Russian word "glove" comes from the phrase "Varangian glove" may, it is said that this garment was borrowed from the Vikings. Vikings in Russia called people from the Nordic countries.
Another version of the origin of the word — from the ancient verb "cooking", "varovati," ie, "protect", "protect". From what? So cold! But there is a third: the word "Waregem" — from the "cook", ie before knitted woolen mittens brewed in boiling water to become more dense and warm.
In different regions of Russia mittens called differently: valyanki, rods, Braids, fagot, messengers — the method of manufacture. Were still Mokhnatko, shubnitsy … These, it is easy to guess, made their fur — deer, dog, goat, wolf, bear, etc.
Mittens are known in Russia since the 13th century, but in country life they probably existed before. Why did not use gloves boyars and nobles? They simply did not need. Remember the saying — to work carelessly, that is bad? Boyars and nobles wore clothes with very long sleeves, in which the hands and hiding from the cold. Such clothing was warm, but it is inconvenient to work with.
Changed fashion, shorten sleeves, and there was a need to protect the hands. So gloves have passed from the worker-peasant life in the nobility. And they began to look much brighter and richer!
Mittens were divided into male and female. Female — smaller, more elegant, multicolored. Men simply, without rezanki knit to make it easier to work with and easy to fold hands, wipe the sweat or smoke.
Usually wears several pairs of mittens, first knitted (ispodochki called them), and then fur — fur outside (Mokhnatko). To put on top of the canvas, leather or related horsehair. Ispodochki worn on holidays with ornaments in everyday life — plain.
In Russian traditional dress sleeves sometimes very long, they are "replaced" mittens. But the Russian tsars perstatye wore gloves. Ie gloves. They were lined with fur, trimmed with beaver. After that, gloves began to appear in others.
In the 19th century, girls and young married women from wealthy families for holiday wear Wristguards (fingerless gloves) — long narrow fingerless gloves. Knitting them out of white cotton threads. By the early 20th century, they almost universally have disappeared from the village costume.
In mittens in Russia was a lot of names — Waregem, mittens, vargi, varyashki, vachagi, delnitsy, Mokhnatko, mohnashki, rukavki are connected. Famous ancient Russian tradition — before the wedding she had to demonstrate their skills. In addition to sewing the wedding dress, the bride groom gifts to family uzornymy stockings and gloves. Moreover, all products had to be with different ornaments.
For the gentlemen they were made of velvet, brocade and morocco, decorated with pearls, beads, precious stones, gold and silver embroidery. Such masterpieces even handed down from generation to generation. A peasant gloves also undergone some changes — we have all the usual gloves.
The fact that it gradually became a separation of concepts: gloves — that is made of fur or fabric, and mittens — just knitted. Often worn by the one and the other, especially in the far north: outside large mitten fur under it — knitted mitten, more subtle and delicate. Called such ispodochki mittens.
The value of ornamental elements on Russian mittens
Mitten was not the only item of clothing that protects from the cold, but also a work of art, and even a kind of a message: it is beautiful, sometimes very complex color pattern could carry some secret information. For example, drawing fish — a symbol of fertility, sunlight, good. The chain of diamonds — the tree of life, crosses — the fire or the sun.
By the way, a complex technique of knitting did not appear in. Even before it was mastered by other nations. The most skilled craftsmen considered Italians, Spaniards and Scandinavians. Scandinavia has come to us knitting skills, and the first ones out there picked up a needle, were men.
In Russia, a woman knitting. This learned from childhood, because she had the wedding in time to prepare yourself dowry. It was necessary not only to sew a wedding dress, embroidered towels and tablecloths, but also bestow family groom knitted stockings and mittens with colorful ornaments.
Mittens now as popular as in the old days. Only, of course, they are not inherited. Mittens — something purely practical. However, modern designers once again drew attention to them. What can be more comfortable good old warm mittens? Patterned knitted mitten looks fine and contemporary monochrome jacket, and with a knitted hat and scarf and a fashionable bright untami. Usually wears several pairs: first, knitted, and then fur — fur outside. On holidays wore colored gloves with a pattern. On weekdays — monochromatic.
The patterns on the mittens, however, were different patterns-wards with the birds, crosses, triangles and stars, patterns, diamonds, symbolizing the sun, good, happiness, patterns chain diamond, means protection from the dark forces.
The patterns on the mittens as significant as all designs in folk art. Stylized birds, flowers, diamonds, crosses, triangles, hooks, claws star strips in complex combinations to delight the eye — a symbol-wards, the transition from mother to daughter, to protect people from evil forces, aided in doing good. The word "pattern" comes from the Latin «ornamentum» — decoration. In Russia, more commonly used the word "pattern" that carries the same meaning — the decoration of the surface of the object.
Elements of ornamentation suggest cheleveku natural surroundings, their habitat, climate, customs of the people, the outlines of the human body and the surroundings. Ornament last nakogda was purely decorative. Each element has a specific meaning, was conditional, but the picture is clear for all the laws of nature: birth, life, death. The ornament can be called ancient language of human communication.
The tradition of decorating household items, clothing patterns, bearing oberegovuyu function existed in Russia since the days of paganism. With the adoption of Christianity, this tradition has not disappeared, it changed and has survived to the present day, however, partially missing oberegovy sense of patterns.
Symbols of the same ornaments in many nations. For example, the diamond has many meanings. He was once a symbol of the sun, a sign of fertility, agriculture, good, happy, full of life. A diamond with a point designated poseredke fertilized land, planted fields. It is this pattern most often used when knitting his bride dowry.
The chain of diamonds — the "tree of life", the diamond with extended sides protected from the mischief of the dark forces, it is adorned with this sign Slavs log their homes.
If the glove is dotted with crosses, do not be afraid. Cross — a symbol of fire and the sun. "Knitting" the sun — symbol of light and zhivotvoreniya.
The most common geometric after — floral design. His main motifs of stylized flowers, stems, leaves, branches, plants. There are other types of ornament: Animal (birds, animals, insects), natural (waves), teratological (fantastic and fabulous animals, or parts of them). Another large group — objects created by man: tools, tools, weapons, and buildings.
Motives of ornaments can be finite (eg, "star"), or infinite (for example, a wavy line). The final pattern creates a sense of static, infinite — a vision of mobility. Zigzag stripe or "rope" pattern on the glove vyvyazannye meant a wish of longevity to its owner.
It was believed that the places in which it could penetrate the evil power — is the edge of clothing, bags, doors, stockings, mittens. To protect yourself from it, you need to protect, decorate these places are especially bright and multicolored.
The color palette of patterns Russian mittens
When knitting patterns are not less important than the pattern, color plays. Traditionally, the colors, as well as patterns, depended on the purpose of the product. Earlier in the day to day things were simpler patterns (dots, crosses, strokes) and modest colors: black, gray, white. Bright threads of contrasting color knitting mittens holiday. Distributed were stable following combinations: red and green, black (blue), yellow, black (blue) red. Borders, which frames the main reasons for the pattern, mostly knitting, combining strands of red and white flowers.
My favorite colors of mittens for the peoples of Pomerania is a combination of green and red, yellow and purple, orange and blue, they were regarded as harmonious in the 19th century. The need for such combinations of bright colors was due to thirst in the long polar night.
The coloring of the earlier products was ocher-yellow (with a hint of tobacco and green), red-brown — without sharp contrasts. Quiet soft colors were obtained by staining of wool with natural dyes: stems, flowers, bark and plants.
The invention of the 16th century knitting frame to influence the development of knitting. Pretty quickly spread across Europe, the machine trakotazh in the 19th century is beginning to replace hand knitting. The mass production of identical, we replaced the standard things skillfully and lovingly hand-made products.
Despite this handmade charm remains, and products related hand, are valued every year more and more. Because each handmade item is unique, in every part of the soul is enclosed. Knit the same thing to me, for example, just not interested. Every time you want to create something new. Not yet dovyazala one pair mittens, and there appeared the following sketch and want to get started quickly implement his plan. And how nice to see the admiring glances of fellow traveler, with interest examined my winter gloves. After all, they my guardian, which in winter is always with me!