Twenty-five years ago, Soviet biologists predict a curious experience. The fertilized eggs removed from the uterus of pregnant mice and two under the microscope gently squeezed the contents of one cell to another, and then back into mice. Of the conglomerate was born mouse hybrid. The information received from the two white and black parents, she had a skin like a zebra: white with black stripes. A similar operation can be performed and the egg man. To do this, a special needle is removed eggs of two women — on the stage of pregnancy when there was still no differentiation of cells — their membranes rupture and the two strands of DNA are responsible for human heredity, make one. After this hybrid molecule develops as a whole and can be introduced into the woman's uterus for further ripening.
This operation is called hybridization. You can use it once and for all defeat the hereditary disease. If the identified at an early stage of pregnancy diseased cells, diseased hereditary disease, the fertilized cell to merge with another pair of healthy parents, and the child to be born healthy: healthy genes defeat sick. In addition to getting rid of inherited diseases, there are other perspectives. For example, the ability to save small nations are on the verge of extinction because of the isolation of the gene pool. By hybridization can "design" a person who has certain inborn traits. You can grow a "superman" in vitro. Remember the movie "Twins" with Schwarzenegger? Finally, there is a possibility of two or three families have at least one in all but his own child. "Donor" of fertilized eggs appears each pair, the cells are merged — and that he, the son of the regiment!
All that we asked to comment on the fiction professor, Ph.D., head of the department of sociology of the family and demography Sociology Department of Moscow State University Anatoly Antonov.
— Anatoly Ivanovich, how promising hybridization method in terms of the elimination of family crisis and the declining birth rate?
— Hybridization experiment cells really useful as a method directed against genetic diseases. The health of all generations can be better due to the elimination of congenital anomalies incurable today. Other areas of application of hybridization are questionable, because there are possible negative social consequences.
How familist (a specialist in the study of family system changes) I would like to draw your attention to the fact that in industrialized countries, the decline of the family and the birth rate is not related to the biological factor.
Already in the 60s industrialized countries (including ours) have entered into the era of low fertility, small families, and as a consequence — depopulation, ie the excess of deaths over births, and the gradual decline in the population, when the fraction of the elderly and fewer children.
Depopulation is not due to environmental degradation and human health, and for social reasons. Modern people of the North are a model of a situation in which all industrial nations will be, if not stop the degradation of the family and the related depopulation.
— If healthier nation through hybridization, "grafting" them healthy gene?
— In the matter of hope shines through genetics. But the biological method does not solve social problems, you can not make "genetically" want to have three children. For self-preservation nations have, on the one hand, the focus on intra-ethnic marriages. On the other hand, in order to avoid degradation, they must go beyond the ethnic isolation, but then collapsing national "purity" … Of course, the hybridization method can be found in ethnic healthy cells and improve the breed, but the technology itself is opposed to all norms of family life: at child has a lot of biological parents and this fact can not be hidden from the child, from the neighbors, the microenvironment. The fact of the gene construct baby needs a new morality, new legislation, etc.
— But the situation is, in principle, no different from when a child, for example, after a divorce, losing his father and becomes stepfather. Or stepmother. And often "between the families."
— Indeed, the extremely high divorce rate in our country is the fact that children are often deprived of their fathers, which aims to take the role of the state. The increase in divorces, in turn, is directly dependent on the declining birth rate, the desire to have only one, maximum of two children per family. Only a quarter of the families we have today is implementing its need for a second child. We are in third place in the world for low birth rate (after Spain and Italy) — the average number of children born in her life in the family, is we have 1.28. And in the West, this index within 1.5-1.7. Which means that the transition to depopulation. Multiple monogamy (ie, following the dissolution of marriage) does not increase the birth rate, but increases the number of adults per one child — why, only the other way, leads and hybridization. In this sense, genetic experiments a brighter shade degradation of the family.
— But it may be that this method will help infertile couples?
— Unfortunately, in the face of massive one-child families and infertile couples desire to have a child disappears. In the future, this trend will intensify and hybridization method just will not be in demand on the intended purpose. Even today, there are cases of conflict between those who order and bears an artificially conceived child … I do not think that the number of children conceived in a test tube will rise.
In addition, the number of actual (unregistered) marriages, mostly childless. In the future, fewer and fewer couples will seek to get rid of the physical fertility, fewer spouses will strive to deliver the unborn child from congenital anomalies and certainly qualify for the child in the event of a hybrid "multi-pair" of participation in its birth.
— Outline the picture seems to exclude all children of the future.
— The children themselves are becoming less necessary, valuable, welcome to the parents. So that this and future inventions geneticists depreciate as already ongoing devaluation of the family and children. Experts in genetic engineering were counting on the "old" family, and the family has long been different: it is an imitation of family relationships, rather — reusable odnorebenochnoe cohabitation.
— There are some countries, the same China, where fertility cruelly controlled by the state — there is the opposite problem: overcrowding.
— Yes, the method of hybridization and other genetic (or rather — eugenic) methods as if designed for the "overcrowded". China has long been held cannibal solid one-child policy. If it seems ineffective rulers to speed up the pace of population decline, they can now impose one child in four, six, eight parents. However, Paul-Pot has engaged in "hybridization" of his people — the only other way …
However, none of the governments in the world can take advantage of this invention is a gene for fertility decline. China has already introduced relaxations of population policy. In addition, it is clear that overcrowding the world at large is not threatened. By 2050, in the world there will be no country where the family had more than two children. On the threshold of the inverse problem: the extinction of mankind because of "parental impotence" that is, the lack of desire to have children — what is, by the way, and the overall economic situation in the developed countries. But the fact that it is permissible for individuals, may not be permissible for the state. No government will go to self-destruction — in this example convinces Estonia and Latvia. The Estonian government wants to Estonians living in Estonia, and not someone else. The task of the numerical superiority over the rest of the Estonians, and since there and did not give birth to three children, invented the laws that make all non-Estonians are not nationals of the country in general. That's how the government behave when the indigenous population is not enough to save the national state.
— But this policy is anti-human!
— Unfortunately, this all goes. Depopulation, leading, because of one-child families, the extinction of every 25 years, half the population of the original number, will turn Germany into a country without the Germans, France — a country without the French, Russia — a country without Russian. That's where genetic hybridization and can be useful. Family dies — and well, why governments to campaign for the family, emancipated from morality to lure men and women? .. After all, there is a hybrid incubator, he coined — we just have to put the case on the conveyor, which will make anyone and in any quantity. A smooth the educational incubator and pricheshet new humanity.
— It is not known who and for what purpose the first to build this incubator …
— Today, the decline of the family and in the West, and we do not care about no one in particular. People like to intuitively hope that scientists will come up with something. Have an idea! Coming new totalitarianism in which the pattern of the Suvorov schools will begin to socialize and fit one size fits all offspring born out of a family through the process … And, of course, genetics is not to blame for what will be the use of their discovery. It is important to know on what ground they fall …
Painted a picture reminiscent of dystopia — socialized children, the army grown in incubators supermen, the new fascism. But the development of technology is inevitable. It is important to put them at the service of the people. Otherwise, we would have to give up many scientific advances, help to preserve the life of premature baby, overcome infertility, cancer, and AIDS.
But dystopia and given the fact that the society today, now think about the future — his and his children.