If indeed been the case that arose under a million Russian tricolor flags and not on the life and death of the Red Army fought against for a free Russia, shoulder to shoulder with their German allies, we would be left no choice but to admit that, yes, Lofty Russian really was for the Russian people second civilian. But is it there?
To find out, one way or not, should answer a few questions: How much did they were, who they were, how they got to the office, how and with whom they fought and what did they moved?
WHO SHOULD CONSIDER?
Cooperation Russian people against the invaders took place in various forms, such as the degree of voluntariness, and the degree of involvement in the armed struggle — from the Baltic SS volunteers angrily fought at Narva, up against the will of stolen in Germany "ostarbeiters." I believe that even the most hard-nosed latest anti-Stalinist fail not palter enroll in the ranks of fighters with the Bolshevist regime. Usually, in these series are enrolling those who received rations from the German military or police service, or holding a weapon acquired from the hands of the Germans or pro-German local governments.
In other words, the maximum potential in the men fall to the Bolsheviks:
foreign military units of the Wehrmacht and the SS;
Eastern security battalions;
operation of the Wehrmacht;
Wehrmacht support staff, they are also 'our Ivans "or Hiwi (Hilfswilliger:« voluntary helpers ");
auxiliary police units ("noise» — Schutzmannshaften);
"Helpers Defense" mobilized to Germany bands of youth organizations;
How many were there?
There are no clear figures we may never know, because they had not really considered, but some estimates are available to us. The lower bound can be obtained from the archives of the former NKVD — up to March 1946 has been transferred to the bodies of 283,000 "Vlasovtsev" and other collaborators in the form. An upper bound can be possible to take the work out of Drobyazko, kotorye sluzhat main source version numbers for the champions' second civil. " According to his calculations (the way he, unfortunately, does not open) by the Wehrmacht, SS and the various pro-German paramilitary and police forces during the war years passed:
70,000 Central Asians
12,000 of the Volga Tatars
10,000 Crimean Tatars
30,000 North Caucasian peoples
Because the total number of former Russian people, which were pro-German and German uniforms, they were estimated at 1.2 milliona, then the share of Russian (excluding the Cossacks) is about 310,000 people. There are, of course, and other calculations, giving the smallest total number, but let's not be penny wise, take the following arguments for the base upper bound im.Drobyazko.
Who were they?
Hiwi and operational fighter battalions heavily considered civilian war fighters. Naturally, their work for the front extricated German fighter, but exactly the same way as it applies to the "ostarbeiters." From time to time hiwi received weapons and fought together against the Germans, but such cases in magazines fighting is often described more as a curiosity than as a general phenomenon. It is interesting to count how many were those who actually carried a gun.
Number hiwi at the end of the war Drobyazko yields about 675,000 if you add order parts and take into account the decline in the course of the war, then I think we are not mistaken, suggesting that this category covers about 700-750,000 people out of the total number of 1.2 million is in agreement with a little bit of non-combatant in the middle of the Caucasian peoples, based submitted headquarters troops in the eastern end of the war. According to him, out of the total number of 102,000 Caucasians passed through the Wehrmacht and the SS, 55,000 served in the legions, the Luftwaffe and the SS and 47,000 in hiwi and order parts. Keep in mind that the fraction of Caucasians enrolled in combat units was higher than the fraction of Slavs.
Thus, of the 1.2 million who wore German uniforms only 450-500 thousand made it, holding a gun. Let us now try to calculate the layout really combat troops Eastern nations.
Asian battalions (Caucasians, Turks and Tatars) was formed by 75 units (80,000 people). With 10 of the Crimean police battalions (8,700) Kalmyks and special parts is approximately 110,000 "combat" Asians out of a total 215,000. This completely thrashes with the layout separately for Caucasians.
Baltic Germans gave 93-name police battalions (later reduced to a part of the shelf), a total of 33,000 people. In addition, it was formed 12 pogranpolkov (30,000), partly manned by the police battalions were then made three SS divisions (15, 19 and 20) and two volunteer regiments, through which, perhaps, was about 70,000 people. On their part the formation of facing police and border regiments and battalions. Given the absorption of some other parts, just a battle of the Baltic states was about 100,000.
In Belarus, was formed 20 police battalions (5,000), of which 9 were considered Ukrainian. After the introduction in March 1944 of mobilization, police battalions joined the army of the Belarusian Central Rada. Just the edge of the Belarusian Defense (BKA) were 34 battalions 20,000 people. Stepping back in 1944 together with German troops, these battalions were reduced in the SS-Brigade Ziglinga. Then, based on the team, with the addition of Ukrainian "policemen", residues Kaminski Brigade and even the Cossacks, was launched the 30th Division of the SS, and then used for completion of the 1st Division of the Vlasov.
Galicia was once stopped by the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was seen as potentially the German territory. It was divided from the Ukraine, is included into the Reich, as part of the governor-general of Warsaw and in the queue for Germanization. On the territory of Galicia was formed 10 police battalions (5,000), and was later declared a call for volunteers in the Waffen-SS. It is believed that by recruiting areas was 70,000 volunteers, but many were not. In the end, one was formed SS Division (14th) and 5 police regim
ents. Police shelves when needed, disbanded and sent to the completion of the division. The total contribution of Galicia to the victory over Stalinism can be estimated at 30,000 people.
In the rest of Ukraine was formed 53 police battalions (25,000). It is clear that a small part of them became part of the 30th SS Division, the fate of others is unknown to me. After the formation in March 1945 Ukrainian counterpart ACPD — Ukrainian State Committee — Galician 14th SS Division was perimenovana the 1st Ukrainian and formation of the 2nd. It forms the Ukrainian nationality of volunteers recruited from various support groups, gathered about 2,000 people.
From the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian was formed about 90 security "ostbatalonov" through which passed approximately 80,000 people, including here in the reformed security battalions 5 "Russian National People's Army." Among other Russian military units can remember the 3000th 1st Brigade natstonalnuyu Russian SS Gil (Rodionova), who joined the partisans, about 6000th "Russian National Army" and the army Smyslovskogo Kaminski ("Russian People's Liberation Army"), which arose as the so-called self-defense forces Lokotskoy republic. The highest estimate of the number of people passing through the army Kaminsky achieve 20,000. After 1943, the troops of Kaminsky's retreat together with the German army in 1944 and attempts to reshape them in the 29th SS Division. For a variety of circumstances pereformirovanie canceled and personnel were transferred to the fitting of the 30th SS Division. At first, 1945, the Armed Forces Committee of Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (Vlasov army). First division of the army formed "ostbatalonov" and remains of the 30th SS Division. The second division is formed from "ostbatalonov," and part of the volunteer prisoners of war. Number of Vlasov before the end of the war is estimated at 40,000 people, of whom about 30,000 were former SS men and ostbatalontsy. In total, the Wehrmacht and the SS with arms made war at different times around 120,000 Russian.
The Cossacks, the estimated Drobyazko, put 70,000 people will take this figure.
How did they get in the office?
Initially equipped with the eastern part of the volunteers from among the prisoners and the local population. Since the summer of 1942, the principle of recruitment of the local population changes from voluntary to voluntary-compulsory — the volunteer candidate entering the police is forced deportation to Germany, "ostarbeiters." To illumine 1942 begins prinudilovka nothing overt. Drobyazko in his thesis knows about the round-up of men in the area Shepetovki: Poymanov offered a choice between the arrival of the police or sent to the camp. Since 1943 introduced of mandatory military service in a variety of "self-defense" Reich Commissariat "Ostland". In the Baltic states through the mobilization in 1943 were equipped with the SS and the Border Guard.
How and with whom they fought?
At first Slavic eastern parts have been designed to carry a security service. As such, they had to change the security battalions of the Wehrmacht as a vacuum cleaner that sucks out of the backcourt needs of the front. At first the men ostbatalonov guarded warehouses and steel road, but as the complexity of the situation and to become involved in counterinsurgency operations. Involvement ostbatalonov in the fight against the guerrillas contributed to their degradation. If in 1942 the number went over to the guerrillas' ostbatalonschikov "was relatively small (although this year the Germans because of the mass to the overrun had to disband RNNA), in 1943, 14 thousand guerrillas escaped (and it is very, very lot, with the average number in the eastern parts of 1943 about 65,000 people). Follow the upcoming expansion ostbatalonov the Germans did not have any power, and in October 1943 the remaining eastern parts sent to France and Denmark (disarmed at all it 5-6 thousand volunteers as unreliable). There, they were included as 3 or 4 battalions to regiments of German divisions.
Slavic Eastern battalions, with very few exceptions, were not used in the fighting on the Eastern Front. In contrast to their substantial number of Asian ostbatalonov were involved in the first band of upcoming German troops during the Battle of the Caucasus. The results were inconsistent fights — some have shown themselves well, others — on the contrary, were infected with the mood of desertion and was given a large percentage of defectors. By early 1944, most of the Asian battalions also appeared on the West Wall. Remaining in the East were consolidated into the East Turkic and Caucasian connections and SS were involved in the suppression of the Warsaw uprising and Slovak.
Only at the time of the Allied invasion of France, Belgium and the Netherlands were collected 72 Slavic, Asian and Cossack battalion numbering about 70 thousand hours In general, and in general ostbatalony in battles with the Allies proved weak (with certain exceptions). Of the nearly 8.5 million of bad losses, 8 thousand were missing, in other words, most of them deserters and defectors. After that, the remaining battalions were disarmed and brought to the fortification works on the strip Siegfried. They were then used to form part of the Vlasov Army.
In 1943 were derived from the east and the Cossack units. More combat-ready connection of German Cossack Troops — formed in the summer of 1943 the 1st Cossack division von Pannwitz went to Yugoslavia, Tito's partisans engaged. There is uniformly collected all the Cossacks, expanding division in the body. Division took part in the fighting on the Eastern Front in 1945, fighting in the main, against the Bulgarians.
Baltic gave the largest number of troops on the front — not counting the three SS divisions took part in the battles separate police regiments and battalions. 20th Estonian SS division was defeated at Narva, but then vosstanvolena prninyat and has had a role in the recent battles of the war. Latvian 15th and 19th SS Division in the summer of 1944 have come under attack of the Red Army and the impact did not survive. Reported on a large scale defections and loss of combat power. As a result, the 15th Division, having transferred its own more robust structure of the 19th, was assigned to the rear for use in the construction of fortifications. The second time it has been used in combat in January 1945, in East Prussia, then again was assigned to the rear. She managed to give the Yankees. 19-I remained until the end of the war in Kurland.
Belarusian policemen and svezhemobilizovannye in the GCE in 1944 were collected in the 30th SS Division. After formation, the division in September 1944, was transferred to France, where she took part in the fighting with the Allies. Suffered a huge loss priemuschestvenno of desertion. Belarusians packs ran to the Allies, and continued the war in the Polish units. In December, the division was disbanded and the remaining personnel transferred to the staffing of the 1st Division of the Vlasov.
Galician 14th Division of the SS a little whiff of gunpowder, was surrounded at Brody and almost completely destroyed. Although it managed to quickly regain the role in the fighting at the front, it is no longer perceived. One of her regiment was involved in the suppression of the Slovak uprising, then she went to make war with Yugoslavia pratizanami Tito. Because far from Yugoslavia to Austria, the division managed to surrender to the British.
med forces were formed first ACPD 1945. Although the 1st Division of Vlasov was staffed almost completely veteran executioners, many of whom have already visited the front, Vlasov was floating brains Hitler demanding more time to prepare. In the end, the division still managed to vyperet Oder front, where she took part in one attack against Russian troops on April 13. Already for the next day, the division commander, Major General Bunyachenko, ignoring the protests of its own particular head of the German division was withdrawn from the front and went on to join with the rest of the Vlasov army in the Czech Republic. Second bout Vlasov army has held its own against an ally, attacking German troops on May 5 in Prague.
What did they moved?
The motives were quite different.
In-1's, in the middle of the Eastern armies can be distinguished national separatists who fought for the creation of their own state or country in the last least privileged province of the Reich. These include the Baltic states, Asian legionnaires and Galicians. Creating a piece of this kind has a long tradition — to recall the Czechoslovak Corps or the Polish Legion in the First World. These would fight against the central government, no matter who was sitting in Moscow — the governor, the secretary general or nationwide elected president.
In-2, were ideological and stubborn opponents of the regime. This could include the Cossacks (although some of the motifs were national-separatist), part of the personnel of the ostbatalonov, much of the officer corps of troops ACPD.
B-3 can be called opportunists who made a bet on the favorite, those who joined the Reich during the Wehrmacht victories, but the guerrillas fled after the defeat at Kursk, and continued to flee at the first ability. These may have accounted for a significant portion of ostbatalonov and local police. There were some on the side and front, as evidenced by the change in the number of defectors to the Germans in 1942-44.:
Fourthly it was the people who hoped to escape from the camp and at a comfortable ability to go to his. How many of them were — hard to say, but from time to time to type the whole battalion.
And, finally, the fifth category — people who wanted to survive more precisely. It gets the bulk of hiwi and work order parts treated as such is much more nutritious rations than in the camp.
And what did end up quitting?
A picture is quite unlike that drawn by fiery anti-communists. Instead of the 1st (and even 2-) million Russian, splotivishihsya under the tricolor flag in the struggle against the Stalinist regime unloved been very raznosherstaya (and obviously did not seek to a million), the company Balts, Asians, Galicians and Slavs fought every man for his own. And not in the main with the Stalinist regime, and the guerrillas (and not only Russian, and with the Yugoslav, Slovak, French, Polish), the Western allies, and even the Germans in general. Not very much like the war on civilians, is not it? Well, unless those words to refer to the guerrillas fighting policemen, but police were not fought in any way under the tricolor, but with a swastika on his sleeve.
For the sake of justice it is necessary to see that before the end of 1944, until the formation of ACPD and its armed forces, the Germans did not provide the ability of Russian anti-communists to fight for the national idea for Russia without communists. It can be assumed that they are solvable this earlier, "under the tricolor flag of" combined to more people, the more so that the enemies of the Bolsheviks in the country ostavlaos still abound. But this "would" and besides, my grandmother said, in half. And in the true story of any "million under the tricolor flag" was not observed.