Russia as before year runs more than any other country different from their satellites and space launch their rockets — up to 40-50 satellites per year.
For example, in 2008. Russian launched spacecraft 43 (U.S. — 18, Europe — 11 -15 China, India — 11), and in 2007. — 48 spacecraft (USA — 29, Europe — 12, China -11).
And in terms of funding for civil space activities of Russia in 2010. came in 4th place among other countries — 2.7 billion U.S. dollars a year (1.54 billion dollars — 2008, 1.34 billion — in 2007., and another in 2000 in this direction has been spent approximately a total of 150 million).
In comparison, the U.S. spends $ 18.8 billion dollars per year (17.9 billion — 2008, 18.8 billion — in 2007), the European Space Agency, the European Union (27 countries) spends 5.3 m JPL. dollars a year, and China — 3.1 billion dollars a year.
Commercial launches of satellites and rockets of various types — one of the main areas of modern efficient space that really brings substantial income country. And a good argument to back those who talk about Russia only as "raw materials appendage" …
Those Russian company-producers of launch vehicles, equipment, components, etc., which have retained experts and were able to come out with their products and technologies on the international market, now occupy an enviable position compared to many other sectors of Russian industry.
Telecommunications and television, navigation, weather forecasting, space exploration, monitoring and other areas require removal today to orbit the Earth all the more satellites in many countries of the world. The queue of willing countries and international companies it is there … and even growing.
There was even the term "world market of launch services" — commercial space launches, which is estimated to be approximately $ 100 billion dollars a year.
And experts believe that the annual volume of this very specific complex market growing at 5 percent.
A means (missiles and space launch sites, the required tooling, etc, and especially the various specialists and necessary experience) that allow you to do this, simply hold of the unit.
The main competitors of Russia (in 55 years of space exploration humanity! — Since 1957) in the global market for commercial launches are still only the United States and the European Union.
Tightened, of course, China (but only in May 2007. He produced the first commercial launch of a foreign satellite — machine communication "Nigeria-1") and has been made in this area makes India (again with the help of Russia).
Moreover, the Russian spacecraft launch vehicles (it is recognized by all) are the most reliable in the world. A monopoly is Russia in the coming years to launch humans for the International Space Station (ISS) after the stop (end) of the American program "Space — Shuttle" in July 2011. Only this reality confirms.
And this trend in the coming years (and in practice, apparently, until 2020.) Has not changed.
For example, the American NASA in March already announced that Russia raised the price for delivery of one astronaut to the ISS from 56 million dollars to 62 million dollars since 2014. This amount, by the way, is not only to deliver to the ISS, but two years' intensive training "foreign astronaut (including teaching Russian language), which will take place mainly in Moscow.
And, apparently, for the anniversary of space exploration will be for Russia 2011year especially commercial "harvest":
July 13 2011. from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Russian rocket "Soyuz-2.1a" (using the upper stage "Fregat") brought in six U.S. space satellites "Globalstar-2" for the corresponding communication system the United States.
After taking the 6 satellites into the target orbit, "Globalstar-2" were transferred to the control of the customer from the USA.
A 16 July 2011. Russian carrier rocket "Proton-M" orbited the Earth one more American satellite SES-3. SES-3 — for the global telecommunications satellite operator SES WORLD SKIES. In orbit is already a U.S. satellite SES-1, which was launched on a rocket "Proton-M" in April 2010.
Running the latest U.S. satellite SES-2 is also Russian missile to be held at the end of 2011.
In August of 2011. the UK's largest operator of mobile satellite communications "Inmarsat" has signed a contract with the company "International Launch Services" (ILS), the largest share of which belongs to the Russian "Center. Khrunichev "to launch three satellites from Baikonur" Inmarsat-5 "on the launch vehicle" Proton-M "in 2013-2014.
Aerospace and Russian tried and tested technology of manned space exploration is the main driving force of the export of Russia's cooperation with France and the European Union, as joint use of French space center in French Guiana and the Russian "Soyuz" — is, in fact, the largest investment project (in high technology) in France, Russia and the European Union.
In French (European) spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, has built a new autonomous Russian launch pad for start-Russian "Soyuz", which will allow for both Russia and the European Union in orbit with them twice as much payload as compared to Baikonur, because Kourou is located almost on the equator of the Earth.
The French in 2010. sold for $ 1 billion while dozens of "Soyuz" (plus a variety of technical "bells and whistles" on their launch), and the first launch of the Russian "Soyuz" from Kourou to be held at the end of 2011. If in practice the Russian missile launches from Kourou will go well, but the delivery and launches Russian "Soyuz" for France and the EU should easily recoup 4 helicopter carrier "Mistral", recently purchased by Russia in France.
In addition to commercial satellite launches, Russia became the first regularly "roll" to the ISS foreign rich space tourists for $ 20 million to "a week-long tour" (8 foreign tourists were brought to the ISS already!), And "Roskosmos" back in 1999. first sold to other countries' space advertising platform "- the side of the rocket" Proton "to host the commercials (the first was the logo of the company" Pizza Hut ").
And expensive "space tourism" is now more ambitious plans:
Russia has created for this purpose a new spacecraft repeatedly tested on the basis of the "Union", designed for six members of the expedition, four of which can be tourists.
The essential difference — not the crew seats in the same row, and facing each other. The new ship will be called "Rus".
Recently, the topic of space tourism is developing in the world very rapidly.
The most well-known project of the British Virgin Space, which is working with the company winning X-prize (ie the first flight beyond the atmosphere of a private ship with astronaut on board).
An innovative scheme to use Virgin Space, enabling them to reduce the price of the future 6-hour "space ticket" to 200 thousand dollars (but, in Test … building spaceports and taken from many wealthy clients advances, something about the practical implementation of this project it is not audible).
Apparently so, "Roskosmos" and its marketing partner International Space Adventures (established in 1998., Gives individuals the opportunity to fly in space) have decided to go the other way:
The company Space Adventures is offering potential customers to see from space is not only Earth, but the opposite side of the Moon, "using a unique combination of existing and proven technologies in the Russian missions."
Therefore, "Energia" develop (rather reanimate) Project manned flight aro
und the moon a professional astronaut and two tourists on board.
In Soviet times, the 60-70s such circled the moon was already fully prepared, even had several successful unmanned launches, worked out the basic operations … but then all the "lunar program" in the Soviet Union folded.
According to the plan, "modernized" ship "Soyuz" — "Rus" (tried and tested by hundreds of start-ups!) Will be launched into Earth orbit and then dock with the upper stage, delivered in the second space launch vehicle.
The second proposed scheme includes an interesting first visit "tourist" to the International Space Station (ISS) prior to docking with the upper stage, and then the flight to orbit the moon. These options are for the really rich … provide space flight duration from 9 to 21 days.
CEO of Space Adventures has already announced that the first commercial manned space flight to the moon and back on the modernized Russian "Soyuz" will take place in about 2015., And that the company has already sold one of two places on it.
And now completed negotiations with the second and really rich client, which will go on a flight to the ISS and the Moon.
And it should be noted the importance that the ticket for a space trip worth $ 150 million.
By the way, the amount of space "tourist trip" all three of these "space tourists" to the ISS and the moon is comparable with annual exports of Russian titanium products abroad.
There are other very interesting and profitable components of the "international space market."
For example, for many years the United States are regularly bought a Russian rocket engine RD-180 (NPO "Energomash") to equip its missiles "Atlas III» and «Atlas V».
Russia has a (very good money for) a long-term technical assistance to South Korea in the construction and equipping of its own spaceport, etc.
And China is selling modern Russian spacesuit "Orlan" for access to space (NPP "Star"), without which it would hardly have been carried out first Chinese astronauts into space in 2008.
(To space out two cosmonauts — one was in the Russian spacesuit "Orlan", and the second — in its Chinese copy of "Feytyan"). After all, space suit — a small, but highly complex autonomous spacecraft in which astronaut can hold up to 10 hours a day in the open space. Only Russia has a (fully tested and ready to use) even more sophisticated lunar space suit "Merlin."
There are also commercially viable projects "satellite cooperation" with some countries:
The Israeli company "Halal Tikshoret" in 2008. signed
with the Russian aerospace Siberian State University. Reshetova
for manufacturing in 2011. in the center of Krasnoyarsk Israeli communications satellite "Amos-5" worth 157 million dollars (not cheap "toy")
and in May 2008. other Israeli communications satellite "Amos-3" was also successfully launched a rocket from the Russian cosmodrome "Baikonur".
At the end of 2009. The Israeli telecommunications company RRSAT signed a long-term contract with the State Russian satellite operator — the company "Satellite Communications", the use of its newest satellite. Russian satellite "Express-AM44" was launched and put into operation in May 2009.
The Israeli company uses the Russian satellite for providing telecommunications services and digital television. The exact value of the deal by "leasing satellite" is not reported, but it is estimated that it is in the millions of dollars.
The Russian satellite, "rent" the Israelis, has 27 transponders and high-tech antennas providing coverage of Europe, the Middle East, Africa and America. It is through this satellite is currently broadcasting including Russian TV channels from Western Europe to the U.S. East Coast, as well as Latin America.
In the long term (based on the concept of long-term development of the country until 2020.)
Russia has the following objectives in this area:
— To maintain its leading position in the global market space, particularly on commercial launches — up to 30% of the world market (and in practice, it may be, and 40%);
— The increased presence in the market of commercial space vehicles, promote the expansion of foreign markets of the individual components of space engineering and related technologies;
— Access to the high-tech sector of the world market in this direction
(Production of ground equipment for satellite communication and navigation, remote sensing of the earth);
— The creation and modernization of the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS).
By 2015. Education is supposed to Russia three or four major Russian rocket and space corporation, which by 2020. will come to self-development, and will provide a fully release the rocket and space technology to solve economic problems, problems of defense and security, efficient operation of Russia in the international markets.
Today, the entire coordination and policy in the area of civil space exploration is the Russian state corporation "Roskosmos" ("Roskosmos" — is more than 40 state enterprises and 16 joint-stock companies, including the holding of "Almaz-Antey", and the Federal Space Centre "Baikonur" in Kazakhstan).
PS The source of the information provided are, of course, a variety of anecdotal evidence, published in the press. Although a rather big PR department, which is in the "Roskosmos" quite a long time and could prepare a more complete article on our export component of space exploration, but for some reason it does not.
So, I'll just be grateful for new and interesting data, updates, additions, and other experts on various topics … — "As a Russian space makes money."