The critical level of pollution. Oil destroys the life of the Caspian Sea

Level of industrial and oil pollution in the Caspian Sea has reached a "critical level." With such a warning made yesterday expert from Iran, head of the research institute of the Caspian environment Porgholam Reza (Reza Pourgholam). This he told the Iranian news agency Fars, reports AFP.

Exploitation of oil and the movement of large oil tankers cause annual discharge 122 thousand 350 tons of oil polluting substances into the largest inland sea in the world, said R.Porgholam.

Sea poisoned many heavy metals, which are also dangerous as the hydrocarbons, he said, adding that "304 tons of cadmium, and 34 tons of lead into the sea every year."

R.Porgholam claims that 95% of pollution gives coastal states in the north and north-west of the Sea — Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, which is based mostly marine oil industry.

According to him, the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for only 5% of pollution resulting from the disposal at sea of wastes of agriculture, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and detergents.

According to him, the amount of agricultural pollutants discharged into the sea in the Iranian province of Mazandaran, located in the south-east coast of the Caspian Sea, fell from 10 thousand to 4 thousand tons per year in the last decade after Iran took measures to reduce the pollution.

Solution of environmental problems of the Caspian Sea is one of the issues on which the neighboring countries have not yet reached an agreement.

Recall that in March this year in the Caspian Sea near Makhachkala dropped 4.5 tonnes of oil products. Water intake was made in the evening on March 31 near the town beach. It is noted that on the bank felt persistent smell of oil on the surface of the water you could see a rainbow film. Content dropped to the Caspian Sea oil to 14,000 times higher than normal.

According to Kazakhstan Today, director of the Kazakhstan Research Exploration Petroleum Institute (KazNIGRI) Kosan Taskinbayev said that in case of a disaster in the Caspian oil western companies do not bear any responsibility and liability.

"What is especially sad for Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea does not have sufficient legal international protection. Geological resources of the Caspian Sea are not insured. According to our estimates, the acceleration of renewable bio-resources for 50 years is more than $ 2 trillion. But they are not supported by international legal and arbitration organizations. For loss of biological resources of the Caspian Sea oil to Western companies currently do not carry any responsibility and liability, "- said K.Taskinbaev.

He recalled that the accident on a drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico is particularly exacerbated the environmental safety of oil production in the sea. "Because of the North Caspian explored and prepared for the development of several oil and gas fields, among them unique Kashagan .., eliminate the possibility of accidental releases of oil or man-made reasons, due to the human factor can not be", — said the director KazNIGRI.

"Therefore it is necessary to develop measures to minimize the possible effects of accidents, as the oil spill in the North Caspian Sea at shallow depths can quickly lead to the contamination of bottom and coastal sediments, which will inevitably destroy the rich fish resources and destroy flora and fauna of the region. .. In certain parts of the sea will lingering death of aquatic vegetation and plankton, zooplankton, benthos, benthos, fish, seals and birds "- said K.Taskinbaev.

"Kazakh coast of the Caspian Sea is very sensitive to all matters affecting the environment influences.

In the west, near the border with Russia, are sanctuaries where prohibited any production activity. In the north-east coast of the development of the Tengiz field to the limit already complicated ecological situation. The same is observed in the coastal areas of the peninsula and on the Buzachi Mangyshlak. The northern part of the sea is shallow and easily vulnerable. It is a unique food source for fish feeding, seals, and other animals, "- he explained.

"In fact, the vast natural reservoirs, which are concentrated about 7 billion tons of aggressive hydrocarbons are a natural powder capacity, where the reservoir pressure reaches 800-1100 atmospheres, the temperature reaches 110-120 degrees, the content of sulfur gases is 25%," — said Taskinbayev .

"In addition to building the base of Northern Environmental Response, the need for inter-state framework of the Caspian countries to combat the catastrophic releases of oil and gas in the Caspian Sea with its center in the city of Astrakhan and Baku," — says K.Taskinbaev.

In addition, according to the Director of the Institute, the researchers suggest in drilling have in case of emergency "mobile gateway system that could be deployed quickly around damaged object, almost completely isolating the part of the area." "We offer a flat hollow structures that folded transported to the site of the accident, quickly deployed, filled with water and completely isolate the area of contamination from the sea floor and the surface of the water. Izlivshuyusya oil could be pumped out on a pre-assembled pipe on land," — said he said.

Note that a few weeks ago, the Institute of Geology of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan (AMEA) presented its recommendations to the government of the country regarding the incident at sea.

As the director of the Institute Akif Alizadeh, to avoid repetition in Azerbaijan environmental disaster that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of drilling conducted by BP at one of the oil fields, the scientists of the Institute is constantly conducting underwater research the level of tension in the Caspian seabed.

"We have presented the country's government for installing oil platforms bottom seismographs, which will monitor the processes occurring at the bottom of the Caspian Sea", — said Alizadeh.

The accident occurred in the Gulf of Mexico April 20, 2010 and became the largest environmental disaster in U.S. history. After the accident, oil rig sank in the Gulf of Mexico oil leak began, which led to an unprecedented environmental catastrophe.

The Caspian Sea is experiencing intense human pressure as the area itself, and in the catchment area. According Roshydromet Top Goals of water open part of the Middle Caspian rated as "contaminated" and the Volga delta and Dagestan coast — as "dirty" with an increased content of excess phenol, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other toxins. Especially dangerous is the sea water pollution with oil products in connection with the development of offshore oil and gas. In 1935, its waters had the first platform to drill for oil, and in 1972 it had dropped to 1880. Proven hydrocarbon reserves in the Caspian Sea — more than 10 billion tons (the Russian shelf of the North Caspian has 1 billion tons, Azerbaijan — 5.4 billion). For comparison, the proven reserves of oil in the Gulf is more than 20 billion tons characteristic feature of the process of marine exploration and oil production — the formation of artificial griffins (release of oil from the well to the surface.) Thus, in the field "Oil Rocks" from the griffins (in 1957 there were 37 wells) received up to 500 tons per day. At present, the water area of the Caspian Sea with the river runoff annually receives about 70-90 tons of hydrocarbons and from the coasts of 29 thousand tons of oil High concentrations reported throughout the thickness of the sea, especially in the upper layer, the traces of oil found on more than 800 square meters. km of the offshore drilling platforms. For example, water pollution with oil products in the area of Baku and Absheron peninsula archipelago led to a complete loss of these areas for fisheries.

Petroleum products as highly toxic substances very negative impact on aquatic life and cause severe consequences for organisms disorder of the central nervous system (the fish — a violation of motor reflexes and disorientation), violation of physiological processes (loss of sensation of the skin, reproductive disorders), the accumulation of carcinogens (Corollary — the development of deformity, loss of viable young), etc.

Thus, in the delta of the Volga sturgeon abnormal embryonic functions already reach 50-100%. In the summer of 2000 in the North Caspian ecological disaster occurred — as a result of oil pollution in case of emergency at the Kazakh oil and gas fields have killed more than 50 thousand seals, has been observed mass mortality of sturgeon, carp, etc. In this area, the flooding of two old fields under water was more than 100 wells, many of which are not conserved, and therefore self-emission. All this was the cause of death of seals and other marine life. After such accidental releases of oil content in fish was 110-432mg/kg, although there should not be there. With the growth rate of the Caspian Sea oil development and the lack of state control over the activities of oil companies in the future, you can destroy all life in the pond.

If in the near future is fundamentally change the situation in the Caspian region (water pollution, poaching) will inevitably come irreversible ecological disaster — the disappearance of the sturgeon.

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