In the traditional labor DN Wetlands "Soviet small arms," cited a letter written by a group of soldiers known engineer VA Degtyarev August 23, 1942: "We are often tempted idea how severe the instrument would be against anti-tank gun … Antitank gun could be fired decisive tool in preventing attacks of the enemy and the liquidation of its manpower. "
However, the idea of anti-tank gun was not new — it rises back to the First World War. And in the 20's — early 30's mnogokalibernye guns were created with the "anti-aircraft" and "anti" requirements. Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR in December 1929, reported to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) that "the accepted system of infantry weapons of the Red Army anticipates in the near future, the introduction of … mnogokalibernogo machine gun — to fight the enemy in the air and armored units, the caliber of 18-20 m / m. " But, as you know, reddish army received 12.7-mm machine gun. But in 1938 there was already a powerful 14.5-mm cartridge, designed for use in automatic weapons, and the designer of the Scientific and infantry weapons test site Simonin at its base developed 14.5-mm tank gun. In general, the most experienced on the reference did not get, and new patrons were the ammunition for anti-tank guns.
Meanwhile, in the midst of Russian majestically, in the same 1942, Degtyarev received the above mentioned letter, the designers CDB-14 Salischev Galkin and have already designed an anti-gun, but now it should be called protivobronevym. Apart from combat armored vehicles, it was intended to address, and other tasks. For small infantry units require rapid-fire cannon to fire on concentrations of manpower and equipment, the enemy firing points at ranges of up to 1,500 meters.
Vpribavok enemy bombers and attack aircraft are increasingly attacked from low altitudes and aircraft themselves had reservations and self-sealing tanks. And so the 12.7-mm DShK machine gun had to be supplemented with a huge armor-piercing bullets action, superior gun Degtyarev and Shpagin in reach in range and altitude. In December 1942, Chief Artillery Administration approved the tactical and technical requirements of a 14.5-mm machine gun.
Great enthusiasm to a similar manifest and the standard main armored control. The work plan for 1944, approved by the head of the self-propelled artillery HBTU Major General Nikolai Alymov November 11, 1943, were considered "developing the 14.5-mm anti-aircraft machine gun with an initial speed of the bullet up to 1300 m / s for installation on tanks" with the end (ready for test samples) in May 1944, and "the development of anti-aircraft tank under the 14.5-mm machine gun" for the "anti-aircraft defense mechanized troops" to the end of July 1944.
In 1943, the creation of a new machine gun began to Kavrov at Municipal Union Plant № 2. KO Kirkizha several constructors (note that parallel to the factory engaged in the modernization of the ANC). The team of KB-2 presented three options for tools, all with engine exhaust gases are automatics, but with different nodes lock. In accordance with the decision of Artkoma GAC was made with a standard bolt action, and a belt-fed machine Garanina only for ground fire. But the highest pressure generated by the 14.5-mm cartridge, made the operation of the gas engine automatic cutting, difficult extraction of spent cartridges, the vitality of the barrel was low when firing armor-piercing bullets.
In May 1943, the development of its own version of a machine gun began to head of the Department of Plant Design SV Vladimirov (1895-1956), taking as a basis its 20-mm aircraft gun V-20 engine with automatic sliding (in 1942, this gun is lost gun Berezin B-20). Together with the gun did Vladimirov VA Ryzhkov, AI Bulanov, PP Protasov, AP Finogenov, VV Kalinin, SA Harykin, A. Prokofiev. The work was hard, and in November 1943 the first machine gun entered the factory tests. In February 1944, the gun Vladimirov with upgraded universal wheeled tripod machine Kolesnikova passed tests for Research and Testing Ground in small arms and mortar.
Russian historian implements SB Monetchikov leads NIPSMVO Finally, in the midst of what the rest said: "… 4. Survivability design details gun meets the tactical requirements and outperforms previous testing 14.5-mm machine guns (note that gun Vladimirov was not the first brought to the field tests. — SF) … 7. Automation 14.5-mm machine gun deserves attention. Guns can find for themselves the use of anti-ton enemy gun emplacements and the defense of fortified areas. 14.5 mm machine guns can also be extensively used in air defense. "
In April 1944, GAC and the People's Commissariat of weapons prescribed by the number 2 to 50 machine guns, anti-aircraft guns and one for military trials. The machine gun was designated CPV-44 ("heavy machine gun Vladimirov arr. 1944"). On the troop tests gun and anti-aircraft gun fell immediately after the stateliness Russian war — in May 1945.
Universal machines undertaken or low stability, or languid, and the choice made in favor of certain plants for ground and anti-aircraft fire. Already in 1946, in the Department of Head designer of the plant number 2 under the CPV-44 developed a single, twin and quad anti-aircraft guns. Interestingly, in this time of E. Ivanov, VA Vvedenskii and SM cracking designed sverhskorostrelny multicore machine gun under the 14.5-mm cartridge, but the work was stopped.
In May 1948, have been proving ground tests CPV-44 infantry machine on multiple systems — GS Garanina (CB-2), GP Markov (WGC plant number 2), SA Harykina (Leningrad OKB-43) and the Kuibyshev Engineering Plant. Choice finally fell on the machine Harykina, modified in Kavrov KB-2.
And next year were adopted by ground, "the 14.5-mm machine gun infantry mnogokaliberny Vladimirov (PEP)", and its anti-aircraft version. Also in 1949, for the development of anti-aircraft machine gun in the CPV-44 and LSS-1 systems, the TAL-2 TAL-4 designers SV Vladimirov, AP Finogenov, GP Markov, I. S. Leszczynski, L. Borisov, ED and EK Vodopianov Raczynski was awarded the Stalin Prize. Creating a machine gun Vladimirov established plant them. VA Degtyarev (this name was given Kovrovskaya plant number 2 in the same year). Already in 1952 the plant has put the Armed Forces of eight thousand anti-aircraft CPV. In parallel, work was carried out on the installation of the 14.5-mm machine guns on tanks.
Automatic machine gun Vladimirov working on the scheme with a small barrel recoil his swing using extra energy of powder gases discharged through the muzzle device (amplifier returns). Chuck with a huge powder charge asks weighting the trunk. When moving the trunk it gives even the beneficial effect of allowing the automation to work smoothly, without greatly increasing the stroke length of the system, in other words, when comparable small size box. The trunk sheltered housing with windows for improved cooling. Gun box is stamped and riveted construction.
Automation is a leading link bolt to the bolt. The barrel is locked by turning the bolt. After inclined grooves bolt passes accelerator follower type as a transverse axis with a free planted on her five-rollers — to reduce friction. Turning the bolt accelerator is due to the interaction of the accelerator rollers with a sloping groove boxes. Bolt and barrel have their own revertible spring.
The trigger provides maintenance of automatic fire only. Shooting is from the rear sear. Shot is made after the closing on the arrival of the mobile system in the latest frontal position, so that part of the recoil energy is consumed by its inhibition. The machine gun has an automatic safety, eliminating locking the gate and shot properly attached at the trunk, feed the ribbon at the unrecovered cartridge from the link. Sear lever trigger gun is the interaction with the trigger pull installation.
Dining patrons — from nerassypnoy iron sectional tape with an open link. A slide-type feeding mechanism is assembled in the cap receiver. Veer tape feed from right to left is a permutation of parts feeder. The ability to switch the direction of the ribbon supply to facilitate the installation of a machine gun complexed systems. For the same handle can be installed in reloading recess box to the left or right side.
Flight range of 14.5-mm bullets achieves 7000-8000 m, and its knockdown by manpower persists over the entire distance, but sighting range is limited to 2,000 m, in the vast distances of very high dissipation hits, moreover, hampered observation of the results of fire and its adjustment.
The advantages of the system are comparable smooth operation automation (due to the weight of the moving rollers and its elements), no need for precise adjustment of a backlash, highest reliability in the operation of different criteria.
Wheeled machine to machine gun PKP SA Harykinym developed by the type of lightweight artillery gun carriage with split trail. Machine gun on the machine could be carried in a truck GAZ-51 or GAZ-63, to understand a few parts to carry, towed by a car on the rather short distances or rolled calculating forces on the battlefield. But already in 1952, KA Baryshev began development of a lightweight machine wheeled tripod scheme. Equipping the machine front bearing plowshare, he was able to reduce its weight compared with 2.8 times in the wheel, immediately improving shooting accuracy (due to the shift point the way forward in the ground) and Deflection. In 1955 the machine Barishev adopted it.
In 1949, in conjunction with a machine gun for service were taken quad JS Leszczynski, under the designation of the TAL-4 (as a means of short-range air defense Divisional), twin SV Vladimirov and GP Markov — TAL-2 ( to the regimental level). A single installation of the TAL-1 did Vodopianov ED and EK Raczynski. Note that the 14.5-mm machine gun was intended for use in air defense armored units, armored personnel carriers, armored trains, in the cover-up artsoedineny because first developed anti-aircraft guns mounted on self-propelled vehicles. But as the work requirements have changed, and all accepted for service LSD were towed. In contrast to the universal machine DShK and DShKM there were mechanisms pointing horizontally and vertically, the gunner seat (and his assistant), more comfortable sights. TAL-2 for firing at air targets supplied with the aspect dot sight VC-4, and ground targets could lead to a fire at a range of 1000 m with the introduction of the telescopic optical sight OP-1-14.
The design of LSD and LSD-2-1 had the following features: Match the axis of rotation of the rocker in the center of the center of the receiving window and gun belts feed out of the box through the stud frame, which helped balance the installation. For firing at air targets from the TAL-4 automatic collimator was used anti-aircraft sight APO-3-C, which came into the resolver mechanism, allows us to solve puzzle in order to meet the bullet with the speed, course and angles of the last dive. These characteristics calculation introduced by hand, which, of course, reduced the ability of setting the criteria rapidly growing flight characteristics of aircraft, but it was already a step forward in comparison with earlier anti-aircraft sights. By the way, specifically the 14.5-mm ZPU-4 "played" in the famous movie "The Dawns here are quiet …" instead of the 7.62-mm quad units "Maxim".
ZPU-2 and ZPU-4 armored personnel carriers were also installed on — BTR-40 and BTR-152 and BTR-50. Thus, TAL-2 became the basis of the installation ZTPU-2 chassis BTR-152: this chassis in the years 1952-1955 made 719 self-propelled (BTR-152A), and in 1955 x 1957 — 160 more BTR-152E. Experienced ZTPU-4 with the introduction of LSD-4 and BTR-152 was made in 1952 but not entered into service — small troop compartment difficult to calculate the placement of 5 or more boxes of ammunition at a radial firing.
In 1950, the Scientific and Technical Committee gave the job to GAU lightweight paired unit for airborne troops. Its made in a thread-40 ED Vodopianov, EK Raczynski and VI Gremislavsky by unifying a number of parts of the TAL-1. Installing received automatic anti-aircraft sight, the second (right) seat gunner, an additional frame for the second cartridge box. In 1955, she entered the service under the designation ZU-2. Reducing the mass of the installation and the ability to roll over the field strength calculations have allowed to ZU-2 is not the regimental and battalion vehicle air defenses. Then ZU-2 was replaced with 23-mm cannon Zu-23.
ZU-2 could be disassembled into parts weighing up to 80 kg. This allowed us to use it in the mountains, but here required the apparatus easier. Flak mountain setting ZSU-1 was developed in 1954 by R. J. Purtsenom and EK Rachinsky. But her statement on the arms of the detainee. Since the decision was made to throw in the production of only KPVT tank, the installation in 1955, successfully finalized for him. But here intervened "raketomaniya" that gripped the public administration in the second half of the 50s, and has suspended work on a lot of the receiver systems. As a result, folding ZSU-1 entered service only in 1968. First time these units were delivered to the army of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam as part of Soviet aid the country in the fight against South American aggressor. In the Soviet Army ZSU-1 were exclusively in the 70s, but then they put on is not KPVT, and the new 12.7-mm machine gun NSV-12, 7. 14.5 mm anti-aircraft machine gun widely supplied in the &q
uot;developing" countries, where wage war so far.
Tank gun variant — KPVT was created with the expectation of setting coupled with the gun, as the towers and turrets pivot. Accordingly KPVT was split receiver, short box, electric trigger, removal of spent cartridges carried forward. Cover very long harbored one hundred percent barrel since 1956. With such housing is made all the guns and CPV KPVT. Apart from the Russian T-10 tanks, armored personnel carriers BTR-60PB, -70 and -80, reconnaissance armored vehicles BRDM-2 armored vehicles armed with machine guns KPVT other Warsaw Pact countries, such as Poland and the Czech OT-64 armored personnel carriers, Hungarian PSZH. Together with LSD is widely promoted KPV machine guns and KPVT. Of all the families of the 14.5-mm machine guns specifically KPVT tank was the most long-lived.
Machine gun Vladimirov took to arms not just the Army. So, on the orders of the Strategic Rocket Forces destination Tula TsKIB COO developed machine gun to protect stationary and mobile missile complexes: namely, in 1964, created the installation with the introduction of the tower from the BRDM-2 with a 14.5-mm machine gun and 7.62 KPVT — mm PKT.
In March 1946, the management of the Navy approved the tactical and technical requirements for the design of 3 models of paired 14.5mm installations. Commissioned the development of OKB-43 by M. N. Kondakova. Installing 2M-5 was designed to torpedo boats, 2 M-6 — for armored and 2M-7 — for trawlers. Tumbovaya deck vertically coupled installation 2M-7 adopted by the Navy in 1951, and in 1952 — the deck turret 2M-5 and tower-2M-6. 2M-5 plants were equipped with torpedo boats projects "123 bis" and "184" settings 2M-6 — armored project "191M" and part of the boats of the "1204", 2 M-7 — patrol boats of the "Grief" project "1400" and project "368T", minesweepers projects "151», «361T», etc. These settings let Tulamashzavod.
Already in 1999 the plant. VA Degtyarev introduced the 14.5-mm single-barrel machine gun marine tumbovuyu MTPU with KPVT to arm boats.
About the Service
Although armed with a machine gun Vladimirov Army remained in the main tank in the embodiment of his "easel" modifications are also used in various wars and conflicts. Thus, during the Afghan War 14.5-mm machine gun on an infantry machine was with DShKM and HCB-C-12, 7 on many roadblocks. In the fighting in the ravines and hollows effective are mnogokalibernyh combination of direct fire machine guns and automatic grenade hanging fire.
14.5-mm machine guns used and Afghan spooks — in the main copy machine gun Vladimirov made in China and Chinese plants.
In the conflicts of the past decades tank KPVT often undergo a "reverse conversion" — was transferred to the "infantry" option, putting on makeshift portable or towed unit. Such units could behold in Yugoslavia, Chechnya, Armenia.
"Monopoly" 14.5-mm machine guns as weapons disrupted the emergence of several armored personnel carriers BTR-80A, armed with a 30 mm cannon, but the number of APCs is not so great.
Several zabugornyh armies (Germany, France, Switzerland, etc.) for the same purposes for which was created CPV has an easy 20-mm automatic cannon. However, in the 80-ies of XX century has attracted the attention of a vast 15.5-mm machine gun BRG15 MILO Belgian "Fabrique Nationale" with a ground machine. But he never came out of the pilot stage, as, by the way, and then makes a trial installation on "Infantry" machine guns caliber 25-30 mm. Competitiveness languid mnogokalibernyh machine guns and small-caliber automatic guns began long ago and still continues.
Allowance of ammunition
But back to the base at least some guns — patron. For a machine gun Vladimirov first used already produces 14.5 h114 cartridges with armor-piercing incendiary bullet B-32 and BS-41 bullet, also adopted, along with a machine gun version with armor-piercing incendiary tracer bullet BZT set up to shoot at low-flying targets, lightly armored Technology, group goals, adjust the shooting. Options B-32 and BZT were basic but puzzles, for which he served machine gun Vladimirov claimed expanding family of 14.5-mm rounds. In the 50-60s with ammunition taken sighting incendiary bullet-PPs and incendiary bullet of instant offense MDZ (to destroy air targets and unarmored military equipment). There are, of course, and idle, and training ammunition. Already in 1989, worked out the 14.5-mm cartridge with armor-piercing incendiary bullet BS dural shirt, carbide core and increased armor penetration. Measures have also been upgraded with a bullet cartridge MDZM in 2002 — a cartridge with the upgraded bullet BZT-M. Typically, its main innovation was the ignition of the tracer at a distance from the muzzle, which is less blinding shooting and reduces flare night sights. 14.5-mm cartridge (the most powerful of the mass-produced small arms ammunition) seems to remain in service for a long time yet.
BASIC Properties KPVT
Cartridge 14,5 x114
Body weight machine gun, unloaded 52.5 kg
— 2000 mm machine gun body
— 1350 mm Barrel
The initial velocity of the bullet 990-1000 m / s
— Accurate firing at ground targets 2000m
— direct shot on goal height of 2.7 m of 1050 m
— Accurate firing at air targets 1,500 m
Rate of fire 600-650 rounds / min
Combat rate of 70-90 rounds / min
Tape capacity of 50 rounds