However, the volcanoes in those days were silent, and the U.S. has not conducted nuclear tests. With the British airfield airplane climbed, which took samples of air in the upper atmosphere. It turned 29 on August terrain of northern Kazakhstan was blown Russian plutonium bomb. The world did not yet know what it was made of the German uranium South American drawings. About how this happened, knows Stanislav Pestov, writer and physicist.
…And it's sad: our country has had the opportunity to make an atomic bomb before all. Institute dedicated neuvvyazkami radioactive materials, worked in the USSR from the 20s. Spontaneous fission of uranium and secondary neutrons — the base for a chain reaction — were first discovered in the Soviet Union. And a critical mass of uranium, we calculated. The atom bomb project for the first time offered employees of the Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute Maslov and Spinel. But no one, including the General Staff of the Red Army, that by the end of the war was not interested. But overseas developments were under way.
The first information on the British atomic project came to strip the NKVD of the USSR. They are provided "Cambridge Five" led by Kim Philby. Later, data on the U.S. to bomb the Soviet Union sent Klaus Fuchs. Assistant Russian military attaché in Canada Motin at one point brought samples of uranium dioxide under his trouser belt buckle. Because of this, he Irradiating tummy, and it three times a year to do a complete blood transfusion.
All documents fall to the management USSR, but a decision could only Stalin, who does not motivate some atoms invisible to the eye. In 1942, he died at Taganrog a Wehrmacht officer. In his tablet found the documents, which showed that Germans are interested in our uranium. Only then can control the country showed a bomb though some, albeit sluggish, enthusiasm. Organized a laboratory measuring devices number 2 by Igor Kurchatov, from which eventually grew the modern Institute of Atomic Energy. And then, according to the memoirs of Deputy IV Kurchatov Golovin, who constantly complained: "I am for Stalin as an annoying fly — all the buzz about the bomb, and he just shrugs from me."
Attitude of the authorities to the nuclear industry has changed only in 1945 when the United States overthrew the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Russian military delegation visited the atomic ashes and brought as evidence of Stalin's head with traces of an unknown Japanese terrible burns. Only then in the Soviet Union work started! Kurchatov was in the end a huge funding.
Geologists have rushed to find our extensive open spaces uranium, but eventually found him in physics and in Germany. Academic Chariton miraculously tracked down there 100 tons of uranium oxide — a yellow solid, which was painted fences. Of it in the town of Sarov, and was made a charge for the first Russian atomic bomb. For its creators there made a "communism in one single city": shelves crammed with Sarov sausages, eggs, butter … And risked the inhabitants of this "paradise" in a terrible way.
The explosion was scheduled for 6 am August 29, 1949 But a wire through which a bomb were to undermine, have been very small. While they were new, so SPLICE … First Russian nuclear bomb was blown up at 7 o'clock. Power was almost calculated — 20 kilotons. Interestingly, immediately after the production of "product", as was the Soviet Union, "hung up", that is recorded in the personal card, in the name of G. Flerov coming academic and laureate of State Prize. After the explosion, colleagues joked: "That you decide to resign from the institute — a report to the Human Resources Department will be?"
Ticket to nuclear club
Vladimir Yevseyev, a senior researcher at the Center for International Security IMEMO:
— In different years, different countries nuclear weapon was needed for different purposes. For the Soviet Union after 1949, it was a guarantee of survival, but at the end of the 80s the value has declined. Under Gorbachev was thought that we were friendly to the West. In 90 years the situation has changed again, control of the country realized that the nuclear weapon it is necessary that does not make up for the imbalance in our favor by ordinary weapons. When Defense Minister Marshal Sergeyev was, some have even considered that to maintain stability rather develop only strategic nuclear forces. The fact that ordinary structures also can not forget, it became quite clear in August last year after an armed conflict with Georgia. Different motivation for possessing a nuclear bomb, say, North Korea.
Besides the management of it is needed in the main for the preservation of the communist regime in its current form. Iran developing a nuclear project, aims to highlight its role as a regional or even general Muslim leader. India and Pakistan need to win a bomb containment. Israel, which has never acknowledged the presence at nuclear weapons, but is likely to have 200 warheads based on plutonium, making themselves from attack adjacent Arab states.