Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)

The need for easy maneuvering and heavy machine guns have already realized the first world war and civilians. Since there was no private system Lightweight machine-gun, want to adopt the German system "Draize" using the military-technical ties with Weimar Germany. But the emergence of a successful machine gun Degtyarev system led to refocus on it. The headquarters of the Red Army issued a specification for designing a lightweight machine gun July 13, 1928. Thought unification of machine-gun armament that time has established itself in the family of machine guns Degtyareva to infantry, aviation and tank were to add mnogokaliberny and heavy machine (DS) machine guns.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)

First machine gun on the basis of "Degtyareva Infantry" on universal machine Kolesnikov was presented designer has 30 first-year. Then the gun more than once been crafted as varied requirements and identified its shortcomings. For example, in 1933 gun was adapted for the implementation of cloth band of "Maxim", and later under rassypnuju tape of the "Vickers-Maxim."

Apart from the VA Degyatreva gun involved in the development of SM Cracking, PE Ivanov, AI Kuznetsov (master) and ND Zernyshkina (mechanic).

Easel Degyatreva gun after numerous modifications became less uniform with a manual, but retained a number of features in common. Automatic machine gun operated by the removal of the gas chamber of the powder gases. The camera was placed in the middle part (bottom) of the barrel. The gas piston has a very long stroke. The gas chamber was fitting. The regulator of the gas chamber limited the number of discharged gases. Shot made on the rear sear. Two symmetrical locking lugs made of the barrel — moving forward striker bolt bred in the side lugs, while driving back stops were reduced beveled frame. A unique feature of the machine gun was double the rate of fire — at ground targets, he reached 600 rounds per minute at air targets 1200 rounds per minute. For the growth rate of the spring served as a buffer, mounted in the back plate. Bumper cut one at large angles of elevation.

Replacement barrel machine gun was equipped with a conical flash hider and cross-ribbing. Folding handle on the trunk was used for carrying guns and facilitate the change of the barrel.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)

Gun equipped with a folding framework sight with the scales for the heavy and light bullets. Controls were run and two lever handles recoil pad made by the type of machine gun "Maxim". Since the data has been set the controls back and mainspring (which is the most experienced swatches located in the fore-end tube) was transferred into the phone receiver located below the left side. On the right hand placed charging handle.

The biggest problem created by the power mechanism. Strap feed mechanism was carried out during the slide-type mobile system clock. Cartridge removed from the tape-spring bolt extractor, snizhatel lowered the cartridge into the rigid legs shutter rim. The same legs pulled out of the chamber cartridge cases, which followed the patron reflected downward. Uneasy line with the highest rate of movement is making a big accelerations that caused part of the deformation or removal of the cartridge. Because only used cartridges with bimetallic or metal sleeve for the DS-39 cartridges have forbidden the introduction of brass sleeve.

September 22, 1939 has been adopted, "7.62-mm machine gun standard 1939 system Degtyareva" were designated as DS-39. Meals should be made of metal or cloth band (in 1939 Kovrov designer Cancer was created to snaryazhaniya typewriter ribbons). The use of universal machines Kolesnikova and "Maxim" refused. On the arms instead of their adopted Degtyareva tripod folding machine that allows you to only fire on ground targets. The machine is equipped with adjustable angle of rotation of the tubular legs with additional folding and rigid main plowshares, arc mechanism rough vertical aiming and corkscrew — narrow pickup, scope mount. Firing was carried out with the provisions of the knee or lying down. The machine can be installed broneschit a window for optical sight. For anti-aircraft fire was a special machine. For transportation of a machine gun on a pack saddle was set Vyukov ESP-39. Tank variant has not moved on an experienced reference.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)

Hurry making machine guns, as well as other types of weapons and military equipment, it is possible to realize — Russian alliance could soon enter into World War II. Japan, which was the main opponent to the east and Germany are the main potential adversary in the west, even in spite of the signed contracts, paid attention to the severe equip its armed forces an automatic weapon. In addition, after the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Germany increased saturation of troops with machine guns and developed the weapons industry.

SVT rifle and machine gun Degtyarev were the principal part of the modernization programs from Russian army. Issue DS and machines into their Kavrov factory mastered the number 2 in 1939, the Tula arms factory serial creation was disbursed in June 1940. Creating DS sought greater accuracy. But of those 10,677 guns issued during 1940 amounted to 6628 or 62%.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Ease
l obr.39 city)

The reliability of the machine gun was inadequate. Bridge the gap in the receiver socket, loss of liner heaviest bullet casings breaks (because of the superior speed of a large length of locking mechanism and the lack of preparatory shift sleeve), low persistence of certain parts, poor operation at low temperatures and dusty failed. Offers designer Simonini (new locking lid, radiator barrel and flag switch contact), implemented in 1941 in the experimental machine gun, the main shortcomings are not corrected.

Creating the DS was discontinued in June 1941, a month after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union was renewed issuance of machine guns "Maxim". For the entire 1941 year was released on 9691 machine gun "Maxim" and machine guns DS 3717 (about 28%). All in all, it was released 10345 DS-39, a large chunk of which lost in the first months of the Second World War (some of them met the partisans).

"The unfortunate machine gun drama" (as it is sometimes called, by analogy with the "unfortunate rifle drama" 1860) has caused not so much structural as technological nedovedennost new system. But the time for fine-tuning was not (although the possibility of a successful refinement confirmed the development of a pilot machine gun DS-43 on the basis of the DS-39). Uneasy system did not provide ability to rapidly expand capacity. The urgency of forming units of reservists, which were not familiar with the new systems, made entirely logical to return to long since Mastering troops and gun industry.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
Pinsk guerrillas on the march. Guerrillas on the front plane carries 7.62mm machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev machine-reference 1939), the calculation of such a machine gun consisted of 4 people. Pinsk guerrillas operated at the intersection of Minsk, Polesskaya, Baranovichi, Brest, Rivne and Volyn regions of the Byelorussian SSR

Technical properties of the DS-39 machine gun:
Cartridge — 7.62 mm standard 1908 (7,62 x54R);
Mass of the "body" machine gun — 14.3 kg;
Weight of gun — 42.4 kg (on the machine with the shield);
Length "body" machine gun — 1170 mm;
The total length of the machine gun — 1440 mm (on the machine);
Length of barrel — 723 mm;
Rifling — 4 right-handed;
The stroke length of rifling — 240 mm;
The initial speed of light bullets — 860 m / s;
Effective range for light bullets — 2400 m;
Effective range when using the heavy bullets — 3000 m;
Rate of fire — 600/1200 rounds per minute;
Combat rate — up to 310 shots per minute;
Power — Canvas tape 250 rounds or 50 rounds on steel;
Weight ammunition box — 9.4 kg (with tape on 250 rounds);
Machine type — infantry tripod system Degtyareva;
Weight Shield — 7.7 kg;
Machine weight — 11 kg.

Machine gun DS-39 (Degtyarev Easel obr.39 city)
According to the article Seeds Fedoseyeva "Guns 2nd World War"
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