C'est un danger d'aimer les hommes,
Un malheur de les gouverner;
Les servir — un effort, que bient? T on oublie,
Les? Clairer — une folie, quelle n'ont jamais su par donner.
It is dangerous to love people,
Misfortune — they rehabilitate;
Ministry — burden, quickly forgotten
Enlightenment — ungrateful folly.
(My amateurish translation)
One species of animal, homo sapiens, proudly imagines himself king of his mother nature. He conquered all. He explained the nature anthropomorphically as convenient to his vanity. In his scientific opinion no one else, can not think. Even dolphins, monkeys and dogs living nearby. He believes that no one but he does not know how to talk. Even social animals and insects. And when he suddenly saw as monkeys quickly learn human terms, simply build one logical proposals and communicate with each other, it is jealous. Erased because the fundamental difference between it and the beast. But he is endowed with divine qualities only himself.
However, not all think so. People are very different. There are very narcissistic and conceited homo evropikus — enroll themselves into the elite of the "golden billion". There are more modest and quiet — homo aziatikus. Especially those who live in squalid poverty of India and deify any animal. This is (from) the Gentiles, who denied the "chosen people" and the human condition. Their destiny is not to eat the luxurious life of joy and slavishly plow World parasite.
Who are smarter? On this question the gods, as always, are responsible Homeric laughter. They just roar with pleasure: the best scientists and programmers are underdeveloped Russes, Indians and Chinese, in a word — Asians. The gods decide who to award a sharp mind and ability, and who ambition and desire to look. Content or appearance of the essence or form, or may seem — this duality does not always coincide.
As a man myself estimates it is the price. Man has learned to evaluate themselves in rubles. And sell yourself with giblets. By the way, the currency of Russia is called "ruble", the currency of India — "Rupee". As a relation similar.
Man delighted with his intelligence. But the human mind — quite helpless thing. Relying on his mind, he fail you. But if you know how to use intuition (strong? Animal instinct), the mind will exalt you. Reason — a double-edged sword. We are different from the West in order that we can live feeling. Our language is emotional, touching Articlerunessubconscious. Live intonation, look into my eyes. We catch the meaning of nothing, as is able to make wise animals. We often want to retreat, for "love of solitude is the lot of a few chosen souls" (V.Shmakov).
We still have not found a definition of what a human being. Each bipedal speaking we see a man by birth, and because he knows how to talk. Though it uses the word "become a man." Brutish man in full.
Who is most afraid of people? Me like. And God forbid it to wake the sleeping beast. "There is nothing more horrible and dreadful than man, He grunts, roars and grunts and hisses, the nature of all other animals, he is dirty as a pig tough as a bull, funny as a monkey, rage like a lion, a snake is poisonous, it is a mixture of all animal nature "- said Mephistopheles Doctor Faustus.
Who loves best man? Me like. Self-sacrifice. Human love — is more than the instinct of procreation and protection of the neighbor. Love — it is also a concept that a person is defined fuzzy and ambiguous. And these concepts fully.
Hard all this, and not all have a single answer.
What I have written such a long introduction? The point is that everything will be discussed further, may be misinterpreted and used brutish people fascist. They're not burdened with intelligence.
I write for people who think.
Teachers of mankind
This kind of very old. Wise people, reveredKindrunic knowledge and knows the gods. They called themselves Aryans. They lived here in historical Russia. Around 3,600 years ago, some of them went to warm to India, where they were the highest caste of Gdańsk society — caste Brahmins, keepers of ancient wisdom. Today they live there. Their $ 100 million. Small compared to the population of the country (1.029.000 people.). But comparable to the number of Russian at home.
Another part of the Aryans stayed home. They call themselves Russia. Russ and Arias — relatives. They are the same kind, because in their Y-chromosome, the same label R1a1. No one else has this "kind of haplogroup" no. It is scientifically proven DNA genealogy. Eastern Slavs, as Indian descendants of the Aryans — a kind of R1a1. Them among the inhabitants of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus — from 45 to 70%. The figures are impressive even with the number of Finno-Ugric and other peoples of Russia. In ancient as Russian and Ukrainian cities and suburbs — up to 80%.
Where did the name "Aria"? They called themselves Arya (? Rya). This is documented in the Vedas. The word "Arya" is a self-name ancestors of Indians and Iranians (Iranians have the oldest book of the Aryan origin is called the "Avesta", the name is heard "Aryan news" or "Al-news").
Aryans brought to India the sacred knowledge then, even before the Bible was written. From Aryan "Rigveda" in ancient times can compete only Sumerian "Epic of Gilgamesh" ("Everything species"), it dates from about XXII century BC "Rigveda" was recorded in India of an already formed a complete collection of sacred priestly hymns. This Indian scientists believe, it's claimed orientalist and translator of "Rigveda" T.Elizarenkova USSR Academy of Sciences.
Tatiana Y. Elizarenkovaworked at the Institute of Oriental Studies. Doctor of Philology (1994). In 2004 was awarded the "Padma Shri" — the highest award in India for foreigners — a translation of the "Rig". Awarded to Nicholas Roerich in 2006 in the "Achievements of the formation of the cultural image of Russia in the world."
Russia's largest specialist in Vedic culture. Fifty-five years of his life devoted to work on the study and translation of the Vedic texts. According to her, to the problem of translation "can be approached taking into account developments in a wide range of disciplines, in one way or another connected with the analysis of the monument — the text of exegesis and hermeneutics, textual and text linguistics, grammar, Vedic language and comparative grammar of Indo-European languages, poetics and prosody , mythology and ritual studies, history and archeology, etc. However, difficulties still exist two kinds: those that are associated with the incompleteness of our knowledge, with the time and makes up for the deepening, and those that are associated with a certain language "untranslatable" one text to another. "
The remaining part of the house kind of Teachers of humanity also owned cognizance of the Magi. Rather, they were called then not only Aryans but Rus. The fact that the word "Aryan" and "Rus" — Runic synonyms (more on this below).
I tried to show the people of Russia belonging to the genus Teachers of humanity by the wave (field) genetics. But not everyone accepts this evidence, because "what we do not know that do not recognize." Field gene — it is difficult for the layman. Material gene (DNA) can not and should not conflict with the field. Now, DNA genealogy proved what tells us the field gene.
Findings of genetics and wave genetics (Rune of Aryan-Russian Magi) coincide. As required.
And if so, skeptics and opponents lose arguments to the objections and the reasons not to trust runnomu Field genome.
Of arias, the antiquity of the Vedic scriptures, the origins of the Aryan Indian civilization long said Indian scientists. And the figures (dating) called correctly. Because they remember their history, in contrast to us — the people who cut off the memory and turned into "Eve? Electrons, not their roots." But European scientists did not recognize their voices and call them nationalists. India were trying to rejuvenate and Vedic philosophy debase. Europe used to think the right is that she writes about others. Now, dear reader, you can decide to assess the reliability of European works on India, its philosophy and history.
By the way, the most accurate and correct translation of the "Rig Veda" (Veda hymns) — Russian made T.Elizarenkovoy. The word "Rigveda" consists of two Sanskrit roots: "Reach" (praise poems) and "veda" (sacred knowledge). So scientists believe. And let us listen to the name: Rgveda — rtsy-verb-veda.
Aryans were able to write or Veda transmitted orally for generations Brahmins? In "Rigveda" 1028 hymns (10,552 verses). Try to memorize. Can? Veda kept families Brahmins ("Rishi" — the wise, from the word "address") in parts. Here are the names of families: Angiras (3619 verses), Canvas (1315), Vasishtha (1267), Vayshvamitra (983), Atri (885) Bhrgu (473), Kasyapa (415) Grtsamada (401), Agastya (316), Bharata (170) and others.
Now about the wise men — the rishis. Who is the wise man? One who "decides" and broadcasts a "word." In Russian "rtsy word." "Rtsy word"- This is the 19th (Pparticle) and 20 th (WithLovo) Arch. What is indicated by the letter of the 19th lassoPIn Kabbalah? Letter. Like? What is called in Hebrew, the next letter of the 20th arcana? "Decision." In Hebrew the 20th noose — "Decision" and in Russian — "word." And we open the record on the phrase, "And thesolvedto themselves, "Let us look for a prince …". Philologists word "decide" (decided) is translated as "to say." The next letter of the 21st lasso (clown) -(Shin) generally similar to Russian. Here you have a link to the Kabbalah Aryan-Russian Hermeticism.
Externally priestly hymns seemingly simple but hidden esoteric meaning difficult to understand. The mystery remains. But you think about the fact that all the hymns revolve around a few key ideas.
"In the RV occurs several times in reference to the fact that Ashwini presented certain man named Pedu wonderful white horse, fast horse, killing snakes hoofs" (T.Elizarenkova). Remember the Moscow coat of arms with George, and at the same time and think about what snakes or snake in question. Do not about the snake, from which death took Oleg the Wise? That's right, for here is encrypted ancient magical technique unseal the curse. This mystery belongs to the godsKind, and disclosed only with Rune genome. Not be made public.
"… In most RVs witnessed different variants of the myth. For example, the basic, the most common version of the myth of Val is that cows, hidden mean and rich Lady Demons in the rock, called Val (val? «Shelter"), have been found by Indra, which struck a rock and vajra freed cows (and with them with light, morning dawns, power, wealth, and so on.). The main myth … RVs, endlessly repeated from hymn to hymn that Indra killed the serpent Vritra (vrtr? — «Obstacle", "obstacle", the serpent in the sense of "the enemy"), collapsed on the mountain and stem the flow of rivers, and the thus let the river flow freely, he pierce bed, tells episode by episode … "(T.Elizarenkova). I do not have a regular reader suggest that the allegorical concept of "shelter in the Rock" (pechera), "Snake", "track", "river" (actual speech), etc. — The codes Rune genome. This "Rigveda" lies Runnoe conduct the Magi.
Each Russian concept of "knowledge" is associated with "water" subconscious. Not only because "the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters." Water- Is the duality that forms quaternions of the Spirit (see discussion of "Yin-Yang" in the article "The Roots of European civilization"). Water carries the principle of converting information into energy. Veda — water. As the water looked.Racenick Istok — expiration of the truth. It flows a river. Utter, utter. In the genome of rune words "current" and "mainstream" form a duality breath of the Spirit. Aryan Saraswati (s? Rasvat? Letters. "Rich water) — the sacred river of the Aryans RVs, personifies the river goddess, the goddess of prayer, the goddess of learning. We decipher the name.Sarah(Sar — king) +Swati(Light) — the queen of the world. Isis (Sofia) 2nd lasso, the goddess of wisdom, do not know? Take a look.
And what says Rune Field genome of arias? And here is an oddity. It seems that the genome as "aria" refers to either a higher caste of the Magi or wise people. But, rather, the one and the other.
In the field genome concept of "Aryan" denotes the Algiz rune. But it is not a nationality. This rune Insider — 12th lasso inverted Russian I (). Rune knowledgeable gods, rune master, the king. Victim. Rune sacrificed himself, his ego, in the name of knowledge. That is (24/2 = 12) slain lamb standing in a 24-rune-gods — the "elders" of John in "Apocalypse", telling us who opened all the secret printing and management of the gods. Rune magician. This rune is that the legendary Holy Grail, which is all in vain looking for. Fleece is announced three basic sounds of A, P, A (there are other sounds). It is identical in shape filled bowl — Russian letter H,. From there begins the word "cup." On the Tree of the Sephiroth is the right of the rune rune Gebo. Together read the Grail. The seed of wisdom.
In the sky represent it three stars of Orion's belt — three sound runes, constituentsRunnoesound, called "ory it" — it airs. Orion — personified the Egyptian Osiris (Sakha).
In front of the genome is the rune Algiz rune Kano. Together, they read:- King (hence the word "king", "Caesar", "Caesar"). Arius — (c) arias. So it turns out the aria — the kings (the Magi), and at the same time they are a nation of kings (the Magi). Magi — the owners and keepers of knowledge Rune Gods — were considered kings, and all the people of the Aryans (the support of the Aryan language of the gods) was considered the king. That's how you can answer this simple question. This name could be called his people the magician, who understood the runes.
The word "Aryan" has become a term of abuse after the fascist ideology proclaimed the German nation by the Aryans, and other subhuman. Particularly hated the Jews for what they believed other goyim, and himself God's chosen people, for the fact that those embodying the Zionist dream of world domination, conceived the world proletarian revolution (the same idea of globalization, only with a different sauce), which really did not want German leaders. Slavs also planned to reduce in number. For Russian pig — not Aryans.
The whole German nation in unison shouted "Sieg Heil!" Glorifying rune "zig". It is not a "zig" and Sowulo — «word," sun light. So the German slogan does not sound right, "Long live the victory!" And "Long live the Word." But they did not know about. Everyone wanted to be a (n) arias, because they did not understand that airs — is not the king of this world. That's frankly as muzzle fascism emerged in full European ambition.
Spiritual founders of the German Nazis got wind that the depth of the foundation of the Aryan world view is the ancient knowledge of the Magi, based on the runes. In 1933 he was created an elite mystical order "Ananerbe", which was initiated in 1939 Himmler became the main research body within(HS). Having authority over the fifty research institutes, community engaged in search of ancient knowledge, allowing to develop new technologies, to manage through the magic of the human mind, to conduct genetic experiments on growing superman. Practiced non-traditional methods of learning: the action of hallucinogens, in a trance, contacts with the "unknown superiors" ("external brains"). The fact that they tried to talk to the gods, such as the Germans had not occurred. Expedition undertaken for the esoteric knowledge to the Himalayas looking for Holy Grail in the Alps, in vain used runic symbols.
By the way, on their own runesnot mean anything bad. In the Russian interpretation they could mean "sons of light" and to serve people, if they were not ispohabili profanation. And runes led to the complete collapse of those who underestimated the warning about the inadmissibility careless handling. In addition: to fight the Russian (language guardians runes) with magic runes — nonsense. But Hitler did not. Knowledge for profanity and the name "Aryan" gods punished fairly. Mind your my sled.
Runes they have not known. They broke her teeth. However, associating the term "Aryan", "Aryan», «wolf» (wolf, sorcerer) with rune characters, they carried Searching for a general, in the right direction. Who suggested it, it's hard to say. Perhaps, somewhere in Germany or Austria, preserved some old book with hints. Called themselves the wolves. Rates given command wolf names ("Wolf's Lair"). Very much like them to be descendants of the ancient Aryans.
My people called Rus. "Russia" is the name of the state, not the people. We Russes, not the Russians. Russians call the citizens of the federal state, which include other nations. Russ, Ruthenians, rusichi — one and the same. Russ Russ belong to the genus, no matter where they lived.
I — rus. I live in Ukraine in his hometown. And my policy is not to name ukrayaninom guessed, and ranked as the Ukrainians, not demand that my consent. My Russian is the language in which I think, trying to stamp out, not realizing that he can stand up for himself, so that does not seem weak. Russian language — the language of the gods, the Magi (Russes, Aryans, aces). Ministry of Health warns: Russian language — it is such a powerful force that can smash to smithereens the Ukrainian state in the chips. This danger is already felt.
Ukrainian "scientists" came up with a new breath-taking "theory" that the Ukrainians ancient Rus, Russia stole and misappropriated Ukrainian history that Ukrainians are Russian, and others. In their view, the Russian did not Slavs, and a mix of Tatars, Mongols and others. Over this nonsense people laugh. What to say about these "scientists"? Mobile, picking stick in his own family and destroying his house, does not understand, whose global order does. On it and black grimy. Logomachy deal with them does not make sense. They stick to their line, not recognizing any facts or logic used for smuggling in, push for what they like. They do not want to remember that not long ago (a century ago) the residents of the western regions called themselves Ruthenians. Blatant stupidity and hatred rule over them. And the gods will laugh loudly at them. Obhohochutsya. The laughter of the gods begins with the fact that the ideology of Ukrainian Nationalists Russophobic DNA genealogy has scored a stake. Deadly and outright.Ukrainians — it is Russ.Who the Ukrainians? These are the ruses that do not want to be Russ, and consider themselves to others, although they are genetically — Russ. And from this rational behind it can not escape.
Name "Rus" is the keeper of wisdom of the Magi. Why? Because in the genome of the word rune at all due to the symmetric word "(n) arias." Words(King) and(Rus) — synonyms. In the wordrune- This is the 11th lasso — the principle of force and power. In Russian "power", "power", "power", indicating the term "horn" (rtsy verb) is often found in the Bible. Although the Hebrew word sounds different.
Why I read it, "Russian", and not in another? Because the genome of the name "Rus" should "word." Together, we read:- Rtsy word, that is "Say the word." Hence the "Slavs" (Slavs) — speak a word. What word spoken Slavs? But the fact that "In the beginning was the word" — a word of wisdom. From the genome of the phrase "rtsy word" copied without change to the Russian alphabet in the form of code words.
Our Russian alphabet, not Slavic, because the Catholic Slavs use the Latin alphabet (alfabetom). In every one tried to rob Russia of its alphabet, calling it Old Church Slavonic (what old Slavs use it?), Church (what for?), Cyrillic (Cyril had nothing to do with it). No, gentlemen, our Russian alphabet. This she says. And magic power equal with her. This is the ABC of Teachers of humanity. It is given to usBy birthand developed from our runes that we now can not nobody take away.
Combination runes(EU) or(EU) is read as the word "ace." Asami our ancestors called Scandinavians. "MetAcesIdavell on-field, high temples were built, energy spared, forged treasures created mites, guns ready "(" Völuspá "). In the "language of poetry" Younger Edda of Snorri Sturluson passes legend about the origin of the high art of magic runic texts. I quote a small piece, "Honey [giant] Suttungr About? Din [O? Din — Clearwisdom runes] gaveacesand those people who are able to compose poetry. " Today ace called masters of higher qualification in any case, and also indicate the card ace. Some researchers have linked the name "Azov" (asovskoe) sea with aces — the people, the gods who lived there. Scandinavian erili, followed by other researchers, the term "ace" treat rune Ansuz- Oh god? Dinym, opening runes. But this is wrong. According to the myth about? Din to see the light rune sacrificed himself. He pinned himself to spear world tree — ash Yggdrasil and hung on it by sacrificing his right eye. According to the Egyptian god Horus myth was also deprived of his eyes. Russian letter I sealed accurately conveys the meaning of its value. Myth of the O? Dine not have a description of the 1st and 12th of the lasso — runes aria, rune magician. "I opened the face of his aces sons, salvation is near, soon all the aces are collected for Ægir table, Aegir feast."
That's using the runes to decipher ancient legends. Of the prehistoric antiquities, to which conventional methods historians not reach. We use the knowledge of the Volkhov archetypes that do not change with time, they belong to the category of eternity.
When he came to India with Vedic wisdom, arias were highest caste wise. And the wisdom of the gods laid the foundation of religions and philosophies. Spoken and written language of the Aryans were the basis of culture of peoples. Right now it is the language of the gods Russian people. For runes speak in Russian. No other way. The king's people, we do not consider, but do not want to be slaves.
Hitler wanted to be an Aryan. But even here the gods relish pohohotat: runes were Russian, and arias and Russ — brothers of oneKind. Not German, and Russian subhuman were Aryans.
Zionist ideology, which claims to spiritual authority over the world, the title of "the chosen people" and the Messiah of mankind also have to calm down a little.
"When men began to multiply on the earth and daughters were born to them, thensons of Godsaw the daughters of men were beautiful, and they took them wives of all which they chose. At that time …Nephilim were on the earth, and especially with the time thatsons of Godcame in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them.They are strong, good people of old"(Genesis 6. 1-4).
Interesting logic in the Old Testament (Torah): man, the Lord just created, only a few generations germinated (Noah has not sailed on the ark), and it turns out that there were already someanciently(Very long), good people, and, — the sons of God. Who are they? Incorporeal angels, manage thought impregnate the daughters of men? You do not believe in the immaculate conception or the massive invasion of sexy alien with human DNA. But these newcomers then who? Primates, subhuman? Racism smell. Is this not the Hitler drew inspiration? We are not advocates of God's chosen people things are going, as they call themselves, and hated Arabs Semites, because they believe they are the descendants of Shem (Noevicha seeds), and he is one of those — novosleplennyh clay. This slippery question biblical scholars bypass studious manner. God forbid you slip.
However, we will try to explain this incident. The Torah — the secondary book. Plagiarism. Jewish authors of the Bible, to say the least, took from all where bad press: the Egyptians, the Babylonians (the successor of the Sumerians, they are now the Iraqis), the Aryans. The researchers noted, including T.Elizarenkovoy that the Vedas names male — Aryan, and women — not Aryan. This suggests that the Aryans took to wife the representatives of the aboriginal population. All the same features of the genus R1a1 is transmitted only through the male line Y-chromosome, but not as commonly believed among the Jews (the mother).
[Born to a Jewish son of a Russian father ceases to be a Jew, because his Y-chromosome carries Russian generic label R1a1. Such Russian psevdoevreev circumcised in Israel fully. Therefore, they have the nationality (relationship) is defined not by blood, and not even by language, and by faith, that is ideology. Jew — a Jew means. At worst, you can be an atheist. If you are not a Jew, then — as if not quite a Jew]
This existence of the marriage "of old famous sons of God" (Aryans) and Indian ladies, apparently, and was the cause of this strange writing in the Torah. Moreover, in the chapter "Life", dedicated to the human race.
Jews and Egyptians called our ancestors Roche. Biblical curses and threats against Roche complete. Scientists are trying to somehow keep quiet about it, because it immediately followed by PR-din and accusations of anti-Semitism. Protection from any criticism of Zionism carefully observed. Moreover, the practice trivial substitution of concepts, if you are against Zionism, then you are — anti-Semite.
The Egyptians also called the root of his wisdom (lasso) A combination of the words Tar (road, path) and Ro, Russia (Rosh), Horn (King, but in Russian "horn" — the power, power, power), that is the Tarot — the path or the path of the kings of the Rus. Russian immediately hear consonance "tarog" — "the road." Pre-horn — to-power. Tarosh — roshey way. Roshi (dew), Russ ancient people, apparently associated with the kingsand the spiritual path. This is confirmed by rune genome: the words "king" and "Russian" are symmetric and connected with the word "Aryan." Zen Buddhist teacher known as "Rosie." The word "Aryan" and "Rus" — synonyms.
In the genome after rune Algiz rune should Mannaz. If they read in Hebrew from right to left Mannaz-Algiz-Kano, we get the word "Melek". Melek in Hebrew — the king.
Who is to blame that Russia cut off the memory, and we have forgotten, even their family and theirKind? Always to blame for power. Because it affects a lot.
Prince Vladimir Constantine learned a lesson, which he made in his state religion of the Byzantine Empire for the convenience of keeping the population in check. Christianity powerfully spread across Europe, the missionaries were not tired. Vladimir naively thought it better as the current Ukrainian dreamers to join the European family, to have peace on the borders. The fact that we do not want it, even today our politicians think not take. So we christened Vladimir forced by fiat. The revolt of the faith ancestors chronicle mentions in passing. Native pagan faith is preserved only in the traditions, customs and language, therefore — in the subconscious mind of the people. That's why she is reborn again. And we begin to understand that should not change your face on someone else's. Well, why, tell me, I know how Moses led his people, if I do not know how my patriarchs led my people? And we deliberately taken away from any mention of the arias. My tongue is called "Indo-European", rather than the Aryan. Because, if I suddenly find out that the Aryans — my direct ancestors, I will understand what I'm not supposed to know. So say those who handle my people for centuries. But their time has passed.
If we believe the chronicles, Vladimir chose faith of the three religions: Judaism, Islam and Byzantine Orthodoxy. Indians among the missionaries were not. Are you surprised that? Vladimir can blame a lack of awareness, but this is not true. Silk Road functioned, so although the rumors about the religion of the Hindus had to make it. Among the Greeks were fans of Indian Krishna-Vasudeva in 150 BC Heliodorus erected in his honor by the column, and Agathocles issued coins. Runic figures from India through the Arabs came to Europe. In ancient Novgorod played in Indian chess. And Vladimir was a layman. He did not consider the faith of Hindus, apparently, because it was his familiar. It can be assumed that the Russian Magi were the Vedas, like the Indian, but in them the names of gods and heroes sounded a bit different. Source is surely one — runes.
Indian philosophy holds that the world in which we live — the illusion, Maya. Maya in Hindu literature is used as the equivalent of Mara. Russian analogue of Mara — mana blazn, wraith, confusion, delusion, charm, dream, dream, ghost, ghost, madder (stuffed), Marnie (hmarno, overcast), March (dry fog), haze, haze (heat for cloudy whiteness air), marakosit (imagining unclear seen the dark). Maya and Mara — an illusion. Waking people from Maya Buddha was born, and after 500 years of Christ — from Mary (Mary). What's the difference? One illusion after another. And there is nothing new under the sun.
Assumption. In Hinduism, based on the details mentioned in the scriptures, it is assumed that Krishna was born in a royal family of Vasudeva by his wife Devaki (in Russian Virgin) in 3228 BC That is, 1636 years before the outcome of the Aryans in India. The earliest text that details the Krishna is the "Mahabharata" [The great (maha) divine (bha) breathing (RATA)], where Krishna appears as one of the main characters of the epic. It is believed that in the "Mahabharata" and is narrated by the outcome of the Aryans. Krishna was not born there (in Russian Kryshen) in the territory of Russia and was brought to India by the Aryans? Everything in this world is possible.
A holy place is never empty, no. If not kept their gods will bow stranger. And others are strong mind those who do not have her.
Russia — raceKind, speaking the language of the gods. Russia — one of the oldest nations. Russian language is the root of the tree of the European languages. Opponents of the Russian national idea hard object and require archaeological and genetic evidence of this. Well, please. In the archaeological dig artifacts will not, because they are historians can be interpreted in different ways. And lead us into scholasticism. But genetics — something accurate and consistent. Since it does not argue.
Although there are opponents who know how to maneuver. One scholar writes genetics: you say, all precisely and accurately counted, but our family was taken too young. I counted the number of generations (frequency generation took not adopted by genetics, and his) and came just at the time described in the Bible (the authoritative myth against genetics). And it says that all men kind of killed race is over, but remained in the womb baby. So you think of him and our family, that is wrong. And in fact, our family is the most ancient.
Man argues in vain. If the genus of extinct, branch chopped off. Alone, but with him and a new family, a new branch. What is not clear? But his opponent logic (charity begins), for which he can claim that his family originated from apes right, sorry, from Adam.
So opponents have much Prestressing words to oppose genetic myths, rumors, legends, and other valid arguments.
Introduce you to new articles, borrowed from the anthology "The Swan" (Boston, USA), dedicated to DNA genealogy.
First, get to know the author.
Klesov Anatoliy (Anatole Klyosov).
For 12 years — a professor of biochemistry at Harvard University (Center of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Medicine at Harvard Medical School.) The past five years — Manager of Research and Development in the field of polymer composite materials in the industrial sector (Boston) and at the same time (since 2000) — senior vice president for development of new pharmaceutical materials.
In the USSR (Russia) — Doctor of Chemistry, professor of Moscow University. University, Head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Biochemistry. Bach Academy of Sciences. For research in biological catalysis was a Laureate of Lenin Komsomol Award (1978) and the USSR State Prize (1984).
Member of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences (Stockholm — Washington).
Since 1989 lives in Newton, Massachusetts.
Make it your own, dear reader. You are waiting for some shocks. Not much in hand to begin the story that the author expects his research bombshell, but what if it will happen?
And, actually, why be so sure? In our time is no surprise, is not it?
Yes, the way it is. But when the issue is not less than three hundred years, and gradually formed the belief that the problem has no solution, at least "possible means", and suddenly the solution is — it is, you see, is not so common. And the question is this — "The Origin of the Slavs." Or — "The Origin of the original Slavic community." Or, if you like, "The search for Indo-European homeland."
In fact, during these three hundred years, which only speculation at this point is not expressed. Probably, all of which is possible. The problem is that no one knew which of them are true. The question was utterly confused. Therefore, the author would not be surprised if, in response to its findings and conclusions will hear a chorus of voices — "as it was known," the "I wrote before." It's human nature. But ask now the chorus — well, so where the ancestral home of the Slavs? Where is the ancestral home of 'Indo-European'? Where did they come from? So the choir will not be, and will be differences of opinion — "a complex and confusing, the answer is no."
But to begin with — a few definitions to make it clear what it was about.
Definitions and explanations. Case history
By Slavs in the context of their origin I mean Slav. And, as will be seen from the following discussion, this context is inextricably linked to the "Indo-European". The latter — a monstrously clumsy term. The word "Indo-Europeans" — just a mockery of common sense. In fact, there is "a group of Indo-European languages," and the history of the matter is that two centuries ago it was discovered some similarities between Sanskrit and many European languages. This group of languages and was called "Indo-European", it includes almost all European languages except Basque, Finno-Ugric and Turkic languages. Then do not know the reasons for which India and Europe suddenly found themselves in the same language binding, and still do not really know. It is a question, too, will be discussed below, and without pre-Slav is not done.
But the absurdities have set in motion when the carriers themselves, "Indo-European" became known as "Indo-Europeans." That is, Latvian and Lithuanian — Indo-Europeans, and an Estonian — no. And Hungary are not Indo-European. Russian living in Finland and Finnish-speaking — not Indo-European, and when he goes to the Russian, immediately becomes the Indo-Europeans.
In other words, language, linguistic category moved on ethnic, even essentially genealogical. Apparently believed that the best choice is not. Then, perhaps, was not. Now — is there. Although, strictly speaking, it is the linguistic terms, and telling one another ligvisty mean and confused third.
Is no less confusion when we go back to ancient times. Who are the "Indo-Europeans"? They are those who in ancient times spoke on "Indo-European" languages. And even earlier, who were they? And they were — "protoindoevropeytsy." The term is even more unfortunate, and is akin to that of the ancient Anglo-Saxons call "protoamerikantsy." India and they had never seen, and the language that has not yet been formed, yet through the millennium transformed and join the group of Indo-European, but they are already "protoindoevropeytsy." It's like Prince Vladimir called "protosovetskim." Although the "Indo-" — is also a linguistic term, and to India philologists not directly related.
On the other hand, one can understand and sympathize. Well, there was another term for the "Indo-European". Do not have a name for people who in those days formed a cultural link with India, and expanded this cultural and, in any case, the language communication in all of Europe.
Wait a minute, this is not it? A arias?
But more about that later.
More on terms. Somehow the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian speaking permissible and the ancient Slavs — no. Once heard — no, no, no ancient Slavs. While everyone should be clear that we are talking about the ancient Slavs. What a double standard? Let's agree — speaking about the Slavs, I am not referring to the modern "ethno-cultural community" and our ancestors who lived thousands of years ago. There must be at them a name? No awkward "praindoevropeytsy" then? And not the "Indo-Iranians", right? Let them be the Slavs, the ancient Slavs. And arias, but this again later.
Now — what about the Slavs about? Slavs traditionally divided into three groups — the Eastern Slavs, west and south. Eastern Slavs — is Russian, Ukrainians, Belarusians. Western Slavs — Poles, Czechs, Slovaks. Southern Slavs — is the Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Macedonians, Bulgarians, Slovenes. This is — the list is not exhaustive, we can recall the Sorbs (Lusatian Slavs), and others, but the idea is clear. Actually, this division is largely based on linguistic criteria, according to which the Slavic group of Indo-European languages, consists of eastern, western and southern sub-groups, with approximately the same unit by country.
In this context, the Slavs — is "ethno-cultural communities," which includes and languages. In this form, as it is believed they were formed by the 6-7 centuries AD. And Slavic languages, according to linguists, dispersed about 1,300 years ago, again in about the 7th century. But genealogy listed Slavs belong to quite different genera, and the history of these genera are quite different.
Therefore, the western and eastern Slavs as "ethno-cultural community" — a few different things. Some Catholics in the mass, the other — Orthodox. Language differs markedly, there are other "ethno-cultural" differences. And within the framework of DNA genealogy — it amounts to the same thing, one family, one and the same label in the Y-chromosome, the same story of migration, the same common ancestor. The same ancestral haplogroup, finally.
Here we come to the concept of "ancestral haplogroup" or "haplogroup kind." It is defined by a label, or a picture of mutations in the male sex chromosome. In women, they are also there, but in a different coordinate system. Now, the Eastern Slavs — is a kind of R1a1. Them among the inhabitants of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus — from 45 to 70%. And in the old Russian and Ukrainian cities, towns, villages — 80%.
Conclusion — the term "Slavs" depends on context. In linguistics, "Slavs" — one in ethnography — the other, a DNA genealogy — the third. Haplogroup genus formed when no nation, no churches, no modern languages was not. In this respect, belonging to the family, to haplogroup — primary.
Since belonging to haplogroup is determined entirely by specific mutations in specific nucleotides of the Y-chromosome, we can say that each of us carries a label in the DNA. And this label in the male offspring is indestructible, it can be cut only with the very offspring. Unfortunately, such cases in the past, it was enough. But this does not mean that this label — an indicator of a certain "breed" of man. This label is not associated with genes and has nothing to do with them, and it is only the genes and genes can be optionally connected to "breed." Haplogroups and haplotypes did not determine the shape of the skull and nose, hair color, mental or physical characteristics of the person. But they are all tied to a specific carrier haplotype human race, the beginning of which was sort of the patriarch, the offspring of which survived and is living these days, as opposed to the millions of other genealogical lines dangling.
This label is in our DNA is invaluable for historians, linguists, anthropologists, because this label is not "assimilated" as assimilated native languages, genes, carriers of different cultures that are "dissolved" in the population. Haplotypes and haplogroups not "dissolve", not assimilated. What religion did not change in the course of thousands of descendants, whatever language they have acquired, whatever the cultural and ethnic characteristics may have changed, just the same haplogroup, the same haplotype (perhaps with a few mutations) stubbornly appear at the appropriate testing of certain fragments of Y-chromosome . It does not matter whether it's a Muslim, Christian, Jew, Buddhist, atheist or pagan.
As will be shown in this study, members of the genus R1a1 in the Balkans, who lived there 12,000 years ago, after more than two hundred generations took to the East European Plain, where 4,500 years ago, an ancestor of modern Russian and Ukrainian kind R1a1, including the author of this Article. In another hundred years, 4000 years ago, they, the ancient Slavs, came to the southern Urals, another four hundred years have gone to India and now live about 100 million of their descendants, members of the same kind R1a1. Kind of Aryan. Aryans because they themselves call it that, and it is recorded in the ancient Indian Vedas and the Iranian legends. They — the descendants of Slav or their immediate families. No "assimilation" haplogroup R1a1 was not and is not, and haplotypes are almost the same, it is easy to detect. Identical Slavic. Another wave of the Aryans, the same haplotypes, went from Central Asia to eastern Iran, is also in the 3rd millennium BC, and became the Iranian Aryans.
Finally, another wave of the genus R1a1 headed south and reached the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, where there are Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, and thence the Arabs, having the results of DNA testing in amazement looking at certified testing haplotype and haplogroup R1a1 . Aryan Slavonic, "Indo-European" — call it what you will, but the essence is the same. These certificates define the boundaries of the range hiking ancient Aryans. The following calculations show that the times of these campaigns in Arabia — 4000 years ago.
So, saying "Slavs", in this study we will be referring to the eastern Slavs, people kind of R1a1, in terms of DNA genealogy. Until very recently, the science does not know how to spell them out in "scientific terms." What is the objective, measurable parameter unites them? Actually, the question is not so raised. According to the vast amount of data accumulated linguistics, comparative analysis of the language — it's a kind of "Indo-European", "Aria", the visitors from the north (India and Iran), they know the snow, the cold, they are familiar birch, ash, beech, they know wolves, bears , knows the horse. It is now known that these are people just kind R1a1, which owns 70% of the population of modern Russia. And further to the west, the Atlantic, the share of the Aryan, Slavic kind R1a1 is steadily declining, and the inhabitants of the British Isles is only 2-4%.
This question was dealt with. And the "Indo-Europeans" — then who is?
From the above it follows necessarily that the "Indo-Europeans" — this is the ancient race R1a1. Aria. Then all or at least a lot falls into place — and with the arrival of people of this kind in India and Iran, and distribution of the same kind of people all over Europe, and from there — and the emergence of the Indo-European languages, as it is actually them, Aryan language or dialect, and the emergence of "Iranian languages" Indo-European, as it is the Aryan languages. Especially since, as we shall see below, "Iranian languages" appeared after the arrival of the Aryans in Iran, to be precise — it is not the "after", and are the result of the arrival of the Aryans in the 2nd millennium BC.
And how now look at "Indo-Europeans" of modern science? "Indo-Europeans" from them — it's like a Heffalump. "Indo-Europeans", in modern linguistics and a bit of archeology — an ancient (usually) men who then (!), Through the millennium (!), Came to India, and somehow made it so that Sanskrit, the literary language of India, appeared in one of the linguistic conjunction with major European languages except Basque and Finno-Ugric languages. And apart from the Turkic and Semitic, Indo-European languages are a do not. Like them, the Europeans did it, how and where they were in India and Iran — linguists and archaeologists explain. Furthermore, enroll in the "Indo-Europeans" and those who did not come to India and to Sanskrit supposedly had no relation, but, apparently, the language spread. Celts, for example. But while arguing over who was the Indo-Europeans, and who — he was not. Use a variety of criteria, up to form dishes and character designs on it.
Another complication — as many Iranian languages also belong to the Indo-European, and too many do not understand why it is often instead of "Indo-European" say "Indo-Iranian." What's worse, "Indo-Europeans" is often called the "Indo-Iranians." And there are monstrous constructions, for example, "on the Dnieper River in the ancient Indo-Iranians lived." This must mean that the people who lived on the Dnieper, produced by Millennium descendants who came to India and Iran, and somehow made it so that the languages of India and Iran were to some extent similar to many European languages — English, French, Spanish , Russian, Greek, and many others. Therefore, those of old, who lived on the Dnieper River for thousands of years before the "Indo-Iranians." With drive you crazy! Moreover, they said "Iranian languages"! This despite the fact that the "Indo-European" ancient Iranian languages have appeared in the 2nd millennium BC, while those on the Dnieper, lived 4000-5000 years ago. They spoke in a language that will appear only in hundreds, if not thousands of years.
At Aryan they said, dear reader. But it is among linguists mention just scared. They did not mention. They have since been made. Apparently, the team, the order did not arrive. And by scary.
And who are "protoindoevropeytsy"? And it's kind of protoslonopotama. It is, therefore, those who were the ancestors of those who were the ancestors of those here who have come through the millennia in India and Iran, and did … well, and so on.
Here's how to represent this linguists. There was a certain "Nostratic language," a long time ago. It is placed from 23 thousand to eight thousand years ago, who in India who are in Central Europe, who in the Balkans. Not long ago, in the English language, it was estimated that in the scientific literature offers 14 different "ancestral home", "Indo-Europeans" and "protoindoevropeytsev." V.A.Safronov in the fundamental book "Indo-European homeland," counted 25 — seven in Asia and 18 in Europe. This "Nostratic" language (s) spoken by the "protoindoevropeytsy" about 8-10 thousand years ago broke the "Indo-European" languages, and other neindoevropeyskie (Semitic, Finno-Ugric and Turkic). And the "Indo-Europeans", therefore, led their languages. In India, however, they came across many thousands of years, but they still "Indo-Europeans."
Since this is also clear. Linguists, however, still not clear. They say — "although the origin of the Indo-European languages, the most intensively studied in comparison with others, it is still the most difficult and persistent problems of historical linguistics … Despite the more than 200-year history of the problem, experts have not been able to determine the time and place of the Indo-European origin ".
Here again there is a question about the ancestral home. Namely, the ancestral home of the three — the ancestral home of 'protoindoevropeytsev "homeland" Indo-Europeans ", and the ancestral home of the Slavs. With the ancestral home "against" bad because it is bad with ancestral "Indo-Europeans." Currently, candidates for ancestral "Indo" or "protoindoevropeytsev" more or less seriously considered three. One option — Southwest Asia, or more specifically, the Turkish Anatolia, or, even more specifically, the area between Lake Van and Urmia, just south of the borders of the former USSR, in western Iran, also known as western Azerbaijan. The second option — the southern steppes of modern Ukraine, Russia, in the field of so-called "Kurgan culture". The third option — Eastern or Central Europe, or more specifically, the valley of the Danube, or the Balkans, or the northern Alps.
Time distribution of "Indo-European" or "Proto" language too is uncertain, ranging from 4500-6000 years ago, if we take as its media representatives Kurgan to 8,000-10,000 years ago, when its carriers — the then inhabitants of Anatolia. Or even earlier. Proponents of the "Anatolian theory" believe that the main argument in its favor is the fact that the spread of agriculture in Europe, North Africa and Asia began in Anatolia between 8000 and 9500 years ago, and came to the British Isles about 5,500 years ago. Proponents of the "Balkan theory" have the same arguments about the spread of agriculture, however, from the Balkans to Anatolia side.
This question has to date not been resolved. There are lots of arguments for and against each of the three options.
The same is true with respect to the ancestral home of the Slavs. Since no one has yet linked the Slavs (Slav), Aryans and Indo-Europeans, and certainly did not put a sign of identity between all three, the ancestral home of the Slavs — is a separate, and also did not address the issue. This issue is discussed in science for over three hundred years, but the agreement, even minimal, no. It is generally accepted that the Slavs come to the arena of history only in the 6th century AD. But this is a new era. And we are interested in the ancient Slavs, or the ancient Slavs, say, three thousand years ago and more. And with that at all bad.
Some believe that the "homeland of the Slavs" was in the area of Pripyat and the Middle Dnieper. Others believe that "the ancestral home of the Slavs" was the territory of the Dnieper to the Western Bug, which the Slavs occupied two or three thousand years ago. And where the Slavs were before, and whether they do — consider the question "unsolvable at this point." Still others suggest that the ancestral home of the Slavs as the "Indo-Europeans" in general, were the steppe south of present-day Russia and Ukraine, but the fourth is indignantly dismiss. Fifth believe that homeland "Indo-Europeans", and the ancestral home of the Slavs still be the same, because the Slavic languages — very archaic and ancient. Others get better, does not "Indo-Europeans", as one of their larger groups, thus suggesting that the "Indo-Europeans" should be different. What — usually not explained.
Occasionally mentioned some "Indo-Iranian community," which somehow spoke to "Balto-Slavic proto-language." From this already head starts to spin. Sometimes appear some "Black Sea Indo-Aryans." Why did they suddenly "Indo", in the Black Sea, then, is not explained. Linguists say that's accepted.
Attract anthropology, and the Slavs in this respect similar prialpiyskoy area — modern Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, northern Italy, southern Germany, northern Balkans, and thus the ancient Slavs moved from west to east and not vice versa. But specify the duration of the movement of anthropologists and archaeologists can not, because the Slavs usually burned corpses, not buried them, depriving scientists of material for two and a half millennia. Some believe that the Slav settlement in the territory of eastern Ukraine associated with the spread of the Kurgan archaeological culture, and therefore, from east to west. It is almost unanimously believed that the population of the Andronovo culture was "Indo-Iranian" in their language, that in the South Urals, Arkaim, lived "Indo-Aryans" and created it again, "Indo-Iranians." Found the expression "Indo-Iranian tribes towards resettlement in India." That is, they were "Indo-Iranian", although there is not yet settled. That is what you want, up to the point of absurdity, but the word "aria" is not used.
Finally, the "pseudo-scientific" literature lean over backwards, and argues that the "Slavic Russes were the progenitors of almost all European and most Asian nations," and "60% to 80% of Brits, North and East Germans, Swedes, Danes, Norwegians , Iceland, 80% of Austrians, Lithuanians — is assimilated by the Slavs Slavs Rus'.
The situation is clear. You can move to the point of my statement. The more that the most "advanced" of historical and linguistic research papers, recognizing that the question of the place and time of "Indo-European" language remains unresolved, urge to go beyond archeology and linguistics and bring solutions to the question of "independent data", which will look at problem from the other side, and make a choice between the major theories.
What I'm doing in the presented here.
DNA genealogy in general, and in particular the Slavs
The essence of DNA-Genealogy and its main points I have repeatedly described earlier. This time I will go straight to the point, recalling only that in the DNA of every man, and it is in his Y-chromosome, there are certain areas in which little by little, every few generations, over and over again in the nucleotides accumulate mutations. To genes is not relevant. In general, DNA is only 2% is made up of genes and male sex Y-chromosome — and even less, there is a tiny fraction of a percent of genes.
Y-chromosome — the only one of all 46 chromosomes (or more precisely, of the 23 that carries sperm), which is passed from father to son, and then to each ordinary son of the chain length of time in ten thousand years. Son receives Y-chromosome from their father's exactly the same, which he received from his father, plus new mutations, if any, have occurred during transmission from father to son. But it happens rarely.
And how rare?
Here's an example. This — my 25-marker haplotype Slavic, born R1a1:
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 10 13 11 30 16 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 34 15 15 16 16
Each figure — is a certain sequence of blocks of nucleotides in Y-chromosome DNA. It is called an allele, and the number of times the block is repeated in the DNA. Mutations in this haplotype (ie, random variation in the number of blocks of nucleotides) occur at a rate of about one mutation in 22 generations, that is, on average once every 550 years. Which allele will change next — no one knows, and can not be predicted. Statistics. In other words, you can only talk about probabilities of these changes.
In earlier stories about DNA genealogy I cited examples of the so-called six-marker haplotypes, small, for simplicity. Or also known as "bikini haplotypes." But the search for ancestral Slavs need a tool much more accurate. Therefore, in this study, we use a 25-marker haplotypes. Since the Y-chromosome in every man's 50 million nucleotides, the haplotype with its digits in principle can be extended arbitrarily long, it is only a technique of determining the nucleotide sequences. Haplotypes to determine the maximum length of 67 markers, although technically there is no limit. But the 25-marker haplotypes — a very fine resolution, such haplotypes even scientific articles is not considered. This is probably the first one.
Haplotypes are extremely sensitive to the origin, speaking of genealogical birth. Take no Slavic R1a1, and, say, the Finno-Ugric race, N3 in the system DNA genealogy. A typical 25-marker haplotype of this type is as follows:
14 24 14 11 11 13 11 12 10 14 14 30 17 10 10 11 12 25 14 19 30 12 12 14 14
He has 29 mutations compared with the above Slavic! This corresponds to a difference of more than two thousand generations, that is a Finno-Slavic Finns common ancestor lived more than 30,000 years ago.
The same pattern is obtained by comparing, for example, to the Jews. A typical Middle Eastern Jews haplotype (genus J1) is:
12 23 14 10 13 15 11 16 12 13 11 30 17 8 9 11 11 26 14 21 27 12 14 16 17
He has 32 mutations with respect to the Slavic. Further than the Finno-Finns. And together they differ by 35 mutations.
In general, the idea is clear. Haplotypes are very sensitive when comparing with the different clans. They reflect a very different kind of history, origin and migration of labor. Yes that there Finno-Finns and Jews! Take Bulgarians bratushek. Up to half of them have a variation here such haplotype (genus I2):
13 24 16 11 14 15 11 13 13 13 11 31 17 8 10 11 11 25 15 20 32 12 14 15 15
He has 21 mutation in relation to the above East Slavic haplotype. That is, both are Slavic, but a different kind. I2 race evolved from another ancestor, the migration path kind I2 were different than R1a1. It was later, already in our era, or at the end of the last, they met and formed a Slavic cultural and ethnic community, and then docked and writing, and religion. A genus of mostly different, though 12% of the Bulgarians — East Slavic, R1a1 kind.
It is important that the number of mutations in haplotypes can expect when living common ancestor of humans, haplotypes which we are considering. I will not stop here, as it is carried out calculations, since it's all just published in the scientific literature (reference — at the end of the article). The point is that the more mutations in haplotypes groups of people — the older of their common ancestor. Since mutations occur quite statistically disordered, with a certain average speed, the lifetime of the common ancestor of a group of people belonging to the same genus, is calculated fairly reliably. Examples will be given below.
To make it clearer, here is a simple analogy. Haplotype tree — a pyramid standing on top. The top down — it kind of haplotype common ancestor. The base of the pyramid, at the top — that we are contemporaries, it is our haplotypes. Number of mutations in each haplotype — a measure of the distance from a common ancestor, from the top of the pyramid, to us, his contemporaries. If the pyramid was perfect — the three points, that is, the three haplotypes at the base would be sufficient to calculate the distance to the top. But in reality, three points short. As experience shows, a dozen 25-marker haplotypes (mean, 250 points) is sufficient for a good estimation of time to a common ancestor.
25-marker haplotypes of Russian and Ukrainian kind R1a1 were obtained from an international database YSearch. The carriers of these haplotypes — our contemporaries, living from the Far East to the west of Ukraine, and from the northern to the southern suburbs. And that's the way it was calculated that the common ancestor of the Russian and Ukrainian Eastern Slavs kind R1a1, lived 4500 years ago. This figure — reliable, it is tested by calculating the cross-haplotypes of different lengths. And, as we shall see, this figure is not an accident. Again, remember that the details of the calculations, checking and rechecking are given in a paper presented at the end. These calculations were made for the 25-marker haplotypes. This is the top class of DNA genealogy, to call a spade a spade.
It turned out that the common ancestor of Proto-Slavic, who lived 4,500 years ago, had a haplotype that's in their DNA:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
For comparison — here's my haplotype:
13241611111512 12 10 13 11 30169 10 11 11 24 14 2034 15151616
I compared to the Slavonic ancestors ran up 10 mutations (in bold). If we recall that the mutations occur once in about 550 years, I was separated from the ancestor 5500 years. But we are talking about statistics, and for all at the circle turns 4,500 years. I ran up more mutations from someone else — less. In other words, each of us has their individual mutation, but haplotype ancestor at all one. And, as we shall see, this keeps most of Europe.
So, translate breath. Our common ancestor slavonic in contemporary Russia-Ukraine lived 4500 years ago. Early Bronze Age, or even the Eneolithic, the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze. To imagine the scale of the time, it — long before the exodus of Jews from Egypt, according to biblical stories. And they went out, if you follow the Torah, 3500-3600 years ago. If we abstract from the Torah, which, of course, is not a rigorous scientific source, it can be noted that the common ancestor of the Eastern Slavs, in this case, Russian and Ukrainian, lived for a thousand years before the eruption of Santorini (Thera), which destroyed the Minoan civilization on the island Crete.
Now we can begin to build a sequence of events in our ancient history. 4,500 years ago the ancient Slavs appeared in Upland, and not just some ancient Slavs, namely those whose descendants live today, many tens of millions. 3800 years ago, the aria, the descendants of the Slav (and having identical to the ancestral haplotype, as will be shown below), built a fort arch (its current name), Sintashta and "country towns" in the South Urals. 3600 years ago Arch arias left, and went to India. Indeed, according to archaeologists, the settlement, which is now called Arkaim, lasted only 200 years.
Stop! And from this we get the idea that they were the descendants of our ancestors, Slav?
How? A R1a1, label type? She, the label, accompanies all haplotypes above. Hence, it is possible to determine what kind are those who have gone to India.
By the way, here's the data. The recent work of German scientists identified nine haplotypes fossils from South Siberia, and found that eight of them belong to the genus R1a1, and one — Mongoloid, type C. The date — between 5,500 and 1,800 years ago. Haplotypes kind R1a1, for example, like this:
13 25 16 11 11 14 XYZ 14 November 32
Here undeciphered markers are replaced by letters. Very similar to the Slavic haplotypes listed above, especially when you consider that these are more ancient and individual, random mutations.
The current share of Slavic Aryan haplogroup R1a1 in Lithuania 38%, Latvia 41%, 40%, and Belarus, Ukraine, from 45% to 54%. In Russia, the Slavic Aryan an average of 48%, due to the high proportion of the Finno-Finns in northern Russia, but in the south and center of Russia, the share of the Eastern Slavs-Aryans reaches 60-75% or more.
Haplotypes Hindus and lifetime of their common ancestor
Just say — I intentionally write "Indians" and not "Indians" because the majority of Indians are Aboriginal Dravid, especially Indians south India. And Indians — it is just the mass media haplogroup R1a1. Write "haplotypes Indians" would be wrong, as the Indians in general are among the most different genera of DNA genealogy.
In this sense, the term "haplotype Hindus" symbatically expression "haplotypes Slavs." It is a reflection of "ethno-cultural" component, but this is one of the signs of nature.
In his early work of haplotypes Slavs and Indians I have said, that they have, the Slavs and Indians, was one and the same common ancestor. And they both belong to the genus in many R1a1, only 50-75% of Russian, Indians — 16%. That is kind of the Russian R1a1 40-60 million men, Indians — 100 million. But in the paper, I refer only to the form of haplotypes, and short. Now, a year later, we can already determine when the common ancestors lived eastern Slavs and Indians.
Here — the ancestral haplotype Indians of the same kind, R1a1.
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
Almost exactly the same as the haplotype ancestor Slavs. Identified two mutations, but in fact there is no mutation. The fourth number to the left of the Slavs 10.46 there, so rounded up to 10, and the Indians there 10.53, rounded to 11. In fact it is the same. It is the same with the average mutation of a unit.
The age of the common ancestor of the Hindus — 3850 years. For 650 years younger than the Slavs.
As the ancestral haplotype Indians and Slavs practically coincide, and Slavic haplotype for 650 years older, it is clear that this ancient Slavs arrived in India, and not vice versa. Strictly speaking, it was not the ancient Slavs and praindusy, but they were the descendants of Slav.
If you add up all the haplotypes of the Slavs and the Indians, since they presumably from a common ancestor, the differences disappear completely. Common ancestral haplotype Slavs and Indians:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
It is identical to the common ancestor haplotype Slavs. The lifetime of a common ancestor of Slavs and Indians — 4300 years ago. Ancestor — slavonic, he's older. After 500 years, the ancient Slavs-Aryans Arch stand up, even after 200 years will go to India, and the Indians will start counting down from their common ancestor, again Slavonic, 3850 years ago. It fits.
The current share of Indian Aryans kind, R1a1, across the country is 16%, second only to the most common Indian "natives" haplogroup H1 (20%). And in the higher castes haplogroup R1a is almost half. Let us discuss this in more detail.
As you know, society in India is divided into castes and tribes. The four main castes, or "caste" — the Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (merchants, farmers, ranchers), and Sudras (workers and servants). In the scientific literature, they are divided into "Aryan" and "Dravidian" castes, each with three levels — the highest caste, middle and lower. The tribes are divided into the Indo-European, Dravidian, Burma, Tibet and avstraloaziatskie. As defined recently, the entire male population in India can be divided into half a dozen major haplogroups — With Mongoloid, the Iran-Caucasian G, Indian H, L, and R2 (except India are found in the world is extremely rare), the Middle East J1, Mediterranean (and Middle East) J2, East Asian Oh, Siberian Q, East European (Aryan) R1a1, Western European (and Asian) R1b. By the way, the European Roma are known to come from India 500-800 years ago, the vast majority have haplogroup H1 and R2.
The bulk of both the upper castes, the Indo-European and Dravidian, composed of representatives of the Aryan haplogroup R1a1. Them — 45% of the Indo-European high caste, and 29% in the highest caste Dravidian. Other members of the higher castes — native Indian haplogroup R2 (16% and 10%, respectively), L (5% and 17%), H (12% and 7%), the rest — a few percent.
The tribes, in contrast, is dominated by the East Asian haplogroup O (53% for avstraloaziatskih, 66% in Burma, Tibet and 29% of the "Indo-European" tribes), and the "natives" Indian H (37% in the Dravidian tribes).
In principle, this is consistent with the ancient migration flows, which are outlined below. The oldest stream, 40-25 thousand years ago, to the east of Northern Mesopotamia — Western Iran, divided in the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Tien Shan, led future Dravidians, East Asians and avstraloaziatov south to India, and the future of Siberians, West Asians and Europeans — to the north and west. Already many thousands of a second wave of the Dravidians came to India from the Middle East, bringing with it the emerging skills of agriculture, along with haplogroup J2, which is the most in the highest caste Dravidians — 15% (in the upper-caste Indo — 9%). Finally, 3,500 years ago, carriers of haplogroup R1a1 arrived in India from the southern Urals called Aryans. Under it, and they entered the Indian epic. Interestingly, the Indian caste system itself was created about the same 3,500 years ago.
So, to repeat again. Slavs and Indians have a common ancestor kind R1a1, who lived 4300 years ago, and the ancestor of the Slavs themselves, with the same haplotype, lived a little earlier, 4,500 years ago. His descendant in 650 years began genealogical line of the Indians, with a countdown from 3850 years ago (it is — the common ancestor of the lifetime of the Hindus, see above), right from the time of the start of Arkaim. R1a1 — these were the Aryans who came to India. And when they came, and that led them there — I'll discuss later, but before that let's see when we lived common ancestors of R1a1 in Europe. Then an overview of where they lived before all, that is, where was their homeland, and where and when they moved to the ancestral home. We already have every reason to call them Aryans, instead of faceless R1a1, and certainly rather awkward "Indo-Europeans" or "protoindoevropeytsy." Aryans are, dear reader, the aria. And there is nothing "Indo-Iranian" they did not have before, of course, until you come to India and Iran. And the language they are not from India and Iran have, on the contrary, brought her there. Aryan. Proto-Slavic. Sanskrit. Protosanskrit or, if you like.
About Slavs ancient Slavs, arias and "Indo-Iranian." Why is the word "aria" for some such terrible
We look in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. It reads:
"The only reasonable and currently accepted in science is the use of the term" Aryans "only in relation to the tribes and people speaking Indo-Iranian languages."
This has to be the same — and so famously directive disown their ancestors.
And then — "In linguistics called Aryan Indo-Iranian languages."
In reality, they are our ancestors brought arias language in Iran and across the millennia, in our time, it was seen as an Iranian. And since there is a large school of Iranian languages, Aryan began to take over Iran, confusing cause and effect.
Iranian languages belong to the Indo-European, and the date of their next — the oldest, from the 2nd millennium BC 300-400 BC, medium — from 300-400 BC 800-900 years BC, and the new — 800-900 years BC to date. That is the ancient Iranian languages are dated after the retirement of the Aryans in India and Iran, and more than 1,000 years after the life of pre-Slavic ancestry (4500 years ago). Iranian languages he is, our ancestor, he could not speak. At Aryan said Aryan language of his descendants a thousand or fifteen years later and brought to Iran. A Western-Iranian group of languages in general appeared in about 500 BC
Since ancient Slavs and Aryans efforts of our scientists are faceless "Indo-Europeans", and Aryan, Old Slavic languages became "Indo-Iranian." It is also politically correct. And they went absolutely fabulous passages taken in the scientific literature, that "on the Dnieper lived Iranian speaking tribes" that "the Scythians were Iranian," that "the people of Arkaim Iranian languages."
At Aryan they said, dear reader, to the Aryan. They're the Old Slavic languages. And this — also our story.
According to Indian Vedas, namely the Aryans came to India from the north, and it is their hymns and stories form the basis of the Indian Vedas. And, still further, it's Russian (and its sister Baltic languages such as Lithuanian) closest to Sanskrit, and from the Russian and Baltic Languages and Europe to reach. So, Balto-Slavic languages and is the basis of "Indo-European", is not it? That is, they and Aryan languages, to call a spade a spade.
So, no one argues. But, you know, it is somehow wrong to have this honor Slavs. "Indo-European languages" — a politically correct, some faceless "Indo-Europeans" — the more politically correct, Slavs — not very politically correct. And as arias — is, you know, dangerous.
Why is fraught?
And this is how it defines the Great Soviet Encyclopedia: "In the middle of the 19th century. the concept of "Aryans" (or "Aryans") was used to determine the nations belonging to the Indo-European language community. This use of the term was developed in racist literature (especially in Nazi Germany), giving it a biased and anti-scientific value. "
Well, in the way we hoped it above data on the life time of the Aryans, nothing racist was not. Therefore, Nazi Germany here will not pull. And why is fraught?
A airs, you know, it's scary. This is the citizens in times GUGB NKVD knew, and in particular members of the organization. At that time was the development of the Secret Political Department (ACT) under the name "Aryan", which linked the word with the charges in the creation and promotion of fascist organizations in the USSR. As written sources of the time, the main charges brought against members of the Soviet intelligentsia — teachers of secondary and higher educational institutions, publishers of literary workers. In particular, the "Aryan cause" was arrested and convicted for the production of a group of employees of foreign dictionaries. In general, we can talk about it a lot. As noted by the doctor of historical sciences A. Burovsky, "try to talk about the arias in the professional community — and colleagues instantly napryagutsya, catch up … Questionable theme bad. Better the topic did not engage, calmer. And if he was engaged, that no conclusions should not be done. "
But we did, and not one.
Thus, it became clear that the sort of R1a1 in DNA genealogy — it airs, they are our ancestors, the ancient Slavs, they "Indo-Europeans." Their Aryan language, he also slavonic, they brought to India and Iran 3500-3400 years ago, that is, 1400-1500 BC. In India, it works great Panini Sanskrit was polished to about 2,400 years ago, near the beginning of our era, and in Persia-Iran Aryan languages have become the basis of the Iranian languages, the oldest of which date back to the 2nd millennium BC It fits.
That's what it means when a linguist is not in the hands of the dates of life and migration of Aryans, in particular, in what is now India and Iran. Hence it, arias, and then all others — the residents of the Russian plain, the Dnieper, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, the southern Urals — everyone was given the title of "Indo-European", and the more "Iranian", quite the opposite.
That's where these clumsy "Indo-Europeans" came from. In fact, they have Aryan languages and without India and Iran have been in all the Russian plain and to the Balkans. By them, the Aryans, the language was brought to Europe, they are the same in Iran and India. From India to Europe — the same language group — Aryan. And it took and called "Indo-European", "Indo-Iranian", "Iran". What boggles the mind at all, our people, our ancestors, the ancient Slavs were "Indo-Europeans", and even "the Iranians." "The Iranian-speaking residents of the Dnieper." What is?
It is time linguists and linguist setting her order. We are specialists in DNA genealogy help.
Ancient Slavs, or aria in Europe and beyond. Ancestral home of the Slav, Aryans, "Indo-European"
So which way to go Aryan, slavonic flow — to the west, to Europe, or vice versa, to the east? By region — to increase from 4500 years, or for a fall? In India, as we have seen — on the decline, from 4500 to 3850 years. Hence, the flow from the territory of present-day Russia was to the east.
And here is where our story goes in a completely unexpected, so to say, the angle. I put together a 25-marker haplotypes kind R1a1 in all countries of Europe, and for each country or region identified haplotype common ancestor to the population, and when the ancestor lived. It turned out that most of Europe, from Iceland in the north to Greece in the south, the common ancestor was one and the same! In other words, as the descendants of the baton passed their haplotypes as their descendants over the generations, differing from the same place in history, the ancestral home of Slav, the ancestral home of 'Indo-European', the ancestral homeland of the Aryans — which turned out to the Balkans. And not just the Balkans, and Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia, Macedonia. This — the most ancient area of haplotypes kind R1a1. And while life ancestor, indicated by the oldest, most mutant haplotypes — a 12 thousand years ago. More precisely, 12200 years ago, but this is too much. In archeology and linguistics for those times such inaccuracies do not know.
DNA genealogy is definitely indicates that for almost 6000 years, our Slavonic Balkan ancestors lived in those places, especially not moving anywhere. If moved — traces of the activists in the haplotypes of our contemporaries are lacking. May not remain. But about 6000 years ago the great migration of peoples — probably due to the transition to new forms of management and the need to develop new areas. The first nomination — the northern Carpathians, in the historical Bukovina. Where found mysterious Tripoli culture, which, according to archaeologists, and also mysteriously disappeared.
And it is not lost. Trypillian descendants live there. Their common ancestor, according to local haplotypes, lived 6000 years ago, and has belonged to R1a1. Praslavyanin. And haplotypes of the parent is known to us now. He — the same as the haplotype ancestor of Eastern Slavs. The same family.
And then went to disperse waves of migration kind R1a1 in all directions, from the Balkans (Vinca archaeological culture and culture, her family) and Bukovina (tripilska culture). Almost all sides — 4-5 thousand years ago, the third and fourth millennium BC.
Germany — the same 25-marker haplotype that the Eastern Slavs, 4800 years ago.
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
Now its owners (already with mutations) in Germany an average of 18%, but in some areas up to a third. Most of the rest of the German population are "Baltic" haplogroup I1 (24%) and "Western Europe» R1b (39%).
Norway — the same haplotype ancestor in modern Norway lived 4300 years ago. In Norway, the proportion of R1a1 is the average — from 18 to 25% of the population. Basically — Baltic I1 (41%) and West European R1b (28%) haplogroup.
As all other Europeans kind R1a1 haplotype ancestor in the respective territories of the same, I will not mention it anymore and. I will only show when the first ancestor (also a descendant of the Balkan R1a1) lived.
Sweden — 4250 years ago. It is seen that for the development of the northern territories — Norway, Sweden — took time a few centuries, 500-600 years. Total of 17% of modern Swedish children Slav, kind R1a1. Basically — Baltic I1 (48%) and West European R1b (22%) haplogroup.
Let us turn to the Atlantic, the British Isles. Here — a group of territories in which long live the descendants of the Aryans, R1a1. They are not numerically dominate over another race, R1b, typified by the Celts, and that came back 3500-4000 years ago. But they, the descendants of the Aryans, the islands are not so little.
In England, the common ancestor of modern media R1a1 lived 4800 years ago, as well as in Germany. But in England, and in general in the British Isles descendants of Slavs is relatively small, ranging from 2% to 9% on all islands. It completely dominated by Western European R1b (71%) and Baltic I1 (16%) haplogroup.
In Ireland — 5200 years ago. For some reason, the most ancient Irish haplotypes in Western Europe and the British Isles. Or is the settlement was very early, or ancient Irish survived better than others. But now the Irish representatives haplogroup R1a1 little, no more than 2-4% of the population. There's three-quarters of Western European haplogroup R1b.
On the development of the north, cold and Highland took time. The common ancestor of Gdańsk branch kind R1a1 lived 4300 years ago. In Scotland, the descendants of Slav-largest decrease from north to south. In the north, in the Shetland Islands, are 27%, and this number drops to 2.5% in the South. On average, across the country, there are about 6%. Others — from two-thirds to three-quarters — are Western European haplogroup R1b.
We begin to move east.
Poland, the common ancestor of R1a1 lived 4600 years ago. In the Russian-Ukrainian — 4500 years ago, which is almost identical to within the accuracy of calculations. And even four generations — it is not the difference for the time frame. The modern descendants of Slav Poland 57% on average, and in some areas up to 64%. The rest are mainly Western European R1b (12%) and the Baltic I1 (17%) haplogroup.
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia slavonic common ancestor lived 4200 years ago. Only slightly less than that of the Russian and Ukrainian. We are talking about settling in what is now Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia — all within just a few generations, but more than four thousand years ago. In archeology, this precision dating unthinkable.
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia descendants Slav kind R1a1 about 40%. The rest is mainly Western European R1b (22-28%), the Baltic and Balkan I1 I2 (together 18%) haplogroup.
In present-day Hungary R1a1 common ancestor lived 5000 years ago. There's now a quarter of children Slav-R1a1. The rest are mainly Western European R1b (20%) and total Baltic and Balkan I1 I2 (total 26%) haplogroup.
In general, the situation is clear. Add only that in European countries — Iceland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Belgium, Lithuania, France, Italy, Romania, Albania, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Moldova — the common ancestor lived 4500 years ago. If not accurately — that 4525 years ago, but such precision, I deliberately do not operate here. This is — common ancestor of R1a1 in all these countries. Pan-European ancestor, so to speak, except that shown above the Balkan region, the ancestral home of Slav, Aryans, "the Indo-Europeans."
The share of the descendants of Slavs-Aryans in these countries varies from 4% in the Netherlands and Italy (up to 19% in Venice and Calabria), 10% in Albania, 11.8% in Greece (25% of Thessaloniki), 12-15% Bulgaria and Herzegovina, 14-17% in Denmark and Serbia, 15-25% in Bosnia, Macedonia and Switzerland, 20% in Romania and Hungary, 23% in Iceland, 22-39% in Moldova, 29-34% in Croatia , 30-37% in Slovenia (16% in the whole of the Balkans), and of the same time — 32-37% in Estonia, 34-38% in Lithuania, 41% in Latvia, 40% in Belarus, 45-54% in Ukraine . In Russia, the Slavs-Aryans, as I mentioned earlier, the average of 45%, due to the high proportion of the Finno-Finns in the north of Russia, but in the south and in the center of Russia, the share of Eastern Slavs-Aryans reaches 60-75%.
Ancestral haplotype everywhere the same. And why should they be different? Rhode is the same, R1a1. It is significant is not that the ancestral haplotype is the same, it is indicative that it is obtained from haplotypes contemporaries same. This means that the methodology for the analysis and processing of haplotypes is correct, sufficient statistics, the data are reproducible and reliable. That is what is important.
We turn to neighboring Hungary Northern Carpathians. About them I wrote. But it bears repeating that while the common ancestor of the genus R1a1 in Bucovina — 6000 years. Late Stone Age, with the transition to the Eneolithic.
I recall that Bukovina — it's an old name for the area in the north-east Carpathians, at the junction of Ukraine, and Romania, of the Ukraine — Chernivtsi region. Chernivtsi city is the historic center of Bukovina. Within archeology — part of Tripoli culture. This is the Eneolithic.
Here we found the people who lived there in the Late Stone Age. Scientific papers pose — the origin of Tripoli culture is not defined, it was at the heart of Neolithic tribes, that is, the tribes of the late Stone Age, which lasted about five thousand years ago.
A DNA genealogy identified. Ancient Slavs lived there. Aria. "Indo-Europeans." Our ancestors. Rhode R1a1, which includes up to three-quarters of the Russian people.
Scientific books write that the early inhabitants of Tripoli culture that lived there 5000 years before, had been "squeezed out migration" Indo-Europeans "about 4000 years ago. But we see that it is not. Ancient Slavs — is the very earliest inhabitants, two thousand years before the time specified by respected scholars. They "Indo-Europeans", only then any "Indo-European" and did not exist, the descendants of Slav gone to India only two and a half thousand years after the period described their life in Tripoli culture.
Here we find ancestral Slav, they do arias. This — the Balkans, Dinaric Alps.
But what about the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula as a possible ancestral home of the Aryans, the kind R1a1, Slav? Yes, let's see.
Armenia. The age of the common ancestor of the genus R1a1 — 4,400 years ago.
Asia Minor, the Anatolian peninsula. Historic crossroads for routes between the Middle East, Europe and Asia. It was the first or second candidate for the "Indo-European homeland." However, the common ancestor of R1a1 lived there the same 4500 years ago. Clearly, this ancestral home, according to the haplotypes, in Anatolia can not be.
Thus, the Eastern Slavs, Armenians, Anatolians — all Aryan ancestor or the same, or very close to the ancestors of the time, within a few generations.
It should be noted that 4500 years before the common ancestor of the Aryans in Anatolia is consistent with the time of appearance of the Hittites in Asia Minor in the last quarter of the III millennium BC, since there is evidence that the Hittites, rebelled against Naramsina (2236-2200 BC. e., that is 4244-4208 years before our time.)
R1a1 haplotypes kind in the Arabian Peninsula (Oman Gulf countries — Qatar, United Arab Emirates). And yet — in Crete
The names of these countries with regard to sound strange kind R1a1, but our ancestors or descendants of our ancestors and have been there in ancient times, and modern holders of R1a1 in those places have their Y-chromosome.
The age of the common ancestor of the Arabian Peninsula, on certain haplotypes — 4,000 years. This date is consistent with the 4400-4500 years to a common ancestor in Armenia and Anatolia, if we take the sensible option flow direction of the Aryans with the Central Russian plain in the Caucasus Mountains and further south into Arabia. In other words, there was a wave of immigration from Europe, saving the time the common ancestor of the Caucasus and Asia Minor, and is already on the decline came to Arabia, while moving to a common ancestor 400-500 years.
So it is not in Arabia and Asia Minor homeland of the Aryans, Slav, "the Indo-Europeans." Europe is the Balkans.
Basically, the kind of R1a1 haplotypes could be entered into Arabia slaves, delivered in that region for four thousand years ago. But the answer to this question should have historians.
In the literature, published a series of haplotypes from the island of Crete. They were collected from residents of Lasithi plateau, where the legends of their ancestors fled the eruption and explosion of the volcano of Santorini 3,600 years ago, and the remaining haplotypes were collected adjacent the prefecture of Heraklion. The timing of the common ancestor of life on Crete held by us in several different ways, but the result is the same — 4,400 years ago. Respectable 800 years before the explosion of the volcano of Santorini.
This value corresponds to the average time of European settlement kind R1a1.
To summarize the first part of our investigation. DNA of our contemporaries show that the most ancient roots of the Aryans, the kind R1a1, prescription of 12 thousand years, are in the Balkans — Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Macedonia. After 6000 years, the race will expand to the north-east of the Northern Carpathians, forming a pre-Slavic, Tripoli culture and initiating the great migration of peoples in the fourth and third millennia BC.
As part of the resettlement caused, apparently, agricultural development and the transition to its extensive forms, born R1a1 moved 5500-4500 years ago in the west, to the Atlantic and the British Isles, 4000-4200, and back, and north to Scandinavia. The same kind of came to the Middle East and north — the land of modern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, with a total Slavonic ancestor who lived 4500 years ago. The same ancestor gave surviving offspring, now lives across Europe, from Iceland to Greece and Cyprus, and spread to the southern Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf of Oman.
The descendants of the same ancestor with the same haplotype in their DNA, passed to the south of the Urals, built a fort 4000-3800 years ago, one of them (open in late 1980) became known as the arch, and the name of the Aryans left in India and Iran, bringing back 3500 years ago, his Slavonic haplotypes. This — the only, but significant ligament, lets call the whole race R1a1 originally Aryans. This same bond leads to the identity "Indo-Europeans", Aryans, and kind of R1a1 in the DNA genealogy. She, this bunch, puts ancestral "Indo-Europeans", Aryans, Slav and the Balkans. This same bond aligns Balkan ancestral place, the flow of migration of Aryans-Slav, a dynamic chain of archaeological cultures and the corresponding flow of Indo-European languages, and shows the location and time of occurrence of the particle "Indo" in the term "Indo-Europeans." Finally, she, this bunch, clearly shows that it is not mentioned in the ancient Slavs "Indo-Iranian" languages, but rather descendants of Slav bore Aryan languages in India and Iran, and the times of occurrence of these languages in India and Iran, established by linguists, are fully consistent over time, the arrival of the descendants of Slav, time, written in the form of mutations in the DNA of our contemporaries kind R1a1.
But as a kind of R1a1 came to the Balkans, and from where? With ancestral "Indo-Europeans", which were Aryans, they are also the ancient Slavs, we understand. And where is the ancestral home of 'protoindoevropeytsev "? When and where born Nostratic languages? What now seems to flow pattern, migration "protoindoevropeytsev" that led to the appearance of the Aryans, the Slav in their historical homeland?
About it — the second part of our investigation.
The first part of (amended):
Thus, the DNA of our contemporaries show that the most ancient roots of the Aryans, the kind R1a1, prescription 12 thousand years, are in the Balkans — Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Macedonia. After 6000 years, the race will expand to the north-east of the Northern Carpathians, forming a pre-Slavic, Tripoli culture and initiating the great migration of peoples in the fourth and third millennia BC. At the same time kind of R1a1 and moved along the southern arc and 5,300 years ago — the records in our DNA — appeared in Lebanon. Direct descendants of the first settlers live in Lebanon, and in our days. Among them, the descendant of the Aryans — the Shiite Muslims from southern Lebanon, the Sunni Muslims from the north and from the Bekaa Valley, a Maronite Christian from Lebanon north, friends living in the Lebanese mountains.
As part of the resettlement caused, apparently, agricultural development and the transition to its extensive forms, the same kind of R1a1 moved 5200-4500 years ago in the west, to the Atlantic and the British Isles, and 4300 years ago in the north to Scandinavia. The same kind of came to the Middle East and north — the land of modern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, Russia, with a total Slavonic ancestor who lived 4500 years ago. The same ancestor gave surviving offspring, now lives across Europe, from Iceland to Greece and Cyprus, and spread to the southern Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf of Oman.
The descendants of the same ancestor with the same haplotype in the DNA, passed to the south of the Urals, built a fort 4000-3800 years ago, one of them (open in late 1980) became known as the arch, and the name of the Aryans left in India and brought back 3,500 years ago, its Slavonic haplotypes. Also in the 2nd millennium BC, a rather large group of genus R1a1, also called themselves Aryans, moved from Central Asia to Iran. This — the only, but significant ligament, lets call the whole race R1a1 originally Aryans. This same bond leads to the identity "Indo-Europeans", Aryans, and kind of R1a1 in the DNA genealogy. She, this bunch, puts ancestral "Indo-Europeans", Aryans, Slav and the Balkans. This same bond aligns Balkan ancestral place, the flow of migration of Aryans-Slav, a dynamic chain of archaeological cultures and the corresponding flow of Indo-European languages, and shows the location and time of arrival of the particles of the "Indo." Finally, she, this bunch, clearly shows that it is not mentioned in the ancient Slavs "Indo-Iranian" languages, but rather descendants of Slav bore Aryan languages in India and Iran, and the times of occurrence of these languages in India and Iran, established by linguists, are fully consistent over time, the arrival of the descendants of Slav, time, written in the form of mutations in the DNA of our contemporaries kind R1a1.
But as a kind of R1a1 came to the Balkans, and from where? With ancestral "Indo-Europeans", which were Aryans, they are also the ancient Slavs, we understand. And where is the ancestral home of 'protoindoevropeytsev "? When and where born Nostratic languages? What now seems to flow pattern, migration "protoindoevropeytsev" that led to the appearance of the Aryans, the Slav in their historical homeland?
About it — the second part of our investigation.
"Ancestral home" of the Aryans, Slav, "Indo-Europeans", and the picture of migration flows in the ancestral homeland
First, note that the concept of "ancestral home" — the concept of floating. It depends on the meaning that this concept is embedded. In respect of all mankind as the association "reasonable person" homeland in Africa. But it hardly makes sense to talk about Africa as the ancestral home of the Slavs, or Aryans, or "Indo-Europeans." I'm here (and everywhere on the story) accept the concept of "Aryans" and "Indo-Europeans" as synonyms to the ancient Slavs, and generally write this outdated term "Indo-Europeans" because many adjusted. Synonyms — because it is the aria of related concepts Europeans and "Hindu."
However, the term "Indo-European" or even "protoindoevropeytsy" is used in a general sense, the ancestors of the people, whose descendants formed the Aryan race, whose descendants later came to India and Iran, which made possible the concept of "Indo-European languages."
Therefore, the "homeland" against the Slavs, Aryans and Indo-Europeans — this is the area where they began to form stable DNA genealogical connection with modern Slavs of communication that can be detected, identified and attributed it to the Slavs, as the descendants of the Aryans, "Indo-European" and "protoindoevropeytsev", and initially those who moved out of Africa about 60,000 years ago, and have given rise to modern humanity — and the "Indo-Europeans" and the Semites, and Finno-Finns and Turks. In general, all 18 current haplogroups, they are the main kinds of contemporary humanity in terms of DNA genealogy.
When and how did this happen? Let's look at all the way from out of Africa, and put "protoindoevropeytsev", "Indo-European" Aryans and Slav in a single framework, in a single system.
Route, the first step, the first 20,000 years. Africa — Asia Minor. Home — 60 thousand years ago, the pass — 40 thousand years ago
Our, Slavonic ancestors are distant descendants of the "chromosomal Adam", who lived in north-eastern Africa. Chromosomal Adam called him because approximately 80-100 thousand years ago it was "bottleneck" of the human population, and only his direct descendants survived and grew. Offspring of the other people of the time, or who lived before, in us, modern people of Earth, were detected. For now, at least.
60,000 years ago, when the Earth It is estimated 10,000 people were living, our direct ancient ancestor moved north and crossed the Red Sea — in its most narrow part in the Gulf of Aden — the Arabian Peninsula. He was the ancestor of all men now living outside of Africa, among Africans themselves. What made him leave? Apparently, the recurring droughts, which are known today paleoclimatologists. Of course, the "ancestor" here — the name of the collective. However, it is determined that he had the first non-African common DNA marker M168, which corresponds to the old pivot haplogroup C-R. This haplogroup is now unites all children ancestor whose DNA is in a certain place about 60,000 years ago there was a mutation of cytosine to thymine (C? T). Remained at all, are now part of haplogroup C to T. And Black Africans were the earliest haplogroup A and B, which are not our ancestral. They stayed in Africa.
The crossing from Africa took for our ancestors for thousands of years. Already in the Arabian Peninsula, with the Red Sea, the next mutation changed the common ancestor of the marker on the M89, resulting in consolidated haplogroup FR. This happened about 50,000 years ago. This token is now available in about 90% of all non-Africans. The rest — haplogroup C (Mongoloid), D (East Asian) and E (North African). Many men with this marker M89 settled in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, but ours slavonic ancestor went further to the north-east, and at the time stayed in what is now Iraq, Mesopotamia, and somewhat higher, up to the Caspian Sea and South Caucasus borders with a future the Soviet Union.
So, it is there, in the Lake Van and Urmia, 100-150 km south of the border of the former USSR, and places a large school of linguists "ancestral Indo-Europeans." But it was about 40,000 years ago, and linguists, it seems, about this time period and not know it. They have no such data. In any case, which has become a classic work "The Indo-European language and the Indo-Europeans" (1984), the authors, TV Gamkrelidze and VV Ivanov, determines the decay protolanguage as "not later IV millennium BC, and possibly much earlier." Linguists glottochronology put this language decay between 11.8 thousand years ago, and the most challenging assumptions omit this period to 23 thousand years ago. In fact — about 40 thousand years ago. Also spoke of this record in our DNA.
Route, Stage Two, the next 15,000 years. Southwest Asia — South Siberia. Home — 40 thousand years ago, the pass — 25 thousand years ago
Mesopotamia and the Southern Caspian stream split. Future Jews and Arabs long lingered in the Middle East, and many settled there and forever (haplogroup J, southern Mesopotamia), some continued to go north to the Caucasus (haplogroup G), a part (and I haplogroup J2), after going to Asia Minor through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which were then dried, went to the Balkans, Greece, Europe. Among those who went to the Balkans — many future Balkan Slavs haplogroup I2 — it has 30% to 40% of Bulgarians, Bosnians, Slovenians, Serbs. They originally — no airs and "Indo-Europeans", although the language — the "Indo-Europeans."
Here's a confusion laid those of reasonable, though outdated notion of "Indo-European language group" moved to a completely irrational notion of "Indo-Europeans."
Our direct ancestor is turned to the right, to the east, across the Iranian Plateau and Afghanistan, leaving the north of the Kara Kum desert and then south of Hindu Kush mountain range, and rested in the Pamir Mountains, in the Pamir knot, where the Hindu Kush mountains converge, the Tien Shan and the Himalayas. Go straight to the east, there was nowhere to go. By this time, the direct ancestor of our DNA has mutated again, and he became the bearer of the marker M9 marker so-called Eurasian clan consolidated haplogroup KR. This happened 35,000 years ago. On Earth at that time was probably no more than a hundred thousand people.
So, before the impassable mountains out there were only two — or up to Central Asia, or down, in the present Pakistan and India to the south. Again stream split — some went around mountains to the south, and became the East Asians, avstraloaziatami, Dravidians, and our direct ancestor went north into the Eurasian steppes, south of Siberia. All of them were living by hunting. As a result, most modern people in Europe come from our direct ancestor, having moved to Siberia. Strictly speaking, he was then not only slavonic ancestor and the ancestor of the future, not only kind R1a1, and a series of partitions in the future delivery. Which, incidentally, by language, too, not all will be "Indo-European", but will be and Finno-Ugric and Turkic.
That's what brings history to geography. Not the "Indo-European" languages originated in Asia Minor, and the future complex Eurasian languages, among them "Indo-European", he is an Aryan, is only one part, albeit noticeable.
In this way, take a few thousand years, our Eurasian ancestor happened next mutation M45 conversion of guanine to adenine (G? A). This took place in Central Asia 30,000 years ago. Summary haplogroup reduced to PR. For it — next mutation, M207, is in the south of Siberia 25,000 years ago. This determined our ancestor in haplogroup R.
Route, the third stage, the next 13,000 years. Southern Siberia, the Balkans, the Dinaric Alps, the Adriatic. Home — 25 thousand years ago, the pass — 12 thousand years ago
This phase — very important for the future of Europeans in general, and in particular of the Aryans. In the course of it there was a division of labor in the West-and East-European, Aryan into genera and Celtic. There has been a sort of selection of future Slavs.
And it was so, that is still in Asia, on the way to the west, 18 thousand years ago there was a mutation M173, which gave haplogroup R1, and after her P25 mutation that gave Western European future version of R1b. This happened 16,000 years ago. Part R1b carriers were in Asia, and continue to carry this haplogroup now. The rest went to the Caucasus and Eastern Europe, and much later in Western Europe. Typical of their representatives — the Celts, who appeared in Western Europe 3500-4500 years ago. By the way, the Celts — the collective name for the first time applied in its modern sense is not so long ago, in the early 18th century, Edward Lyde, Director Ashmoleanskogo Museum in Oxford. Traveling for the museum, he drew attention to the similarity of the languages Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Irish, Scottish, Gauls, and the ancient Gallic language. He combined these languages collectively, they invented the name of the Celtic languages. Though the name of the Celts is mentioned by Julius Caesar in his book "Notes on the Gallic War" as a synonym for the Gauls.
But back to the group R1b. Our, Slavic ancestor in the group was not — nor with those who remained in Asia, nor with those who went to the Caucasus or in Western Europe. Our Slavic ancestor separated from them before, carried the haplogroup R1 to Eastern Europe and earning the last (to date) mutation M17/M198, settled 12,000 years ago in the Balkans, the Dinaric Alps and down to the Adriatic coast. These two mutations remained with those who form the Aryan race. In other words, haplogroup R1a1.
Slavs as such, as a "cultural-historical society," then, 12,000 years ago, of course, was not, but we are the direct descendants of those who came to the Balkans at the time.
Call them "Indo-Europeans", strictly speaking, is also impossible, because no India then in their stories were not. The language in which they are said to have been the Aryan, just by definition. If you want it can be called "Proto", taking that seven thousand years the descendants of the Aryans, who then would actually call themselves Aryans, come to India and Iran, will bring their Aryan language in the fore of North East India and Iran. And since that time a thousand arias — and a half thousand years as spread across Europe, both West and East, it is not surprising that, from India to the Atlantic, three — three and a half thousand years ago began to speak similar dialects. Aryan.
And even more surprising that the British linguists, arrived in India three thousand years after the events described, discovered this fact. And called this group of Indo-European languages. It is at that time, 200 years ago, it was reasonable.
But now outdated. Call it is possible, but we must remember that it was the cause. But to call people who speak those languages, "Indo-Europeans" — is a funny thing.
Route, the fourth stage, the next 6000 years. Balkans — Central Europe, the Atlantic, Scandinavia, the Carpathians, the future of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Home — 10 thousand years ago, the pass — four thousand years ago
As shown by DNA genealogy, which I actually copied from our DNA, and brought up, about 6000 years after the settlement of the Aryans, the members of the genus R1a1, in the Dinaric Alps, Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo began their active movement to the west, north, north East. The first direction detection — Northern Carpathians, Bukovina. Haplotypes Aryan, Slavic ancestors of R1a1 go there at a depth of 6,000 years ago. This is — the famous and mysterious tripilska culture. As the Celtic group R1b joined them only after a thousand years, approximately 4700-5300 years ago, tripilska culture 6,000 years ago — is the ancient Slavs. And nowhere are there everything is completely gone, historians believe, their descendants, also in Chernivtsi and in the district, still live. As descendants of R1b. Many, however, was sent to the camps in the 1940s, many have emigrated, for example, in Canada. Them, haplotypes Bukovina immigrants, and I have studied.
Another direction of migration flows — to the west, to the Atlantic. The ancestors of the Aryans, the Irish found another 5200 years ago, the British — 4,800 years ago. Apparently, it is they, the Aryans, erected the mysterious Stonehenge, which has been recently established, is a monumental cemetery, where the 7-foot stone pillars, some up to 8.9 meters and a weight of 40 tons, rest 4-6 — meter thick stone parallelepiped over a meter and a weight of 15-16 tons each. These monuments were erected for almost a millennium, and radiocarbon dating of them gave the construction time for different graves from 4500 to 3600 years ago. This converges with the time of arrival of the Aryans in the British Isles. Celtic race R1b arrived on the island, and in Europe for five hundred — a thousand years later.
Colder, Highland airs began to occupy only a hundred years after Britain, 4300 years ago.
Simultaneously arias from the Balkans moved north. First on the road — Hungary, the ancestors R1a1 appeared there about 5000 years ago, that is about the same time as the British Isles. Then, 4,800 years ago, Aryan ancestor appeared in Germany, 4,300 years ago in Norway, 4250 years ago in Sweden. This is already much later than the early progress of the Aryans to the east. Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland — 4600-4200 years ago is, in general, all similar terms, the middle of III-rd millennium BC.
At the same time began to move arias on the southern arc, from the Balkans through the Bosporus and Dardanelles and across Asia Minor to the east. It may still be around the Black Sea to the north, and then through the Caucasus mountains — in Anatolia and further south to the Mediterranean. R1a1 branch descendants now live in Lebanon, with the beginning of the branch 4400 years ago. Their ancestral haplotype is the same as that of the Russian and Ukrainian Slavs, Armenians of R1a1, and only a small fraction (the fraction of one mutation) is different from the ancient Aryans Anatolia who lived there 4,500 years ago. It fits.
East arias moved first through the northern Carpathians — 6000 years ago, establishing Tripoli culture, as noted above, and then went on through what is now Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, capturing the band Baltic. This is — again III-middle of the first millennium BC, the common ancestor of the Slavs of Russia and Ukraine lived 4500 years ago. In Baltic ancestor can not be over, it is enough to look at a map. Indeed, Lithuania and the rest of Europe shows a common ancestor kind R1a1, the same 4500 years ago. In other words, Lithuania and Latvia to be inhabited by the Aryans, or simultaneously with Ukraine and Russia (and Poland, which at the same time), or later. The same is true of the proximity of the Slavic-Baltic languages — or it is initially the same Aryan language, or Lithuania acquired variant of the language already from Slav. Reverse just could not be, geography does not allow.
On the contrary, the flow is actively moved in the other direction, the southern steppes of Ukraine and Russia, based on the direction of travel, the Dnepr and Ural River and further to the east, many archaeological cultures, it happened in the next thousand years, between 4500 and 3500 years ago. Moving from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region, our ancestors founded the Kurgan culture, and then adronovskuyu, leaving in northern Kazakhstan and southern Urals, and further in Asian expanse. As a result, a number of Central Asian peoples largely belong to the genus R1a1, the Aryan race. A significant proportion of Tajiks (64%), Kyrgyzstan (63%), Uzbeks (32%), Uyghurs (22%), Khakassia (Yenisei Kyrgyz, they are the same according to some Usuns, geguni and dinliny) Altaic peoples (50%), and then a number of people with the transition to China. Ishkashim small nation in the Pamir mountains — two-thirds of R1a1. Of this are clear reasons why the seemingly very different people, as Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Russian has — on Y-chromosome — one and the same origin. All of them, those who bear the haplogroup R1a1 — sort of the Aryans. It is clear that is the basis from time to time there are sensations, such as the one that the Chinese — the ancestors of the Russian Slavs, because the Chinese have found another haplogroup R1a1.
In Central Asia the Aryans, advancing on the southern route, stayed for 500-800 years. These locations were then described in detail in the Zend-Avesta, an ancient book of the Aryans, written already in Iran, where the Aryans migrated in the 2nd millennium BC. Perhaps this relocation was earlier than the Aryans from the southern Urals, Arkaim and "country towns", and it happened at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, about 3900-3800 years ago. Possible, and at the same time as the South Ural arias, 3600-3500 years ago. While Iranian R1a1 haplotypes are inaccessible, but in the near future, this issue will be resolved.
At that time, between 6 and 4 thousand years ago, there was a great migration of peoples. It was not the well-known Great Migrations IV-VII centuries AD, at which the major ethnic movements in Europe, which led to the collapse of the Roman Empire and became its result. This was significantly more than the global Great Migrations associated with the spread of new technologies, agriculture, horse transport, and eventually led to the establishment of the family of Indo-European languages. Rhode R1a1, arias, ancient Slavs, played in resettlement and in the results of the decisive role.
But back to the southern Urals, and in greater detail. There — very mysterious pages of history.
Route, the fifth stage, the subsequent thousand years. Southern Urals — India, Iran. Home — 4 thousand years ago, the pass — three thousand years ago
So, the early Bronze Age. Arias arrive at the southern Urals. 3800 years ago, they built the settlement Sintashta, Arch (modern name), and the whole "country towns." Of these settlement and burial mounds in the vicinity, about architecture and the lessons of their residents much written, will not be repeated. We note only that the pieces of pottery found in Arkaim swastikas — the traditional "sun sign" Aryans. Back in Andronovo region found burial, the remains of which showed haplogroup R1a1, Aryan race, Slav. Haplotypes of the graves also Slavic. In the sense that the Slavs, and those of the graves, there was one common ancestor, kind R1a1.
The main mystery is that Arch lasted only two hundred years. Around the turn of XVI-XVII-th century BC, 3600 years ago, people were deserting him, taking property and utensils with them and leaving some items in the order of magnitude smaller than is usually found, archaeologists, and go nowhere. End of story.
In fact, we know where. This was irrefutable evidence of DNA genealogy.
North India (Kashmir)
North India — solid haplogroup R1a1. Overall, 16% of India's — carriers of haplogroup R1a1. This is — a hundred million men.Half of the upper castes of India — carriers of haplogroup R1a1.Ancestral haplogroup Indians — the same as that of the Eastern Slavs. Ancestor of this haplogroup in India — 3650 years, in Russia, Ukraine — 4500 years. Arias left Arkaim about 3,600 years ago.
Is that enough?
Well, here's another. Aryans were monogaplogruppny only R1a1. Therefore, in India and they have been brought only R1a1. In India itself — a lot of other haplogroups outside India almost never occur. Above it was described as 35 thousand years ago, the mountains of the Pamirs, Tien Shan, Hindu Kush migration flow is divided, and the ones that came to India from the south, and went his way. So, in this way and later in India, they were isolated, and created many of its own, especially the Indian haplogroups. Among them, H, L, R2. If that Indians brought their R1a1 outside India, not to mention Europe, R1a1 necessarily be accompanied by these purely Indian, local, local haplogroups. And they do not exist in Russia as a whole or in Eastern Europe or Western Europe, except that the Gypsies. Clearly, this haplogroup R1a1 came to India, and did not come out of there. By the way, when moving to the south of India haplogroup R1a1 age falls. In the south Indian tribe Cenci R1a1 ancestor lived 2900 years ago. 600 years after the arrival of the Aryans in India.
It should be mentioned that India from the South Urals — a direct shortest passage to the south. Kashmir — almost at the Southern Urals, you just have to cross Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Transitions is, above only a kilometer or two. There, along the transition still stand the ruins of the ancient fortress, the remains of branches of the Great Silk Road, which was established there in fifteen hundred years after the Aryan way to India. By the way, one of these transitions and the settlements are small ethnic Ishkashim, male population which — two-thirds of R1a1. Suggestive.
So, arias from Arkaim gone to India about 3600 years ago, leaving the mound. Why would they do that? What was in this matter?
The answer to this becomes clear when you look at the history of global catastrophes. 3600 years ago there was one of the largest in the history of mankind eruption of Santorini, also known as Thera in the Aegean Sea. This explosion wiped out the Minoan civilization on the island. Crete. Volcanic explosion released into the atmosphere 60 cubic kilometers (!) Of ash, which led to a sharp decrease in the temperature and long on the earth. Evidence of this — tree rings in Europe and North America. It — four times more ash than the horrific explosion of Krakatoa in 1883.
For a long time the sun is almost not visible. This explosion was accompanied by strong tectonic shifts that are markedly felt across the globe.
Most accurate dating of the eruption, some radiocarbon gave period 3615 ± 15 years ago, the rings of trees — 3628-3629 years ago from ice cores — 3644 ± 20 years ago. If all this is average, it turns 3630 years ago.
This is likely, and there is a time when the Aryans left Arkaim.
It becomes clear why the aria in Indian Vedas have given so much attention cold, lack of sunrises and long nights. That is what has misled Tilak Indian scholar of the last century, who took these descriptions for alleged Aryan living conditions in the Arctic. Hence the well known, but wrong "Arctic" theory appears as the Aryans, and the whole of humanity.
Aryans, who pays so much attention to regular life, given the higher powers, so much attention to ritual, which is evident from their system graves became uncomfortable. This highly uncomfortable they reflected in the "Mahabharata" in such arias characteristic narrative, allegory. Arias never left historical records, they composed hymns, in which the allegorical form reflected the realities of life.
So, here's what you felt aria (sixteenth book "Mahabharata", ed., Science, 2005):
"With the advent of the thirty-sixth year (the Board) … began to notice the bad omens. Sudden strong winds blew, heaping stones instead of rain, and the birds began to circle left. Turned back the great rivers, mist shrouded by light from heaven to earth falling meteors, scattering rain fiery coals. Solar disk sucked veil, and at sunrise to be seen by its rays through the clouds. And the moon and the sun appeared ominous tricolor black halo with sharp edges, shimmering red, like ash. These and many other signs appeared from day to day, heralding disaster and instilling anxiety in the heart.
Meanwhile … around the house … always circled (god of death), and even those that were fixed … Every day flew terrible hurricanes dying … causing surge in terror hairs on the body. On the streets … there were huge quantities of rat homes anxiously screaming birds, and this cry does not cease, day or even at night. Cranes imitate the hooting of owls and goats — jackals howl! Red-white birds, the messengers of Time, instead of wandering pigeons in homes. Cows born oslyata, the mules — camels, dogs — cats and mongooses have — rats … wife cheating husbands, and husbands — wives. Glowing light, excessive lights, moving in a circle from left to right, letting it turns blue, the blood-red rays.
Hardly … served cooked in the kitchen with great care clean food, as it were coupled worms … heard the sound of running, but no one was visible. All watched as the world again and again face each other, flying at the constellations, and the people did not have to find their own, under the sign of which they were born ….
Vasudeva … commanded the citizens to go on pilgrimage to the holy places …. At the behest of Keshava servants declared, "must you bulls-men, trek to the ocean."
It is not possible to quote further, also on — solid allegory, including the following book "Mahabharata", a book of the seventeenth, with the distinctive title "Book of the great outcome." Here we note an interesting observation — "I heard the sound of running, but no one was visible." Well, how better to describe underground, tectonic shifts?
Those are the reasons and history of the transition of the Aryans in India. According to some experts, is part of the Indian Aryans went west, eastern Iran, and this is why the Eastern Iranian languages are closer to the "Indo-European". But most of all, most of the Aryans moved to Iran directly from Central Asia, where they have lived for at least 500 years old and went to eastern Iran at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, 3900-3800 years ago. This completely fits into the concept of the Aryan languages, as it is discussed in this study. Fit and the fact that the bulk of the Aryan haplogroup R1a1 in Iran is in eastern Iran, and is approximately 20% of the population of Iran, which has in most Middle Eastern haplogroup J2. In western Iran share Aryan haplogroup R1a1 generally minimal, and is only 3%. So all the talk about the "Iranian" ancient Slavs do not have any reason. There was no significant direct relationship with the Western Slavs ancient Iran. Only with the east, and India. Therefore, the Western Iranian languages are so young, the middle of the first millennium BC.
This is how DNA genealogy puts in places and connects in a single system separate and conflicting bits of information, history, anthropology, linguistics, which, apparently, and made the system.
Three positions could form the conclusion of this study.
The first — the DNA genealogy begins serving science. The fact that a few years ago, it seemed some fun turned out to give the history, anthropology, archeology, linguistics, the opportunity to test the concept, consider the data for a fundamentally different way, to link together the seemingly disparate parts of the picture of our knowledge about the world.
Second — this study has to solve a series of puzzles that remain a mystery tens or even hundreds of years. This is not because the author is a knowledgeable, but because of it — and our — service was a new tool, DNA genealogy. It was possible to monitor the movements of people not using shovels and brushes archaeologist, and the Measurement of the skull, and cleverly unwinding harmonies and meanings of words in the living and the dead languages, but just for tracking labels in our DNA. They, these labels can not "assimilate" or "absorbed" by other languages, cultures, or nations, as is the case for thousands of years under the terms of history, linguistics, anthropology. Haplotypes and haplogroups not assimilate. They can only be physically destroy, but that the whole people is not often. Haplogroups and haplotypes stubbornly make their way through any assimilation, through the millennia, and not just their way to give us a sign of their existence, but also allow us to calculate the time when their ancestors lived.
And third, that the author would like to emphasize that it does not diminish the importance of archeology, linguistics, anthropology, and does not try to replace them. By standing on the shoulders of giants in these and other areas of knowledge. Specialists in these disciplines done tremendous work perfectly, without which the conclusions of this study would be left hanging in the air. They would not need to try. Author's main purpose — to show the possibilities of the methods of DNA genealogy specialists in other fields of human history.
This article could be devoted a significant part of the interpretation of data obtained by me with the help of DNA-Genealogy, namely in the interpretation of history, linguistics, anthropology, ethnogeography. For example, note that these radiocarbon dating of ancient sites in Europe often (usually) indicate times of 5800-6000 years ago, such as the 5820 ± 130 years ago in Poland, 5840 ± 70 years ago in the North West of England, 5845 ± 100 years ago in the north-west of Ireland on one data and 5,500 years ago in Scotland, according to other sources, and compared with the data on the lifetimes of the common ancestors of R1a1, for example, in Ireland, 5200 ± 200 years ago (see above). But then you have to embark on a long discussion of calibration data radiocarbon analysis, the error of the DNA genealogy, and that the parking lot — this one, and the surviving ancestors whose descendants live today — a few more. These dates may theoretically be the same, and the ancestors could theoretically live on ancient sites from the beginning of, parking, existence, but more likely to survive and give the surviving offspring is not the earliest inhabitants of the camps. But if all the talk about it — it was not that article, and the tasks it would be different, and the author, most likely, would be different. It is clear that the lifetime of the ancient ancestors of R1a1 roughly coincide with the date of relevant archaeological cultures in the way of them, sort of R1a1, migrations, and radiocarbon dating sites, and if those dates a little earlier, this is easily explained by the fact that not all of the potential ancestors survived.
In fact, surprisingly, the modern descendants kind R1a1 (about him and now we) keep their UNINTERRUPTED DNA genealogical line from the time of ancient Neolithic and Paleolithic sites sometimes, and it can be directly seen from the records in our Y-chromosomal haplotypes, and pattern of mutations in them to calculate the times of these sites and the migration of human flows.
Of course, it is tempting to mention, or even stress that dates in the life of common ancestors across Europe, found in the present study, using DNA genealogy occur mostly in the years 4200-4800, that is, at the III millennium BC and it is strikingly consistent with the data historians. As they write, it is the time to "finish indoevropeizatsiya Central European agricultural tribes of Indo-Europeans." True, not the "Indo-Europeans", and the Aryans, haplogroup R1a1. Those who went to the east, are the ancient Slavs, who in the West — are … well, they do not have the name. Who calls their collective name of the Celts, who — Basques. Share R1a1 in the British Isles is minimal, often from zero to 4%. In the north of Scotland — up to a quarter. In the north, in Scandinavia — about 20%, and the gradient to increase — to the east, up to three-quarters in Russia, and two-thirds in some regions of Central Asia.
What caused the Aryans to move to new lands? What caused the almost incessant flow of people into new territory? Frankly, that's not my question. I'd prefer a professional interpretation of these data makes professional historians, anthropologists, linguists. They know the answer better than me. They write that this thread has been called — and in turn called himself — the new economic and technological developments, in particular dairy farming, the new technology of cultivation, domestication of the horse, the creation of wheeled transport. Still — climate change, the coming "event for the drop in temperature and a variable increase of continentality, the onset of the global arid climate in the III millennium BC." This, in turn, "has led to lower agroclimatic potential and did not give the guaranteed yield." But again, not my problem, not my profession. And no DNA genealogy.
Most importantly, in collaboration with those linguists, archaeologists, historians, in this study it was possible to determine where the "homeland" as "protoindoevropeytsev" (Southwest Asia), and the Aryans, they "Indo-Europeans", they are also the ancient Slavs (the Balkans) thus reconciled — at least at first glance — the two main schools of linguists. Just the time frame for these "ancestral" were different — for the first 40,000 years ago, for the second — 12 thousand years ago.
This approach has allowed some detail, time, and place, to see how the Aryan migration was between 6000 and 4200 years ago in the northern Carpathians, in a mysterious place Tripoli culture in Central Europe, the British Isles, Scandinavia, the Slavic territories of present Hungary , the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Germany, Ukraine, Russia, and further to the southern steppes of Ukraine and Russia in the Southern Urals and on to India and Iran, and the Middle East, Lebanon, and the Arabian peninsula, to the Gulf of Oman. He allowed is reasonable to assume that it is the aria erected monuments of Stonehenge. What is the aria built fort in the southern Urals, now called Arkaim Sintashta and country towns.
This method revealed thatRussian and Ukrainian Slavs have a common ancestor who lived 4500 years ago, this same Slavic ancestor is the ancestor of the Hindus and the same kind of the Aryans, who now account for at least one hundred million people.Indian descendants continued praslavyanina our race, who lived 3850 years ago, and continued the race shortly after the Aryans left Arkaim and Southern Urals. And we probably know why and when he left.
This method allowed us to show convincingly that it is not "European languages", andAryan, Slavonic languages are the primary. "Indo-European languages" — a euphemism that arose at the time from a misunderstanding of what binds Sanskrit and its variants, on the one hand, and European languages, on the other. Now it has become quite clear.Aryan languages — and this is the basis of European languages, and Sanskrit, and "Indo-European" Iranian languages. On the Dnieper, Don and Ural River lived not "Iranian-speaking peoples." Slavs lived there, the ancient Slavs, arias, and it was their language. It is they who have brought their language in India, Iran, Afghanistan.
This — our direct ancestors. And now we can say that we have not forgotten.
Photos of the article — like this look-Slav descendants of the Aryans in India through 3600 years after their move from the Southern Urals. Take a break for a while from ribbons, swords and other national colors, and bring these people somewhere in Yaroslavl and Krasnodar. Like?
©Anatoly Klesov, 2008
Do not suffer great pride. Babbitt prone strange illness, he is not proud of his merits, but by what is irrelevant — the achievements of their countrymen. Every nationalist before the noise of the greatness of the people, it would be good to think about self-worth.
Runmaster warns that the material of this article can be used as an ideological banner of any kind of extremist fascist political organizations is a shame people.
© Introduction and PreparedYuri Larichev
Bukovina Chernivtsi, 2008
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