Description of the aircraft
At the end of September 1997 in the history of Russian aviation historical event happened — took flight of a new experimental aircraft, the Su-47 "Berkut", which can be a mock-Russian fighter fifth generation. Carnivorous dark bird with white nose, breaking away from the concrete runway airfield in Zhukovsky, rapidly disappeared in suburban grayish sky, thunder heralding its own turbines to start a new step in the biography of Russian fighter aircraft.
Research species fighter fifth generation began in our country, as in the United States, in the middle of the 1970s, when the cars 4th generation — the Su-27 and MiG-29 — were just doing their "first steps." New aircraft must have had significantly more highest combat capability than their predecessors. On the paper were involved in industry-leading research centers and design bureaus. Together with the customer uniformly formulated the concept of the main provisions of the new fighter — multi-functionality, ie the highest performance in the defeat of air, land, surface and underwater targets, the presence of radial information system, development of cruising flight at supersonic speeds. Cover and achieve dramatic reduction in the visibility of the aircraft radar and infrared spectra, coupled with the transition board sensors on passive methods of obtaining disk imaging, also on the modes of excessive secrecy. Involves the integration of all available means of information and the creation of on-board expert systems.
Plane 5th generation had to possess the ability to produce vserakursny attack targets in close air combat, as well as to conduct a multi-channel missile firing in the conduct of the fight at long range. Provided for automation and information management board jamming systems; inflated military autonomy through the installation of a single-seater cockpit indicator tactical environment with the ability to mix disk imaging (ie, simultaneous output and mutual overlap in the same scale "pictures" from various sensors), the use of systems telecode sharing information with outside sources. Aerodynamics and aircraft systems fighter fifth generation had to allow configuration of the angular orientation and trajectory of the aircraft, without much tangible or delays, without the need for all that serious coordination and harmonization of control of movements. From the aircraft needed to "forgive" gross error of piloting a wide range of test flight.
Budding aircraft planned to equip the automatic control system on the level of tactical goals, having expert mode "to assist the pilot."
One of the important requirements for the Russian fighter fifth generation was "maneuverability" — the ability to maintain stability and maneuverability at angles of attack of 900 or more. It is seen that the "maneuverability" and initially was listed in the requirements for South American fighter fifth generation, create, effectively immediately with Russian machine on programmke ATF. But in the coming Americans, faced with a formidable task to cooperate on the same plane low visibility, supersonic cruising speed and "maneuverability", had to sacrifice the latter (the maneuvering ability of the South American fighter ATF/F-22, could only approach the level reached at the modernized aircraft Su-27, running the thrust vector control system). The refusal of the U.S. Air Force Merit superagility motives, namely, the improvement of the high-spirited aircraft armament: the emergence of highly-all-aspect missiles, helmet-mounted target designation systems and new seeker allowed to abandon the approach of mandatory in the rear hemisphere of the enemy. It was assumed that the air battle will now be conducted in the mid-range with the transition to agile stage only in the latter case, "if something is made is not so."
But in the history of military aviation has repeatedly refuses to close air combat maneuvering, but later denied by theoretical calculations of life — in all armed conflicts (except, perhaps, the fake "Desert Storm") fighters, who entered into battle on huge distances, usually transferred it to the smallest distance, and often have completed a label gun burst, not rocket launch. Fully predicted the situation, where the improvement of EW, radar, and also reduce the thermal signature of fighters will fall relative effectiveness of long-and medium-range missiles. In addition, even when doing remote missile combat with the introduction of guns by both sides of approximately equal ability, preference will be given to own one opponent who can orient faster own fighter towards a goal that will allow better use of the dynamic capabilities of their own missiles. These criteria special importance to achieve very high angular velocity as the transient rotation subsonic and supersonic speeds. Because the demand for Russian fighter super maneuverability fifth generation, regardless of the complexity of the task, it remains constant.
As of the 1st of solutions providing the intended maneuver features, considered the application of the reverse-swept wing (CBS). A wing layout provides some advantages in comparison with a straight wing sweep, try to use a military aircraft in 1940-e years.
The first jet aircraft with swept back wings was a German bomber Junkers Ju-287. The car that carried out the first flight in February 1944, was designed for the highest speed 815 km / h In the coming two experienced this type of bomber went to the Soviet Union as war booty.
In the first years after the war in our country and conducted their own research CBS applied to high-speed maneuverable aircraft. In 1945, on the instructions of the designer Leah P.P.Tsybinym began designing experimental glider created for testing the aerodynamics of promising fighters. The glider was climbing towed the aircraft, and to accelerate to near-sonic speeds dived, including with all this powder accelerator. One of the gliders, the LL-W, published by the tests in 1947, had a wing sweep back and reached a speed of 1,150 km / h (M = 0.95).
But while such advantages translate wing failed because CBS was particularly exposed to the wind divergence loss of static stability at certain values of the speed and angle of attack. Structural materials and technology since not allowed to make back-swept wing, which has a sufficient strength. To reverse sweep creators warplanes returned only in the middle of the 1970s, when the Soviet Union and the United States dulled to work on the study of the form fighter fifth generation. Application allowed CBS seize maneuverability at low flight speeds and improve aero efficiency in all areas of flight regimes. Assembly with back-swept wing provides the best articulation of the wing and fuselage, also improved rassredotachivaniya pressure on the wing and canards. According to U.S. professionals, the use of reverse-swept wing aircraft type on the F-16 would lead to an increase in the angular velocity of rotation by 14%, and the radius of the act — by 34%, with all of this take-off and landing distance was reduced by 35%. Progress aircraft allowed to solve the problem of divergence due to the introduction of composite materials with optimized fibers, increasing the hardness of the wing in these areas.
But the creation of CBS raises a number of complex tasks that can be solved in the end it was only for large-scale research projects. For these purposes, the United States commissioned by the BBC was built Gruman plane X-29A. The car, which had aero scheme "Duck", CBS
was armed with a sweep angle of 35 ╟ X-29A was purely experimental machine and, obviously, could not serve as a layout for a real combat aircraft. In order to reduce the cost of its construction is widely used in mass-produced components and assemblies fighters (forward fuselage and nose gear — from F-5A, the main landing gear — from F-16, etc.). The first flight of an experimental aircraft took place December 14, 1984. Prior to 1991, built two cars completed a total difficulties 616 flights. But programm X-29A has not brought her laurels and is considered the pioneer of the United States as bad: despite the use of more modern construction materials, the Yankees did not manage to fully cope with the wind divergence, and CBS is no longer seen as a promising attribute, Air Force fighters and the U.S. Navy (namely, in the midst of countless configurations that have been studied by programmke JSF, aircraft with wings swept back out.)
Virtually the only aircraft with CBS, who are in a series, has become a strategic South American cruise missile Hughes AGM-129 ACM, created to arm B-52 bombers. But with respect to this choice of aircraft wing reverse sweep was justified, first, by considerations of stealth: radar radiation reflected from the front edge of the wing, shielded enclosures rocket.
Work on the formation of the form of the Russian maneuverable aircraft with CBS conducted naikrupneyshimi aeronautical research centers in the country — and TSAGI SibNIA. Namely, in the TsAGI purged model airplane with CBS, made on the basis of MiG-23, and the assembly was studied in Novosibirsk SU-27 reverse-swept wing. The available scientific basis and has permitted Sukhoi OKB tackle unprecedentedly complex tasks of creation the world's first supersonic fighter aircraft with swept back wings. In 1996, on the pages of the aviation model photo printing has got a promising fighter with CBS management to demonstrate Russian Air Force. Unlike the South American X-29A, brand new car was made in a "triplane" and had a vertical twin-finned tail. The presence of brake hook to induce the idea of the ability of ship-based fighter. Located on the wingtips missile launchers air-to-air.
In the summer of 1997 model of fighter fifth generation Sukhoi (as well as his "rival" MAPO-MIG, known as "1-42") was already on the ground LII im.Gromova in Zhukovsky. In September, the high-speed taxiing, and already the 25th of the same month of the plane, to learn from the working code of the Su-47 and the proud name of "Berkut", piloted by test pilot Igor Votintseym, made its own first flight. It must be stressed that the Russian car from behind his own South American rival — the first prototype fighter Lockheed-Martin F-22A "Raptor" ("golden eagle") only for 18 days ("Raptor" to meet its own first flight on September 7, September 14 He took off again, then ended up flying in July 1998, and the F-22A set for completion).
Let's try to get an idea of a brand new aircraft Sukhoi Design Bureau, with an emphasis on experimental aircraft photos, also numerically small materials on the Su-47, featured in the pages of Russian and zabugornoy printing.
"Berkut" is made on the aerodynamic configuration "longitudinal integral triplane", which became a trademark feature of the aircraft of this PCO. Wing smoothly interfaces with the fuselage, forming a single carrier system. The special features of the wing assembly are developed nodules, which are placed under the unregulated vozduhopoglotiteli engines, having a cross-sectional shape similar to a sector of the circle.
The airframe is made to the widespread introduction of composite materials (CM). The use of composite materials provides a promising increase in load ratio of 20-25% of the resource — in 1,5-3,0 times, utilization of materials up to 0.85, reducing labor costs at the ready parts by 40-60%, and obtaining the required thermal and radio features. At the same time, experiments conducted in the United States under the programs from the F-22, showed the lowest survivability of structures of carbon in comparison with designs made of duralumin and titanium alloys.
Wing fighter has developed root portion with a huge (about 750) by direct sweep angle on the front edge and smoothly interfaced with her arm portion on the reverse sweep (at the front edge of the — of the order of 200). Resettled flaperon wing, occupying more than half of the span, and aileron. Maybe on the front apart and are deflected socks (although posted photos of the Su-47 does not allow us to make a concrete conclusion on their availability).
All-moving horizontal tail frontal (CSP) scale of about 7.5 m has a trapezoidal shape. The angle of sweep it under the front edge of the — of the order of 500. The rear horizontal stabilizer relatively small area tselnopovorotnym also satisfied with the sweep angle on the front except for about 750. Its scope — about 8 m
Dvuhkilevoe vertical stabilizers with rudders attached to the center section of the wing and has a "destruction" of the outer side.
The canopy of the Su-47 is actually similar to the lantern of the Su-27. But on the model of the aircraft, which fell on the photo page zabugornoy print, lantern made besperepletny, like the South American "Raptor" (it improves visibility, helps lower radar signature, but it makes the process of ejection).
The main one-wheeled landing gear of the Su-47 are attached to the fuselage and retracted forward flight with a turn of the wheels in a niche for vozduhopoglotitelyami engines. The front two-wheel retracts into the fuselage prop forward in the direction of flight. Wheelbase, about 8 m gauge — 4 pm
The press reported that the test aircraft to equip with 2 engines Permian NGO "Aircraft Engine" D-30F6 (2×15500 kgf 2h2416 kg dry weight) used, as well, on fighter-interceptor MiG-31. But in these upcoming turbofans, of course, will change engines fifth generation.
No hesitation that the car used by the new more modern avionics made by Russian industry — multi-channel digital EDSU automatic integrated system control, navigation system, part of which comes ANN laser gyro, combined with satellite navigation and a "digital card" already found use for such machines as the Su-30MKI, and Su-32/34 Su-32FN/34.
Perhaps the aircraft to equip (or will develop a) built-in life support and crew bailout last generation.
For the operation of the aircraft, as well as the Su-47 may be used side malohodovaya control stick and throttle strain.
Placement and size of antennas bor avionics designers demonstrate a desire to provide an overview of the radial. In addition to the primary radar, located in the nose fairing under the finned fighter has two antennas rearview established between the wing and the nozzle engines. Socks vertical tail, wing, and the influx of CHR may also busy antennas for different purposes (this says their snow-white colors, suitable for Russian radome).
Although any information on airborne radar applied to the airplane, "Golden Eagle", not indirectly on the possible abilities of radar complex fighter fifth generation, which can be made on the basis of the Su-47 can be judged on placed in the press information about the latest radar, developed since 1992 by combining "Faz
otron" for promising fighters. The station is designed for placement in the nose of the aircraft, "weight category" Su-35/47. It has a planar phased array antenna and operates in the X-band. According to the NGOs, to extend the range of Obora in the vertical and horizontal plane means the possibility of combining electrical and mechanical scanning, which will allow to increment the latest radar field of view of 600 in all directions. Range of detection of air targets is 165-245 km (depending on their EPR). The station can immediately comped 24 goals, provide simultaneous use missile weapons against eight enemy aircraft.
"Berkut" can also be equip optikolokatsionnoy station, located in the forward fuselage, canopy before a pilot light. As for the Su-33 and Su-35, fairing station shifted to the right so as not to restrict the review of the pilot. The presence optikolokatsionnoy station, composed of perhaps comes television, thermal imaging and laser equipment, as radar rearview profitably distinguishes the Russian car from the South American counterpart F-22A.
In accordance with the canons of "stealth" technology, much of the on-board armament combat vehicles made on the basis of "Berkut", of course, will be located inside the glider. In the criteria when the aircraft will operate in the airspace that does not have a massive anti-missile shield and against an opponent who lacks the modern fighters, it is permissible increase payload by placing part of the weapons on the outer pylons.
By analogy with the Su-35 and Su-47 it is conceivable that a functional brand new car will carry the missile air-to-air and ultra-long-range, namely, SD, known as the KC-172 (this is a two-stage missile capable to develop hypersonic speed and Curb combined homing system is capable of neighing air targets at ranges of more than 400 km). The use of similar missiles, possibly targeting reclaims outside.
But the "major caliber" of a promising fighter, of course, will be the type of SD medium-range RVV-AE with active radar homing and end-system optimized for placement in gruzootsekah aircraft (it has a low aspect ratio wing and folding lattice control surfaces). NGO "Vympel" has announced the successful flight tests on the Su-27 improved version of the missile, curb the haze of ramjet engine (ramjet). Bimbo modification has increased range and speed.
Is still of fundamental importance in the arms of aircraft and missiles are required to have air-to-air short range. At the MAKS-97 brand new rocket on display in its class, K-74, made on the basis of SD P-73 and differs from the latter improved thermal homing system having an angle capture target, increased from 80-900 to 1200. The application of modern thermal homing (CBC) has allowed, too, to increment the highest range of fire by 30% (to 40 km). Development of K-74 began in the middle of 1980-X's, and its flight testing began in 1994. At the current time the rocket is ready for serial production.
In addition to the creation of improved seeker for Sustainable K-74, NGO "Vympel" is working on a number of other short-range missiles, the system is also equipped with thrust vector control motor.
Arguably, airborne weapons promising fighters will be saved and a 30-millimeter gun GSH-301.
As with other Russian aircraft functionality — Su-30MKI Sou-35 and Su-47, the new machines, of course, will be borne and impact weapons — high-SD and CAV air-to-surface to destroy ground and surface targets, and the enemy's radar.
On the ability of the defense system, which can be installed on a promising fighter, can be judged by the exhibits on display at the MAKS-97. Namely, now "Aviakonversiya" was shown combined wrong target (KLTS) to protect against missiles with radar, thermal and laser homing. Unlike used by Russian military aircraft and zabugornyh of passive protection KLTS effective in all spectra of the waves used in the heads of homing missiles of "air-to-air" and "surface-to-air." KLTS combustion zone is formed by the side of the aircraft protected by the use of gas jets directed. In a stream of flammable liquid is introduced (ie, it can be fuel, aircraft engines applicable) sprayed for fuel-gas consistency, which is then ignited. Combustion is maintained for a given period of time.
The thermal radiation of the combustion zone is wrong target for ammunition GOS operating in the infrared range. The spectral composition of glowing clouds similar to the spectral composition of the protected object (used the same fuel), which does not distinguish the CBC wrong target spectral features, and finding the wrong target at a fixed distance from the real object does not allow it and the TGS-selected on the grounds of the trajectory.
For protection from ammunition to a radar guidance system in KLTS plasma-forming additives are used, leading to an increase in the reflection of radio waves from the combustion zone. Such additives at a temperature of combustion generate free electrons. When they are sufficiently high concentration of glowing cluster reflects radio waves as iron body.
Laser wave spectrum used fine powder substances of working bodies of lasers. During combustion they exude or electrical waves at the same frequency on which the operation of the laser target illumination, or, burning, are carried beyond the field of combustion and during cooling exude electric wave of a desired spectrum. The radiation power should match the power of the signal reflected from the object to be protected under illumination laser opponent. It is governed by the selection of substances added to flammable liquids and their quantity.
In some editions, without citing sources, has properties of a new aircraft. If they correspond to reality, "Golden Eagle", as a whole is in a "weight category" Su-27 and its modified versions. The advanced aerodynamics and thrust vector control system should provide a promising fighter Su-47 followers an advantage in close air combat maneuvering over all existing or foreseeable potential adversaries. All other fighters at a meeting with Russian "Berkut" and South American "Eagle-gravedigger" have a very mild chance to go back to your own airfield. The laws of the arms race (which, obviously, did not end after the "dissolution" of the USSR) are cruel.
At the time, the emergence of the battleship "Dreadnought" has made obsolete all previously built battleships. Characterized by the repetition of history.
The performance properties
Wingspan — 16.7 m
Overall length — 22.6 m
Height parking — 6.4 m
Takeoff weight — 24000 kg
The highest speed — 1670 km / h
Motor Type — 2 x D-30F6
Thrust — 2 x 15500 kg
likely to install 30-millimeter gun GSH-301.
SD for various purposes.