Creation story began in the 40s when the Russian army was armed with three types of tanks languid class: IS-2, IS-3, IS-4. In 1948, HBTU was decided to make a new heavy tank, which would have a better chassis and better protection of the similarity of the IS-4, and the case would have a form that would be identical to the IS-3.
The main requirements of being in the design — limiting the combat weight of the tank — less than 50 tonnes as a developer led KB Chelyabinsk Plant of the Ministry of Transport Engineering of the USSR. Management has appointed a principal designer J. Kotin. It was planned to give a name for the machine JS-5.
According to the project, which was prepared in April 1949, the new tank design was a mass of 50 tons, is located on the chassis, which had seven rinks. The case had a distinctive feature — "hooked nose". A month later, was built woody layout of the tank, then designers started manufacturing the first prototype "IP-5." There are special difficulties in the processing of torsion bar suspension, performance of which, on the model of the IS-4, caused a lot of issues and problems. After lengthy experiments braked to "beam" torsion bar, which consisted of a few having a small diameter.
Factory tests have shown that the machine as a whole meets the TTT, and decided to release the first batch of 10 tanks.
In 1949, the machines have two more steps industrial test, after which the end of April — early May 1950 on NIBT landfill, which is located in Kubinka, held municipal tests. When testing is complete, the municipal commission recommended the creation of a batch run of the tank with some modifications by the MTO. In a brand new tank had to make a lot of improvements, so that the tank was any number of times and control of industrial and field tests, which only ended in December 1952. Armed with tanks planned to take in the spring of 1953, but due to the death of Stalin it came out in late 1953 machine was put into service under the name T-10.
Arms T-10 is: 122-millimeter tank gun D-25TA, which has a barrel length of 48 calibres, also paired with her 12.7-millimeter machine gun DShKM. The gun is equipped with two-chamber muzzle brake and automatic horizontal breech. Start velocity armor-piercing projectile is 795 m / s. Clear range, with the introduction of the telescopic sight TSH2-27 reached 5,000 meters, and in the case of aiming with a lateral level — 15 000 meters. Introduce a mechanism facilitates the loading of chambering a shell, which in turn can achieve rate of 3-4 height. / Min, and if the charge manually — 2-3 height. / Min. Ahead on the turret hatch charging based 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun DShKM which is provided dot sight K10-T. Arsenal gun was 30 shells placed in homutkah and gutter installation. The machine gun was equipped with 1000 rounds, 300 of which were to the coaxial machine gun ammunition in 6 cases, and 150 for anti-aircraft guns were in the 3 special cartridge boxes of 50 pieces. The remaining 550 rounds of ammunition were placed in zinc boxes.
The case T-10 had a decent armor, which is a complex box-like shape, the frontal part of which was a form of "pike nose". The boards were bent from the lower and upper parts of the inclined. The upper aft sheet is soft, like a T-34 tank, to provide access to the units box.
Tower cast with a streamlined shape which has different angles of inclination and the walls of different widths, varying from 250 mm at the bow and 40 mm of the molded roof. The tower was mounted on a ball bearing turret above the cut-sheet in the roof of the shell of the tank. The rear of the tower was made of armored plate and welded into the roof, and the front was cast along with the body of the tower. The mechanism of planetary rotation of the tower, with electronic or manual transmission. In front of the tank commander's hatch was located TPKU monitoring device, and on the perimeter of the overhead towers were seven devices TNP.
Tank equipped with four-stroke V-twin diesel engine B-12-5 having 12 cylinders and liquid cooling system volume 38.9 l .. He could reach the highest power 700 horsepower at 2,100 rev / min. The engine is mounted on a pedestal, which consisted of four mounts that are welded to the sides and have a bunch between several longitudinal angle brackets.
Fuel for the engine is in the 3 internal and external 2-tanks. Domestic placed as follows: two in the rear, with a capacity of 185 liters. and one in front of a capacity of 90 liters. External were on the wings at the rear and had a seating capacity of 150 liters. each. Tanks connected to the external fuel tank system. The total capacity of the tanks is 760 liters. Since 1955, the interior rear tanks had a volume of 270 liters, which allowed to increment the total volume to 930 liters.
The engine was connected to the power train, which consisted of a planetary gear based in a block with a rotary mechanism of the "LC" with eight gears front and two rear.
T-10 has a chassis, which consisted of the top position at the rear wheels, which are equipped with detachable rims with 14 teeth. On each board were on rollers 7, and three support rollers. Installed-independent suspension, with an elastic stop and Beam torsion. Established Melkozvenchataya caterpillar lantern meshing. The number of trucks for each circuit — 88. Shoe width — 720 mm, pitch — 160 mm. Three modifications were: T-10A, T-10B, T-10M.
In series production tank received the title of T-10, becoming the last modification of the family. But in the process of production were introduced different configurations, for example, 8-speed gearbox was replaced by a 6-speed manual, in 1963, added OPVT for wading depth of 5 meters, with 1967 input-piercing ammunition and cumulative projectiles. Batch creation of the tank stopped in 1966, clear data on the number of cars produced creator could not be found — Western estimates produced in 8000 did not cause the trust tanks, Russian creators indicate "more than 2500", which is likely an underestimate. In any case, the T-10 is undoubtedly the most massive post-war heavy tank, and may be the most massive heavy tank in the history of tank development in the world. The highest performance characteristics and timely modernization have allowed him to remain in service 40 years — the order of withdrawal from service given only in 1993! Tank is not exported to other countries and the Warsaw Pact, and did not take part in hostilities (with the exception of this operation "Danube" on entering the Warsaw contract in Czechoslovakia in 1968).
A series of tanks T-10:
D — the steering wheel with a tension mechanism, 2 — Scope T2S-29, 3 — sight TPN-1, 4 — monitoring device gunner TPR-51, 5 — Illuminator OU-ST, 6 — cupola with seven prisms monitoring and device-TPKU 2, 7 — rear box of spare parts, 8 — on the engine hatch, 9 — carrier roller, 10 — aft fuel tank, 11 — the drive wheel with the wipers, 12 — huge smoke bombs BDSH, 13 — track track with your finger, 14 — Antenna 15 — exhaust ports ejectors, 16 — mesh windows above the radiators, 17 — a window into the engine air intake in the winter, 18 — ukryvochny canvas, 19 — Spotlight A-2, 20 — Inspection Charges TNP, 21 — coaxial gun KPVT, 22 — loader's hatch, 23 — beam for self, 24 — shields, deflectors, 25 — a box of spare parts, 26 — the driver's hatch of the T-10 c T-10A, 27 — the driver's hatch of the T-10M, 28 — window DShK, 29 — cowl, 30 — sight TPN-1, 31 — a window sight TUP, 32 — a window for coaxial machine gun KPVT, 33 — Window air inlet slider summer 34 — hatch to service the oil system, 35 — the emergency exit hatch, 36 — anti-aircraft machine gun KPVT.
A — tower tank T-10, B — tower T-10A, B — Mask gun D-25TS tank T-10A, T — Tower of the T-10M, D — charging hatch of the tank T-10, E — DShK anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the turret hatch charging tanks T-10, T-10A, F — bottom of the hull.
Drawings of parts increased 2.5 times in comparison with the general views. (Best in class A. Aleshin, V. Sergeev, M. Baryatinsky (Modelist-Konstruktor. — 1990. — № 2))