Parallel Worlds

October 31, 2011 14:56

A surprising consequence of the new image of the world is the existence of an infinite number of worlds that are identical to ours. Yes, dear reader, takes hold of your scores are now in the hands of this book. They live on the planet, exactly the same as our earth with all its mountains, cities, trees and butterflies. These lands are turning around replicas of the sun, and each sun belongs to a huge spiral galaxy — a replica of our own Milky Way.

How far is all the lands inhabited by our double? We know that the matter contained in our O-region may be in the 10 to the 1090 different states. Volume containing, say, a googolplex (10 to the power of 10100) O-regions must have exhausted all possibilities. This volume will be of the order of the diameter of googolplex light years. At large distances, the O-regions, including ours, will be repeated.

There also must be regions where the stories are a little different from ours, with all the possible variations. When Julius Caesar with his legions stood on the bank of the river Rubicon, he knew he had to make a vital decision. Crossing a river becomes treason, and the way back will be gone. With the words «Jacta alea est!» — «The die is cast" — he ordered the troops to go forward. And the lot was actually cast: some lands Caesar became dictator of Rome, and in others he was beaten, tortured and put to death as an enemy of the state. Of course, most land has never been a man by the name of Caesar, and in most places of the universe there is nothing similar to our Earth, because there are many more other possible scenarios beyond the simple repetition.

It is symbolic that this surreal view of the world came to town, steeped in the spirit of Salvador Dali. Like a painting by Dali, it mixes the strange, nightmarish details with the usual reality. And yet this is a direct consequence of my inflationary cosmology. We Jaume Garriga napisa a story about a new picture of the world and make it a leading physics journal The Physical Review. We feared that the article will be rejected as "too philosophical", but accepted it without objection. In the discussion section, near the end, we wrote: "The existence of O-regions with all the stories, some of which are identical or nearly identical to our own, has some disturbing implications. Unless you have an idea of the possibility of a terrible disaster, you can be sure that it has happened in some of the O-regions. If you hardly have avoided the accident, so in some regions with the exact same prior history you are not lucky. On the other hand, some readers will be happy to know that there are an infinite number of O-regions where Al Gore became president (We wrote an article in 2001, just after the highly disputed election in the U.S., which George W. Bush beat Gore Evil with a very small margin ) and — yes! — Elvis is alive. "

Press reacted immediately — as predicted by Jaume. The next month in the British journal New Scientist released review of our article entitled "Long live the king!"
What else is new?

We later found out that many of our pictures clones scattered throughout the universe, there is a backstory. The famous Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov expressed a similar idea in his Nobel lecture in 1975. He said: "In an infinite space there must be many civilizations, including more intelligent, more" successful "than ours. I also defend the cosmological hypothesis that the evolution of the universe is repeated in its basic features an infinite number of times. "

Some even called the idea that in an infinite universe should happen is all self-evident. This, however, is false. Consider, for example, the sequence of odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, …. It is infinite, but we can not say that it contains all possible numbers. After all, it does not provide all the even numbers. Similarly, the infinity of space itself does not guarantee that all features are implemented elsewhere in the universe. For example, the entire space can be infinitely repeated the same galaxy. At this point indicated South African physicist George Ellis (George Ellis) and J. Brandrit (G. Brundrit). They proved on the assumption of an infinite universe, that it should be an infinite number of places, very similar to our Earth. (In their analysis, they relied on classical physics and could therefore speak only similarity, but not the identity of other lands and our own.) They assumed, in addition, that the initial state of the universe varies randomly from one O-region to another, so that in the infinite volume exhaust all the possible variants. Thus, the existence of our clones are not self-evident, but is based on the assumption of spatial infinity and "comprehensive randomness" of the universe.

In contrast, in the case of infinite inflation, these properties do not need to be entered as an independent assumption. It follows from the theory that the island universe is infinite and that the initial conditions at the moment of the Big Bang given random quantum processes during inflation. The existence of clones, thus, is an inevitable consequence of the theory.
The meaning of "to be"

It all depends on the meaning of "is."
Bill Clinton

The idea of multiple worlds, or "parallel" universes, is also discussed in a very different context. You may have heard about the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, which states that the universe is constantly split into multiple copies of itself so that different copies sold all possible outcomes of each quantum process. Despite the apparent similarity to the endless inflation, it is actually quite different theories. To avoid confusion, let's take a short excursion into the world of many worlds.

Quantum mechanics — the phenomenally successful theory. It explains the structure of atoms, electrical and thermal properties of solids, nuclear reactions, and superconductivity. Physics fully trust her, but the basis of this theory is surprisingly dark, and the debate about their interpretation is still going on.

The most controversial is the question of the nature of quantum mechanical probabilities. The so-called Copenhagen interpretation, developed by Niels Bohr and his followers, is that the quantum world is fundamentally unpredictable. According to Bohr, is meaningless to ask where the quantum particle, as long as you do not do the measurement to detect it. The probabilities of all possible outcomes of the measurement can be calculated using the rules of quantum mechanics. Particles as simply can not "decide" and jump to a specific location at the last moment, when the measurement is made.

An alternative interpretation proposed by Hugh Everett III in his doctoral dissertation, defended in 1950 at Princeton University. He argued that in fact realized all the possible outcomes of each quantum event, but it happens in different, 'parallel' universes. In any measurement position of the particle universe splits into myriad copies, in which the particle is found in all possible places. Branching process is completely deterministic, but we do not know with which of the branches will be connected our experience. As a result, the outcome of our measurement is still a probability, and Everett has shown that all the probabilities are exactly the same as in kopengaenskoy interpretation.

Since the choice of interpretation has no effect on what the results or predictions, most working physicists refer to the discussion of the foundations of quantum mechanics as agnostics and do not waste time on these issues. According to physicist Isidor Rabi (Isidor Rabi), dealing with elementary particles, "quantum mechanics — it's just an algorithm. Use it. It works, do not worry. " This approach is "shut up and count" (as David Mermin (David Mermin), see Physics Today, April1989, p. 9.) Works fine, except in quantum cosmology, in which quantum mechanics is applied to the entire universe. "Orthodox" Copenhagen interpretation, which requires that an external observer of the system performing the measurement procedure, in which case you can not even be formulated: there is no external to the universe of the observer. Cosmologists thus tend to prefer the many-worlds picture.

Everett and some of his followers insist that all the parallel worlds are equally real, but others believe that it is only possible worlds, and among them only one is real. (This point of view is close to the Copenhagen interpretation, except that does not insist on the presence of external observer.) This discussion can be a simple dispute over the terms: when we say that there is another parallel universe, independent of our own, which is exactly the meaning of this statement? As President Clinton said on another occasion, "it all depends on the meaning of" is "(from the testimony of President Clinton before the grand jury Aug. 17, 1998.). Parallel universes are like parallel lines: they have no common points. Each of them is developed independently in a separate space and time, which can not get anywhere else in the Universe. But then how can we say they exist in reality or only as a possibility? (Actually there is good reason to believe in the existence of a completely unrelated universes.)

I must emphasize that all this does not affect the picture of eternal inflation, as described earlier in this chapter. If the many-worlds interpretation is accepted, then there is an ensemble of "parallel" forever infliruyuschih universes, each with an infinite number of O-regions. The new picture of the world is applicable to each of the universes of the ensemble.
Moreover, in contrast to the idea of parallel worlds, on the other regions certainly real. They all belong to a common space-time, and if we had left enough time, we were even able to get to them and compare them with our stories.
Workarounds

No doubt many readers will wonder: do we really have to believe in all this nonsense with our clones? Is not there a way to avoid such bizarre conclusions? If you absolutely can not stand the thought that your counterpart in a distant galaxy is a Republican (or, conversely, a Democrat), and if you are willing to grasp at any straw to avoid this, let you throw a couple of straws.

Our ability to travel to other regions of the O-could prevent the observed accelerated expansion of the universe caused by the constant vacuum energy. In this case, the galaxy of other O-regions will be removed faster and faster, and we can never catch up with them. Some models, however, predict that the vacuum energy will gradually decline, as it did in the period of inflation. In this case there will be no fundamental limitations on the range of travel.

First of all, it is likely that inflation theory is wrong. The idea of inflation is very convincing and supported by the observation, but certainly not to the extent that, for example, the theory of relativity.

Even if our universe is the product of inflation, it may be assumed that inflation is not eternal. True, it would require a fairly serious reservations in theory. To avoid eternal inflation, the energy landscape of the scalar field must be specially tuned for our requirements.

Neither of these possibilities is attractive. The theory of inflation — this is the best the best of our explanation of the Big Bang. If we accept this theory, and it will not maim, adding it is not necessary and arbitrary properties, we will have no choice but to recognize the infinite inflation, with all the ensuing consequences, whether we like them or not.

Farewell to the unique

In the views of the ancient we humans were the center of the universe. The sky was located not too far away, and the fate of people and kingdoms could read the stars and planets on its velvet vault. Our withdrawal from the forefront of work began with Copernicus and lasted until the end of the last century. Not only the Earth is not the center of the solar system, and the Sun itself — just an ordinary star on the edge of a fairly typical galaxy. Still, we warmed the idea that the world is something quite special — it's the only planet with this particular set of life forms and that human civilization with its art, culture and history is unique in the universe. One might think that the only thing — a good reason to protect our small planet, as a precious work of art.

Now we have lost, and this last claim to uniqueness. In the view of the world that arises from the theory of eternal inflation, the Earth and our civilization can not be considered unique. The endless expanse of space scattered countless identical civilizations. With this decrease in the status of humanity to absolute cosmic insignificance of our way away from the center of the world stage can be considered complete.

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