Anti-Soviet demonstrations and performances in the post-war countries building socialism began to vanish for under Stalin, but after his death in 1953, they adopted a broader scale. In Poland, Hungary, East Germany were mass protests.
Determining role in the initiation of the Hungarian events played, of course, the death of Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev, the following acts by "exposing the cult of personality."
As you know, during the second world war Hungary took part on the side of the fascist bloc, its troops participated in the occupation of areas of the USSR, of the Hungarians were formed three SS divisions. In the years 1944-1945 the Hungarian troops were defeated and its territory is occupied by Russian troops. Hungary (as a former ally of Nazi Germany) had to pay a significant indemnity (repair) in favor of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, who made up a quarter of GDP in Hungary.
After the war, the country has held free elections called Yalta agreement, in which most of the party had small rural owners. But the Control Commission, which was headed by Russian Marshal Voroshilov, gave only half of the winning majority of seats in the Cabinet, and the main posts were for the Hungarian Communist Party.
The Communists, supported by Russian troops arrested most of the favorites of the opposition parties, and in 1947 held new elections. By 1949, power in the country was represented priemuschestvenno Communists. In Hungary was set to Mathias Rakosi. Was collectivized, began a crackdown on the opposition, church officers and politicians of the former regime, and many other enemies of the latest power.
Rakosi, who is one?
Matyas Rakosi, born Mátyás Rosenfeld (March 14, 1892, Serbia — February 5, 1971, bitter, USSR) — a Hungarian politician and revolutionary.
Rakosi was the sixth child in a poor Jewish family. During the First World War, waged war on the Eastern Front, where he was captured, and joined the Communist Party of Hungary.
Returned to Hungary, participated in the government of Bela Kun. After his fall he fled to the Soviet Union. He took part in the governing bodies of the Comintern. In 1945 he returned to Hungary and led the Communist Party of Hungary. In 1948, forced the Social Democratic Party to unite with the CPV in a single Hungarian Labour Party (VAC), the Secretary General which he was elected.
His regime was characterized by ongoing security service AVH political terror against the forces of internal counterrevolution and the persecution of the opposition (so, was accused of "Titoism" and focus on Yugoslavia, and later executed last Interior Minister Laszlo Reich). When it occurred, and the nationalization of the economy accelerated agricultural co-operative.
Rakosi described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple", copying the Stalinist regime in fine detail, right up to the fact that in the last years of his rule Hungarian military uniform was copied from the Russian, and Hungarian stores started selling rye bread, which was previously not eaten in Hungary .
Since the late 1940s. unleashed a campaign against the Zionists, eliminating for all that their political opponents — Interior Minister Laszlo Raika.
After Khrushchev's speech at the Twentieth Party Congress, Rakosi was removed from the post of general secretary of the Central Committee of VAC (instead of the position he took Erno Gero). Soon after the uprising in Hungary in 1956 was taken to the USSR, where he lived in a slightly bitter. In 1970, he was asked to abandon active role in Hungarian politics in exchange for a return to Hungary, Rakosi but refused.
He was married to Theodora Kornilovoj.
What specifically have become a prerequisite REBELLION?
When it comes about the causes which began in Budapest in October 1956, the multi-million dollar rallies, then outgrown a massive mess, usually they say about the Stalinist policy of the Hungarian government headed by Matyas Rakosi, repression and other "excesses" of socialist construction. But it's not only that.
Let's start with the fact that the vast majority of Hungarians do not consider their country guilty of starting the second world war and believed that Moscow acted with Hungary is very unfair. And although the former Western allies of the USSR anti-Hitler coalition was supported by all the items peace treaty in 1947, but they were far away, and Russian — next. Naturally, were unhappy with the landowners and the bourgeoisie who have lost property. Western radio station "Voice of America", BBC, BBC and other heavily affected population, urging him to fight for freedom and the promise of immediate help in case of rebellion, including the invasion of Hungary in the area of NATO troops.
Bane of Stalin and Khrushchev's speech at the XX Congress of the CPSU gave rise to the sample release from the Communists in all Eastern European countries, one of the more striking manifestation of which was the rehabilitation and return to power in October 1956, the Polish reformer Wladyslaw Gomulka.
After the monument to Stalin was toppled from its pedestal, the rebels tried to do him the greatest destruction. Hatred of Stalin by the rebels sought to explain the fact that the wires at the end of the 40s repression Matyas Rakosi called himself a true disciple of Stalin.
An important role is played by the fact that in May 1955 the neighboring Austria became one neutral independent state, which, after signing the peace treaty were withdrawn allied occupation forces (in Hungary, Russian troops were in 1944).
Following the resignation of 18 July 1956 the Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party Matyas Rakosi new
favorite vac became his closest ally Erno Gero, but such small concessions could not satisfy the people.
Caused a great resonance Poznanski uprising in July 1956 in Poland has also led to an increase in the midst of critical sentiments of the people, especially among students and intellectuals writing. From the middle of the year got a great act "Petofi Circle" open a discussion in which the most pressing challenges facing Hungary.
RISE OF THE ROSE STUDENTS
October 16, 1956 students of the institute in Szeged organized out of the pro-Communist "Democratic Union of Youth" (Hungarian counterpart YCL) and the revived "Students Union of Hungarian institutions and academies" that existed after the war and overclocked government. Within a few days of office of the Union appeared in Pecs, Miskolc and other towns.
October 22 this movement joined the Budapest Institute of Technology students had formulated a list of 16 demands to the authorities and is scheduled for the October 23 protest march from the monument Bem (Polish general, hero of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) to the monument Petofi.
At 3 day or demonstration began, in what was the role, not counting the students, 10 of thousands of people. Demonstrators carried reddish flags, banners, on which were written the slogans of the Soviet-Hungarian friendship, for inclusion in the Nagy government, etc. In areas Jasay Marie fifteenth of March, in the streets of Kossuth and Rakoczy demonstrators joined constructively minded group Whooping slogans for other purposes. They sought restoration of an old Hungarian national emblem, an old Hungarian state prazdnichka instead of days of liberation from fascism, the abolition of military training and learned the Russian language. Other than that put forward demands for free elections, the creation of the government led by Imre Nagy and the withdrawal of Russian troops from Hungary.
At 20 o'clock on the radio the first secretary of the Central Committee of the VPT Erno Gero gave a speech harshly condemning the demonstrators. In response to this, a large group of protesters tried to infiltrate the broadcasting studio of Radio House, demanding broadcast the program requirements of the demonstrators. This attempt led to a clash with defending the home radio units Hungarian State Security AVH, in the course of which, after 21 hours there were first killed and wounded. Cannon rebels were either taken away from reinforcements sent to help protect the radio, and in warehouses and civilian defense trapped in police stations.
A group of rebels was leaked to the area Kilian barracks that housed three operational battalions, and seized their guns. Many stroybatovtsy joined the rebels. Fierce battle in the House of radio and around lasted all night.
At 23 o'clock on the basis of the decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR Marshal Sokolovsky commander gave the order to start the feature of the case advancement in Budapest to support Hungarian forces "to restore order and the creation of the criteria for a peaceful creative labor." Part of a special corps arrived in Budapest at 6 o'clock in the morning and came to fight with the rebels.
On the night of October 24 in Budapest were introduced around 6000 Russian Army troops, 290 tanks, 120 armored personnel carriers, 156 guns. In the evening they were joined by part of the 3rd Infantry Corps of the Hungarian People's Army (VNA).
In Budapest profit members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Anastas Mikoyan and Mikhail Suslov, the chairman of the KGB IA Serov, the deputy chief of the General Staff, Army General Mikhail Malinin.
Afternoon of October 25 came to Budapest 33rd Guards mehdiviziya, in the evening — 128th Guards Rifle Division, later assimilated Special Corps.
At this time, during a rally at Parliament buildings incident: the upper floors opened fire, resulting in Russian officer died and was burned tank. In response, Russian troops opened fire on demonstrators in the end both sides had been killed 61 people and wounded 284.
The failed attempts to find COMPROMISE
The other day, NIGHT MODE October 23, 1956 running of the Hungarian Communist Party had decided to appoint a prime minister Imre Nagy, has held the post in 1953-1955, which contrasted with reformist gaze, for which he was arrested, but shortly before the uprising rehabilitated. Imre Nagy is often blamed for the fact that a formal request to the Russian troops to assist in the suppression of the rebellion was directed not without its role. His supporters say that this decision was made behind him First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Erno Gero and former Prime Minister Andras Hegedyushem, and he was an opponent Nagy verbovaniya Russian troops.
In such a situation on October 24, Nagy was appointed to the post of Chairman of the Council of Ministers. He immediately tried not to fight the insurrection, but to lead it.
October 28, Imre Nagy acknowledged popular indignation fair, speaking on the radio and saying that "the government condemns the eyes, in accordance with which today's exciting popular movement is seen as a counter-revolution."
The government announced a cease-fire and the start of negotiations with the Soviet Union on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Hungary.
By 30 October, all Russian troops were withdrawn from the capital to their bases. The security bodies were dissolved. The streets of the Hungarian towns were virtually no power.
October 30, Imre Nagy government decided to restore multi-party system in Hungary and the development of a coalition government of the representatives of vac, owners of smal
l independent party, the Party and the State Farmers reconstituted Social Democratic Party. It was announced on the further conduct of free elections.
A rebellion is uncontrolled lasted.
The rebels had been captured Budapest Boroughs Committee vac, and above 20 Communists were hanged mass. Photo hanged Communists with signs of torture, with faces disfigured by acid, went around the world. This execution was, but condemned by the representatives of the political forces in Hungary.
Nagy is not enough that I was able to do. The uprising spread to the other town and has spread rapidly … There was chaos. Interrupted railway message, finished airports, closed shops, stores and banks. The rebels roamed the streets, catching employees of state security. They were recognized by the famous yellow shoes, torn apart or hung by their feet, sometimes castrated. Caught party managers tremendous nails nailed to the floors, putting in their hands portraits of Lenin.
OCTOBER 31 — NOVEMBER 4
Developments in Hungary coincided with the Suez crisis. Israel on October 29, and then the members of NATO, Britain and France attacked the USSR supported Egypt to seize the Suez Canal, next to which they landed their landings.
October 31, Khrushchev at a meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, said: "If we get out of Hungary, it'll cheer the Yankees, the British and French imperialists. They usvoyut as our weakness and will be abused. " It was decided to make a "revolutionary workers 'and peasants' government" led by Janos Kadar and the military operation to overthrow the government of Imre Nagy. Plan of operation, which received the title of "Whirlwind", was developed under the control of the Minister of Defense of the USSR ZHoru Zhukov.
The Hungarian government on 1 November, when Russian troops were ordered not to leave the arrangement of parts, has decided to terminate the contract and the Warsaw Hungary handed a note befitting the Embassy of the USSR. Hungary immediately appealed to the UN for help in protecting its own neutrality. Measures have also been taken for the protection of Budapest, on the case of "possible external attack."
Early in the afternoon on November 4 in Hungary began entering new Russian military units under the command of Marshal of the Union of Russian ZHoru Zhukov.
NOVEMBER 4. OPERATION "VORTEX".
November 4 Russian began "Operation Whirlwind" and on the same day were captured by the main objects in Budapest. Members of the government of Imre Nagy took refuge in the Yugoslav embassy. But the Hungarian State Guard detachments and separate army troops continued to resist Russian troops.
Russian troops were applied artillery strikes on pockets of resistance and spent the next stripping forces of infantry supported by tanks. The main centers of resistance of steel workers' suburbs of Budapest, where local councils were able to lead a more or less organized resistance. These areas of the town were the most massive artillery bombardment.
Against the rebels (in the uprising has taken the role of more than 50 thousand Hungarians) were sent Russian troops (a total of 31,550 soldiers and officers) with the support of the Hungarian workers' detachments (25 thousand), and the Hungarian state security bodies (1.5 million).
Russian units and who took part in the events in Hungary:
A special case:
— 2nd Guards Mechanized Division (Mykolaiv-Budapest)
— 11th Guards Mechanized Division (after 1957 — the 30th Guards Tank Division)
— 17th Guards Mechanized Division (Enakievskaya-Danube)
— 33rd Guards Mechanized Division (Kherson)
— 128th Guards Rifle Division (after 1957 — 128th Guards Motorized Rifle Division)
7th Guards Airborne Division
— 80th Airborne Regiment
— 108th Airborne Regiment
31th Guards Airborne Division
— 114th Airborne Regiment
— 381 th Parachute Regiment
The 8th Mechanized Army Carpathian IN (after 1957 — 8 Panzer Army)
38th Army Carpathian IN
— 13th Guards Mechanized Division (Poltava) (after 1957 — 21th Guards Tank Division)
— 27th Mechanized Division (Cherkasy) (after 1957 — the 27th Motorized Infantry Division).
Only participate in the operation:
• personnel — 31550 people
• tanks and self-propelled guns — 1130
• guns and mortars — 615
• anti-aircraft guns — 185
• APC — 380
• Car — 3830
END OF REBELLION
After November 10, before the middle of December, workers' councils continued their work, often going to direct talks with the commander of Russian troops. But by December 19, 1956 organs of state security workers' councils were dispersed and arrested their favorites.
Hungarians have emigrated en masse — have left the country almost 200,000 people (5% of the total population), for which Austria had to make a refugee camp in Traiskirchen and Graz.
Immediately after the oppression of the revolt began mass arrests: all Hungarian secret services and their Russian employees managed to arrest about 5,000 Hungarians (846 of them were sent to the Russian bullpen), of their "significant number of members of the vac, military personnel and students."
Prime Minister Imre Nagy and his government's November 22, 1956 were fraudulently lured by the Embassy of Yugoslavia, where they had taken refuge, and detained on the territory of Romania. Then they were returned to Hungary, and held over them tribunal. Imre Nagy and former defense minister Pal Maléter were sentenced to the death penalty on charges of treason. Imre Nagy was hanged on June 16, 1958. There were executed, according to some estimates, about 350 people. About 26 000 people were prosecuted, 13,000 of them were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. By 1963, all of the uprising were pardoned and released by the government of Janos Kadar.
After the fall of the socialist regime of Imre Nagy and Pal Maléter were solemnly reburied in July 1989.
Since 1989, Imre Nagy is considered a hero of the state of Hungary.
The founders were students of the performances and the workers of large factories. Hungarians sought free elections and the withdrawal of Russian military bases. Practically all over the country have taken the power of working committees. Soviet Union sent troops to Hungary and brought a pro-Soviet regime ruthlessly suppressed the resistance. Nagy and several of his colleagues were executed by the government. In the fighting killed several thousand people (according to some sources — up to 10,000).
First 50s on the streets of Budapest and other cities have been other demonstrations.
In November 1956, the director of the Hungarian News Agency, shortly before the artillery fire leveled his office, sent a desperate message to the world — telex, heralded the beginning of the Russian invasion of Budapest. The text ends with the words: "We will die for Hungary and for Europe"!
Hungary, 1956. Self-defense units on the border of Hungary await emergence of Russian military units.
Russian tanks were introduced in Budapest on the orders of communist control of the USSR, which enjoyed a formal request from the Government of Hungary.
First Russian armored vehicles on the streets of Budapest.
Execution of the communist rebels, Hungary, 1956. Yes. It was and is.
Factory committee in a small Hungarian town.
The contents of the bookstore, in which products are sold to Communist propaganda. The rebels destroyed the shop, throwing the contents out and betrayed his fire. November 5, 1956.
Budapest, 1956. In the city include Russian tanks surround them and agitate not shoot.
Gen. Pal Maléter — party second World War, Defense Minister Nagy Government, is in talks with the rebels. Stood on the side of the rebels involved in the fighting, treacherously seized during talks with Russian command and executed in 1958
Cardinal Mindzenti sentenced to indefinite detention February 8, 1949, the rebels had been released October 31, 1956. After a few days he took refuge in the countryside of South American Embassy. In the photo, Cardinal Mindzenti accompanied by their own liberators, November 2, 1956. Budapest, Hungary.
Rebels against tanks.
Budapest, 1956. Padded and occupied by Russian tanks.
Passers enthusiastically consider Russian anti-tank gun, padded in the Hungarian part of the street fighting with Russian troops.
During the fighting in Budapest in November 1956, Russian forces used tanks, various modifications, including heavy tanks IS-3 ("Joseph Stalin — 3") are shown at the end of the second world war. Budapest, Hungary, in November 1956.
Passers-by view of killed Russian soldiers who lie about downed Russian armored personnel carriers. November 14, 1956.
Budapest, 1956. Frustrated Russian tank.
The corpses in the streets.
Photojournalists are about a human corpse, a victim of street fighting.
Two Hungarian rebels with weapons quietly walk past corpses KGB officers Hungary.
Budapest, 1956. The shooting of an employee of the Hungarian police lurking (Allamvedelmi Hatosag).
The rebels rejoice execution of the Hungarian State Security officer. In the late 40-ies of the Hungarian state security, fulfilling orders Matyas Rakosi, produced in the country of terror against political enemies by type of Stalinist repressions in the USSR. In 1956, many of those affected in the process of repression, and their family members were the most active participants in the killings of members of state security.
The young rebel.
A young Hungarian woman in the ranks of the insurgents.
The streets of Budapest after povstannya.
After the street fighting between the rebels and Russian troops Hungarians streets of Budapest were only a solid debris.