Category: Flora and Fauna

10 of the most resourceful parasites

They are dazzling. And not only the danger posed, but the ingenuity with which the use of others. One can make the fungus beetle, the other — completely change the language fish.

1. Toxoplasma gondii — A parasite that pushes straight into the jaws of mice cat

Danger to humans

T. gondii — a parasite that is capable of sexual reproduction only in the cat. The most interesting thing is how he gets there.

The way this amazing winding. First, this creature enters the rat or mouse, making the latter suddenly develops an irresistible attraction to the smell of cat urine, and this craving is much stronger than fear. It is not difficult to guess that long with such depraved tastes rodents do not live. Parasite just that and should — the rat he is not suitable for breeding, and the cat — the most it. So rodents for T. gondii — is the only transport to get into the cat's body, and the skillful management of the road is short.

For pregnant women infected with the parasite can turn damage the fetal brain. Therefore, expectant mothers are advised to keep away from the cat litter.

In addition, recent studies, taxoplasma may contribute to schizophrenia in humans.

2. Loa loa — a worm that lives in the eyes of

Danger to humans

Worm L. loa in the inner corner of the eyes of an animal

Loa loa, known also as the "eye worm" — is a parasite that lives in human and other mammals. As you can guess from the name, a favorite place of his dwelling is the eyes.

Contagion spread certain types of flies. Once the fly has bitten its prey, the worm starts its journey through the body of the new owner. In the place where the worm is justified, there is swelling and irritation.

And if it gets to the eyes — people here really feels, and sometimes sees his movement.

Luckily, the eye is easy to get rid of the worm, prop course of antibiotics, or by making a relatively simple operation.

And by the way, the worm can live in the human body and 17.

3. Vandellia Cirrhosa — Catfish, which can swim in and eat human penis inside

Danger to humans

V. Cirrhosa, also known as the bearded Vandelli or kandiru, terrible not only because it is a natural vampire who sucks the blood of men, settling inside him, but also how it gets into the body.

Regular Amazon kandiru reaches a length of 15 centimeters. It smells of ammonia, exhaled a big fish, is taken in its gills, releases its sharp thorns, to bleed and drunk to satiety.

And here we come to the most terrible. In human urine also contains ammonia. In medical practice, known documented cases where the jet of urine Candwr swam into the penis of man. And as soon as the leech enters the body, it eats people from the inside as long as he did not make quite a complicated and painful operation.

One consolation — it is a rare phenomenon. Also, if you so will attract Candwr, it is most likely, try to get into your body in a different way — through the anus, for example.

4. Polysphincta gutfreundi — Wasp, which winds itself spiders slaves

Not dangerous to humans

This wasp has mastered the unusual method of reproduction. The female parasite finds a spider sitting on its web, and lays eggs directly on his abdomen. In due time the larvae hatch from the shell and begin to pull out of the spider "lifeblood."

And that's not the worst thing. Not only is the wasp larvae eat away the spider inside, they are injected into a substance that completely change his instincts. Instead of being able to take care of his own web, he begins to weave a different — a strong, reinforced by special chemical composition with an unusual spider web pattern. This, to the best suited for the cultivation of small axis-parasites.

Once from the spider was only one dried shell, the larvae move to the new web and swaddle cocoon in which ripen to adult wasps.

5. Cymothoa exigua — crustacean, which devours language, and takes his place

Not dangerous to humans

C. exigua selected from the mouth of his first master

What makes this parasite — absolutely incredible: he replaces fish native language.

Begins with the fact that C. exigua swims into the mouth of his victim, bites into the tongue, and drink his blood, until it turns white, not atrophy and disappear. Once finished with the language, C. exigua claws clings to the muscles at the base of the former language and completely replace it, feeding on the blood and mucus of fish. And a new "language" works so well that the fish do not even feel the change.

6. Glyptapanteles glyptapanteles — wasps that make caterpillars protect themselves

 Not dangerous to humans

Glyptapanteles glyptapanteles — is the second wasp in our list, and it is also his trademark method of parasite.

This wasp watching myself caterpillar and lays eggs directly into her body. Then the eggs hatch and the larvae begin to eat the caterpillar from the inside, and the track until then live their normal lives. This of course, terrible, but, as we know from other stories, there is not anything unusual.

The fun begins when about 80 larvae gnaw holes myself and get outside. They weave a cocoon around "his" track, which remains in place and waiting for the wasps will not be ready to start an independent, adult life. Only then will the caterpillar dies.

Not only that — Scientists have recently discovered that the larvae of some mystical way, make a caterpillar protect itself. When they were approaching an insect is a potential threat, the caterpillar begins to swing out of their way to clear the intruders from the branch to the ground.

Poor track! Not only will it eat the inside, she has the brains and washed to get care for the safety of their own murderers.

7. Dicrocoelium dendriticum — A parasite, because of which the ants at night turn into zombies

The risk to humans is minimal

Dicrocoelium dendriticum or lancet fluke — it is a flat worm that literally makes the ants offer themselves for food. The parasite that enters the body ant completely subjugates his behavior. Every night, the infected ant climbs to the top of a blade of grass and sat there all night, until it, along with the grass will not eat any cow.

Ant to fluke — only an intermediate step, the way to enter the body of a larger animal, where it was finally justified and acquires offspring.

And here's what's interesting. If an ant remained on a blade of grass in the daytime, it would quickly be burned in the sun, with his parasite. Therefore afternoon fluke "allow" the ant live a normal life and go out in search of the one who eats only at night.

A person can also theoretically get this muck, but we do face except the discomfort in the gut. But if a person has the habit of eating ants, he can not complain on such trifles.

8. Sacculina — Barnacles cancer that castrates the crab and uses it to launch its own offspring

Not dangerous to humans

Barnacles cancer sacculina finds unsuspecting crab, make some sort of bag in the place where the property is located to the crustacean eggs (if female), and doing some manipulation to deprive the victim from ever acquire their own offspring. Then this bag male fertilizes Sacculina. Naive crab eggs takes sacculina for their own offspring, and then everything happens as it should be in crabs when they become parents.

But the most surprising thing else: if the crab is male, the parasite is something that gets up to his hormones, he behaves like a female, and even attempting to mate with other males.

9. Dermatobia hominis — Gadfly that breed under the human skin

 Danger to humans


Bott recovered in mosquito bite

These gadflies like to arrange a nest is not anywhere — under the skin of the person.

Here's how: female D. hominis catches mosquito lays its eggs on it and go. Then a mosquito bites a person and gives him the eggs, or, in extreme cases, the larvae crawl themselves into the wound from the bite.

Then for five to twelve weeks the larvae grow and develop in the warmth and prosperity, until, finally, it is time to turn into a chrysalis. Here they are, in the same bite to get outside and leave the man alone.

10. Cordyceps turns the insect fungi

Not dangerous to humans

Cordyceps grows from an infected insect

These fungi are parasites get into the head of an insect, gradually "capture" the whole brain and the victim dies. After that Cordyceps quietly growing out of his head dead insect.

Some Cordyceps (and there are about 400 different species, ca. even forced the owners to climb before he died at the top of the plant. This allows them to disperse their spores in the bo? Lshey area and infect the bo? Lshee of insects, which are also then inevitably turn into mushrooms.

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