: Eugene Podrepny, "Jet breakthrough Stalin." Do not look at the scathing title — in my opinion, its publisher of fiction, based on their own ideas about marketing (or merchandising?).'s Not a bad book, that is, she gave me very vivid idea of what the transition to jet aircraft was for the industry, for the plants. know, is always useful to read what-nibudt huge detail. As you open up to such tasks, such topic that yourself, then do not come to mind …)

Another thing is that this designation appropriated spies Tu-22P, which were converted into bombers — namely, specifically the machines were in Libya and Iraq. It was an opportunity for such improvements and training of Tu-22U, and for the Tu-22P.

Also for the bombers Tu-22K. Here is the version built in a quantity of 100 copies was, for all the above-noted shortcomings, really fighting.

***

Develop a missile launched almost simultaneously with the bomber variant 105A products. Initially meant to be suspended under the fuselage semi-flush state cruise missile K-10P — enough to launch a major upgrade to 10C, which is armed with missile-carrying version of the Tu-16. With a length of about 10 m, and a launch weight of about 4.5-5 m K-10E was to have a speed of 2700-3000 km / h and a range of up to 300 km. But it turned out that the processing requires very much serious, and research and development on the rocket shut down.

A missile-carrying TU-22 decided to equip the Kh-22 (in their language AS-4, or Kitcen). This is quite a big thing: the length of about 11.7 m, starting weight, depending on the version, up to 6000 kg. The choices were different, and a guidance system and warhead, the latter could be ordinary, but could and fusion, from 0.35 to 1 Mt. And speed with various modifications were different, but always very highest from 3.5 to 4.6 M, and later even to 6 AM and range depend on the modification, as the characteristics of the flight of the carrier at the time of launch, it was the spectrum from 140 to 600 km. However, for the Tu-22 last figure was not achieved because the requested media speed 1720 km / h Maximum for the Tu-22, it seems, about 500 km.

Development of the media — this range 5800 km at 980-1000 km / h or 2,500 km in 1200-1300 km / h — Started in 1958, first flew layout in 1961.

Testing of aircraft missile complex Tu-22K was on tight, state tests were delayed for a couple of years. Since 1965, Kazan began serial production of the built, 76 to 69 cars. With all of this on arms Tu-22K was adopted only at the end of 1968, and then conditionally: debugging complex is not over yet. And it ended only in February 1971, officially adopted.

During this period, there was also slider RD-7M2 with a thrust of 10.6 / 16.5 m, and the refueling system — as I have said, the machine became known as the Tu-22KD. The aircraft could develop up to 1,640 km / h, but without the rocket. Ferry range 5,650 km, practical — 4900 km, with one refueling — 7150 km.

The family Tu-22/22M

What else to say? The total number of machines built styled, major modifications listed, while the output of the service we gave, about Libya and Iraq have mentioned. And migraines caused by "us", after all, also outlined.

And, here is what! About migraine "them"!

Western experts at the first time saw the Tu-22 on parade in Tushino in 1961. They did not know how long the process will last even bring the car to combat the condition and that in general it will turn out. They beheld one thing: flying supersonic Russian far bomber. They named it the name Blinder and began his fear.

And it was then!

At that time, as the standard NATO aircraft was elected dvuhmahovy Lockheed F-104 "Starfighter". He, no doubt, could intercept the Tu-22, but it just started to appear in Europe. And that was in Europe excluding him?

Was very good, just the same outstanding for its time dvuhmahovy same fighter Inglish Electric "Lightning." But of the whole of Europe it was only in the UK, and was released "Lightnings" in the amount of 334 pieces, including some that went to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, and for 1961 year they were too little.

There was a North American F-100 "Super Sabre". But his speed a little did not reach 1,400 km / h, and, of course, it was necessary to be afraid that he would not be able to catch up with the Russian supersonic bomber — which, in general, correspond to reality. And again the same "Super Sabres" in Europe was too small: 85 in France, 48 in Denmark and 131 in Turkey.

Stunning French Dassault "Mirage III» in 1961, only started to operate, in other words, it is also practically it was not, and certainly was not entirely clear how awesome it would be.

In 1961, Europe was flying in the main subsonic!

In the British Royal Air Force was the whole deposit types, the best of which may be referred to the Hawker "Hunter", Supermarine "Swift" Gloucester "Dzhevlin" and deck De Hevilend "Sea Viksne." France could boast of good cars first family of Dassault "Mister", the latter of which have been modified even transonic, and deck 'Etendard. "

The rest of the Europeans, and of the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun, used by South American types: North American F-86 "Sabre" and Ripablik F-84F «Tanderstrik." Italy, Germany and Portugal are still using the Fiat G.91, similar to the secondary, "Sabre", neutral Sweden was flying on their own Saab J-29 "Tunnan" and A/J-32 "Lance" …

All — sonic!

It turned out that the fight with supersonic bombers Europe in 1961 was practically nothing.

The family Tu-22/22M

So the political significance of the Tu-22 at one time was undeniable — regardless of his "dorastaniya" before this war machine.

That's what I call a headache "from them." Of course, later they saturated the European Air Force supersonic fighter jets, dealt with the non-shiny combat properties of the Tu-22. But that was later, and to this "later" we have prepared them with the latest migraine in the face of the Tu-22M, but that's in the next series.

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