Russian single PKM machine gun and its modifications

Machine gun Kalashnikov modernized the first to reduce the weight and to increase ease of use. Managed to reduce the weight by 1500 some changes were made: the fins removed the barrel, used a different design flame arrester, butt pad, pens reloading the trigger guard. To increase the rigidity of the receiver cover longitudinal ribs have entered. Butt got a new convertible shoulder strap. The upgraded version of the Kalashnikov machine gun had adopted in 1969 under the designation of SMP (index 6P6M). Over time, the wood plastic parts changed. In addition, was created by "night" PKMN modification, which can be mounted night sights — for example, the universal scope of the second generation bespodsvetny NSPU-3 (1PN-51) having a multiplicity of growth of 3.46 x 9.5 and a field of view that provides reliable detection of people at a distance of 300-600 meters, depending on the light conditions. The sight NSPU-3 has a mass of 2.1 kg and the illuminated reticle. Apart from it is also often used NSPU sight-5 (1PN83) having a multiplicity of rates of 3.5 x weight of 1.45 kg, the detection range of people in the dark 300 meters. Also on PKMN often set the four-time optical sights 1P29 or 1P43.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
PCM on a single machine gun bipod

It took a new tripod PKM machine 6T5, developed LV Stepanov. The design principle is used multifunctionality parts. The skeleton of the mechanism of vertical guidance during the anti-aircraft fire is used as a stand. The axis of the mounting sleeve is the hind legs-bottom. The mechanism of the machine gun mount and latch mechanism for securing the core vertical guidance during a combined anti-aircraft fire, and combined mechanism of the vertical axis and a narrow pickup mechanism mounting vertical lay. On the back of his right leg machine has a bar, which carries a box with a ribbon. This configuration is allowed to make carrying of guns during the battle one number calculation, the change in position without unloading the gun, also increased the stability of the machine at low mass. Folded machine number two behind the calculation is carried, in addition, it can be strengthened as two pack cartridge box, which allowed the march to free up your hands fighter. Machine Stepanova had a mass of 3.2 kg less than Samozhenkova machine, its design has 29 fewer parts (about 40%). The ratio of the masses of the machine and the "body" of guns was reduced to 0.6 (from 0.86), and the total weight of the machine gun (without belt) decreased to 12.0 kg, with all this patterning is stagnant. As a result, RMB / PKMS became one of the best guns on a combination of reliability, the highest combat effectiveness, combat readiness of the machine or the bipod and maneuverability.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
PKMS Kalashnikov machine gun on the machine design 6T5 Stepanova

Together with the PCM was created bronetransporterny PKMB. Weight of the machine gun mounted on the same swivel installation, decreased to 17.5 kilograms. To equip the patrol "peacekeeping forces" were asked to return the motorcycle unit machine gun.

RMB has been adopted in almost all countries of the world. He earned a reputation as comfortable in the appeal and reliable machine gun, which has excellent fighting properties. These evaluations have repeatedly confirmed during comparative testing and implementation of combat in armed conflicts and local wars in different parts of the world: Afghanistan, Chechnya, Vietnam, the Middle East and many others. Local military conflicts have become a prerequisite for popularity of the RMB. In the mountains and villages Fri units tried to equip your PC and PCM in the form of "manual" in excess of the state, because due to the greater sighting range and power chuck them more effective tool to support in comparison with machine guns under the submachine gun cartridge. For all this, however, as part of a platoon (department) violates the principle of "unity of the cartridge", but this unity has long been broken sniper rifles. It must be emphasized that the interaction of snipers and RMB settlement in combat has a good effect. Russian gunners using the modernized Kalashnikov machine gun on the bipod in some cases, placed in a 200 pack box of cartridges, tape backpack is served in a machine gun — in this case, has a twisted ribbon errant impact. During recent conflicts seen too many alterations and PKM machine guns PC. For example, the Chechen fighters altered the FCT, taken from the tanks in the "manual" with a makeshift iron butts and bipod.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
PKM machine gun with night sight bespodsvetochnym NSPU

A copy of the RMB in China is produced under the designation Type 80. Compared with an unusual gun she facilitated approximately 500 g Yugoslav factory "Zastava" was engaged in the creation of M84 machine gun in the infantry and tank variants. Manual version is different solid more powerful butt, made of hard wood. This, coupled with the PKM machine gun has proven itself during the Yugoslav wars in civilian combat with the Bosnian, Croatian and Albanian gangs. In Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania also produced a copy of the RMB.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
Machine gun PKMB

The order of discharge of one PKM:
1. Push cover latch receiver disposed in the rear thereof, and to give rise inside the cover.
2. If the tape is installed, remove it from the fingers of the feeder.
3. Ensure there are no legs in the extractor socket.
4. Pull the cocking handle back, look around and make sure that no cartridge in the chamber.
5. Close the cover of the receiver and push the trigger.

Technical properties of a PKM / PKMS:
Cartridge — 7,62 x53;
Mass of the "body" PKM:
no tapes — 7.5 kg;
equipped with a 100 tape cartridges — 11.4 kg;
equipped with a 200 tape cartridges — 15.5 kg;
Mass of the "body" machine gun pc:
without tape — 9 kg;
equipped with a 200 tape cartridges — 17 kg;
Length
of the machine gun on the machine — 1270 mm;
Length of gun — 1173 mm;
Barrel length — 658 mm;
The stroke length of rifling — 240 mm;
Rifling — 4 right-handed;
Muzzle energy — J 3267;
The initial velocity — 825 m / s;
Rate — 250 rounds per minute;
Rate of fire — 650 rounds per minute;
Effective range — 1,500 m;
Maximum range of slaughter act — 3800 m;
Blank range:
Figure for growth (height 1500 mm) — 640 m;
on breast shape (height 500 mm) — 420 m;
Capacity of the tape — 100, 200 or 250 rounds;
Weight ammunition box:
with ribbon over 100 rounds — 3.9 kg;
with tape on 200 cartridges — 8 kg;
with ribbon over 250 rounds — 9.4 kg;
Calculation — 2 people;
Median differences of hits per 1 thousand m:
lateral — 63 cm;
Vertical — 49 cm;
range — 19 m

Modifications PKM

The need to improve the efficiency of firing a machine gun with bipod and a machine claimed to find ways to partially compensate or eliminate the causes of worsening the accuracy of fire. To these factors include: fluctuations own and owe the barrel during firing; violation directness barrel as a result of uneven heating of the inner surface of the length and the outer surface of the cooling during the shooting ("leash trunk") above the surface of the formation of the trunk stream of heated air that forms on the band of sight effect of "floating target" or "mirage" of interfering with the aiming. Also were required to provide a higher intensity of firing without replacing the barrel and weighting machine gun — to save weight calculations and calculation time (except for a spare barrel). In the Central Research Institute of Tochmash (Central Research Institute of Machine Building A clear, Capital, Klimovsk) conducted work on the study of the ability to increase the survivability of the trunk and the accuracy of firing bursts of varying duration, lower crosstalk errors — without changing the design, size and geometry of the barrel, the device automatic machine gun and cycle basis. Group employees CRI (Deriagin, Denisov, Suslov, cast iron, and some other objectionable) embodies a complex design solutions proposed for this purpose in a single machine gun "Pecheneg" (code 6P41), made on the basis of the RMB. With all of this configuration were made functional, in other words, promote the solution of several problems at once.

Increase the hardness of the trunk and change the frequency of the oscillations of a broker of his own change of the external geometry, the introduction of additional enclosures, which are features of the barrel, contributing an increase of its stiffness, protecting it from the weather, and improving the conditions of cooling. In addition, the line of sight is protected from a hot air flow, and, as it should, the appearance of "mirage". At the muzzle mounted ejector which provides forced cooling of symmetrical barrel length. Ejector acts followed properly — outside air "sucked" into the gap between the outer surface of the trunk and the hood and "pulled" along the barrel due to partial vacuum, the image at the muzzle powder gases. This principle of forced cooling used by another machine gun, "Lewis" standard in 1915, but in the "Pechenegov" he claimed less massive and more than the construction of the ordinary. Trunk was provided by transverse ribs, paired parts of the specific heat and thermal redistribution helped stem the flow going away from him. Bimbo elongated handle carrying promotes longitudinal stiffness assembly of the trunk and preserve its thermal leash during intense shooting. It also provides extra protection from the "mirage" of the band is aiming.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
A single gun "Pecheneg" on the bipod
Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications

Increased structural rigidity of the barrel gave the opportunity to transfer fry the clutch and the gas at the muzzle, increasing thus Makar, a support base, as it should, and the stability of the gun during firing. The complex design solutions gun "Pecheneg" has permitted increment shooting accuracy during sustained fire and a bipod from the machine in comparison with the standard PCM in 1.9-1.7 times, respectively. Increased barrel life twice allowed to abandon the replacement of the second trunk, lower average withdrawal aiming point during the execution of huge ammunition load to a value that does not exceed a thousandth of a range. In general, mounting hole in the receiver left quick while maintaining the ability adjust the gap between the mirror and the bottom of the sleeve valve.

With all of this in the design of a machine gun, "Pecheneg" is used about 80% of the blanks and parts of PKM. This gave a minimum cost to deploy to CMH (Highland Mechanical Plant) in 1999, its batch creation, virtually eliminating the process of re-training of personnel. Gun 6P41 "Pecheneg" combat tests took place in Chechnya, earning accolades.

Technical properties of a machine gun, "Pecheneg" (6P41)
Cartridge — 7,62 x53
Body weight machine gun — 8.7 kg;
Length — 1164 mm;
Barrel length — 658 mm;
Rifling — 4;
The stroke length of rifling — 240 mm;
The initial velocity — 825 m / s;
Muzzle energy — J 3267;
Rate of fire — 650 rounds per minute;
Rate — 250 rounds per minute;
Effective range — 1,500 m;
Shooting accuracy, better provision of RMB:
with bipod lying — in 1.4-1.9
with the machine lying down — in the 1.3-1.7
Tape capacity — 100/200 cartridges.

Constructors CMH along with those. fine-tuning the machine gun "Pecheneg" 6P41 decided to create its modernization RMB. The result of this work was the most experienced gun AEK999. To improve the survivability of the trunk, it was made of steels used in aircraft cannon, used a new method of chroming his channel. The persistence of the 1st barrel increased to 30-32 thousand shots. On top of the barrel reinforced tire iron, which increases the hardness and protects the line of sight from the appearance of the "mirage". Accuracy is increased by newcomer flame arrester-compensator, muzzle brake. Bipod attached to the barrel from the muzzle on, with a fastening element has been modified to reduce the impact on the patterning of the loaded point.

Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications
Shooting a machine gun AEK-999 "Badger"
Soviet uniform PKM machine gun and its modifications

To increase the convenience was returned ordinary carrying handle. Set the plastic fluted shank — considering that the single guns largely used in "manual" embodiment.

It must be stressed enough that you have entered an exciting new product — the removable device is low-noise shooting (PMS), by which solved two problems — reducing the acoustic loads on the machine gunner, lowering visibility to the enemy machine gun firing by eliminating muzzle flash and reduce the range of hearing. This is important in the criteria of modern military conflicts with dispersed emplacements. At a distance of two thousand meters of a gunshot can be heard. In addition, the lack of muzzle flash reduces flare night sight. Refinement AEK999 lasts.

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