In the tank was implemented traditional circuit assembly and the usual placement of the tower crew commander and gunner were left of the gun, the charge — on the right. The engine is housed in the aft portion of the cross, which allowed for by reducing the size of the engine compartment to increment the fighting compartment and set on medium tank 100-millimeter gun.
Unlike all the previous installation of tanks cannon she was got in the recess of the tower muzzle forward. Embrasure tower is inclined towards the bow of the hull, because it had a small width of 400 millimeters. So Makarov has been improved security front of the tower, but with all this complicated substitution of guns in the "field" criteria.
Due to the general scheme of the assembly of the tank tower was biased towards the stern hatch and locate the driver on the turret hull plates. This allowed a significant degree of resistance to strengthen protivosnaryadnuyu bow of the hull due to the absence in the top front of the compartment hatch, its thickness is increased to 120 mm, and the angle was 60 degrees. With all of this offset to the left of the longitudinal axis of the body flap of the driver from the driver required certain skills of driving while overcoming the limited passes.
Hemispherical cast tower initially had in the bottom of the "Zaman" (working bevel) around the perimeter. Revolving bevel was weakened area of armor because it was removed on the following editions of tanks during the upgrade. Increasing protection of the tank with a condition limited to 36 tons weight has been reached and the dense assembly of systems and units.
Armament includes dual 100-mm rifled gun D-10T and SG-43 machine gun, a pair of 7.62-mm machine guns coursework SG-43, located on the fender in armored boxes, and 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun ANC. In gun ammunition consisted of 34 shots with armor-piercing shells and shrapnel. Armor-piercing projectile at a distance of two thousand meters vertically located armor made its way width of 155 mm. The gun design was so successful that its more than 40 years without any special configurations installed on the production version of the T-54 and T-55.
V-54 engine is a development of the design of diesel engine B-2. Progress in store tank was equated with 330 kilometers of supplies 730 liters of fuel ..
The tanks were equipped with the first releases of the manual consists of an input gear with an iron crankcase and lubricated, dry multi-plate clutch head, five-speed box has two inertial synchronizer, conventional single-row final drive and swing. As the rotation mechanism used two-stage planetary mechanisms which provide 2-calculated turning radius and the ability to increase traction (short-term) in rectilinear motion due to the simultaneous translation in the first position of the controls without shifting.
Torsion bar suspension personal tank with hydraulic shock absorbers at the rear paddle and front-end nodes. Melkozvenchataya 90 trucking caterpillar with an open iron hinge was developed lugs and pin engagement with the drive wheel. Initially, track width was 500 mm.
In the tank system used automatic carbon dioxide fire-fighting equipment. Outside the rear of the hull were two smoke bombs MDSH. Means of communication is a radio station 10-PT-26, used for internal communication tank intercom TPU-47. Average tank T-54 developed without taking into account the ability of movement in the water.
Modernization of T-54
During the modernization of the T-54 it was installed brand new tower, which had the lower perimeter of the current ramps, and was equipped with a machine gun in the foreign exchange department of management instead of a pair of machine guns, which were located on the fender. Telescopic sight TS-20 was changed to sight TSH2-22 has 3, 5 and 7-fold increase. In addition, a 51-year introduced a tank nozzle heater, air cleaner, having ejection dust extraction, track width of 580 mm and a modified design of the guitar. To maintain this mass medium tank thickness of the upper front hull was reduced to 100 from 120 mm. The highest thickness of the frontal part of the turret (200 mm) and side hull plates (80 mm) did not change.
On the basis of the T-54 made flamethrower tank TO-54 command tank T-54K. Commander's tank developed in the 54th year and have adopted in the 58th year. From line of the tank he was noted the presence of the short-wave radio station R-112 as a gasoline-loading mechanism which is used to supply consumers in the event of long-term work in the parking lot. Exchange machine gun was kept SGMT.
With the introduction of units and units of the T-54 developed and executed serially ZSU-57-2 and SU-122, launched bridge MTU, mobile crane SPK-12G and bronetyagachi BTS-2. Some of the tanks adapted for hanging roller-mine trawl PT-54, STU plow, bulldozer tank BTU and personal water craft PST-54.
Was created two versions of the T-54 — T-54A and T-54B. The T-54 and its variants was exported to 39 countries.
Medium Tank T-54A
In Nizhny Tagil KB running LN Kartseva developed a medium tank T-54A, which in 1955 was adopted. Batch creation was conducted from 55 th to 57 th years in Nizhny
Tagil, Kharkiv and Omsk.
For the first time in the Russian tank manufacturing for mass-produced tank gun installed the D-10TG having the vertical stabilizer "Horizon" STP-1 and an ejector to purge the barrel after the shot. Those data. solutions were the beginning of a great work of engineering societies in the field and at the end of the first period after the war tanks that were in service with the Russian Army, equipped with two-plane gun stabilizer for aimed fire while in motion and reduces fumes ejector crew compartment.
In a power plant entered stage air cleaner, also controlled radiator shutters allowing to maintain the best mode of the engine.
For the driver entered an infrared night vision device TVN-1, which was adopted in 1951 for service. Radio communications were TPU R-120 and R-113.
On the basis of the T-54A made a commander's tank T-54AK, adopted in 1958 on arms. This tank is a commercially and from a linear model differed from the presence of additional vehicle commander. R-112 radio station in the department of management and charging unit. The installation of a machine gun course SGMT saved.
Medium Tank T-54B
In Nizhny Tagil in the design bureau headed by LN Kartsev was developed medium tank T-54B. Order of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR from 09.11.1956 year this tank have adopted. Batch creation of organized during the period from 1957 to 1959 in Nizhny Tagil, Kharkiv and Omsk.
The main armament was gun D-10T2S having plane stabilizer STP-2 "Cyclone". In gun ammunition, were high-explosive, armor-piercing and armor-piercing projectiles cumulative.
Recently added: infrared night-unit commander's TKN-1 night gunner's sight TPN-1-22-11, spinning polik crew compartment, which improved the working conditions in the tower, the latest design of the mechanism of rotation of the tower. In addition to the equipment of the tank were introduced infrared illuminators: mounted on the commander's cupola OC-N, on the gun mask L-2.
In the fuel system added the third external tank, because we carry in store fuel increased to 1212 liters., And progress in store — up to 430 km. In this series of tanks for the first time in the Russian tank manufacturing equipment was installed for snorkeling (OPVT), which allows to overcome the obstacles along the bottom, the deepest of which is 5 meters long and 700 meters. The movement of the water was limited because there was a risk of overheating the motor, because when you install OPVT sealed the roof of the engine compartment. Some tanks are adapted to work with the KMT mine sweeps and 4M-5M.
The T-54B was the basis for the creation of the commander of the T-54BK, which have adopted in the 58th year. Different from the linear tank installation extra. shortwave radio station R-112, charger unit AB-1-P/30 and navigation equipment. Save the setting of the course SGMT gun.
Medium Tank RT-54
On the basis of the T-54 and T-55 tank was created by RT-54 which had automatic flamethrowers ATO-54 and NSS-200 installed in the turret of a tank instead of the coaxial machine gun. Release of consistency flamethrower carried portions jet, with one shot were thrown about 6-8 liters. consistency. This design made it possible to expand the capacity of fire while preserving all the features of the linear tank armament, mobility and protection, without changing its appearance.
The tanks, which were equipped with data flamethrower systems were able to throw ognesmes to a range of 160 meters at a speed of up to 20 shots per minute.
Medium tank T-54M
Modernized version of the T-54 was a medium tank T-54M. 18.03.1977 year this tank have adopted the order of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR and of the plant's cap. repair.
Characterized by the introduction of modernized tank assemblies, devices, and systems developed for the T-55 who were treated 100-mm rifled gun D-10-T2S (ammunition was 43 shots), laser rangefinder FTC-1, stabilizer arms "Cyclone" M, Gunner having a stable line of sight, night IR devices gunner and commander, two machine gun (supplied with 3, 5 thousand rounds) and DShKM anti-aircraft gun (300 rounds ammunition).
In the tank were installed engine B-55 (B-55B) capacity of 580 horsepower (426 kW), also of the TDA, PPO and PAZ. All tanks are adapted for mounting minesweepers KMT-4 or -6. Combat weight of the upgraded vehicles increased to 36.5 tons.
The T-54M was the base for the commander of the T-54MK. In the middle of the differences: extra shortwave radio station R-112, TNA-4 and charger unit.
The T-54A was similar to modernize and received naming T-54AM.
Tactical and technical characteristics:
The combat weight of 36.4 tons;
The crew of 4 people;
Length with gun forward — 9000 mm;
Hull Length — 6040 mm;
Width — 3270 mm;
The height of the roof of the tower — 2400 mm;
Ground clearance — 425 mm;
Cannon — D-10TG;
Caliber — 100 mm;
100-mm projectile — 34;
12.7-mm cartridge — 200;
7.62-mm cartridge — 3500;
Make the motor — V-54;
Motor type — diesel;
Engine power — 520 hp. s.;
The highest speed — 50 km / h;
The stores range — 440 km;
Gradeability — 30 degrees;
Surmounted the wall — 800 mm;
Trench — 2700 mm;
Fording — 1400 mm.