Right on target. Russian guided bombs

By the beginning of the second World War, many states there is a need to develop managed aircraft armament, namely bombs. Svobodnopadayuschie bombs were not accurate enough, in practice impose an enormous flow of ammunition and inflated risk to the crews of bombers. In addition, the situation was aggravated by growing anti-aircraft artillery, which forced the aircraft evenly rise higher and higher, losing precision bombing. The output of this situation was seen in the development of the bomb, which could change the line of movement and self-induced fall on the target already in flight.

"Crab"

Right on target.  Domestic guided bombsHistory of Russian corrected air bombs began soon after the Russian war majestically. In the hands of Russian engineers were materials on the German project FX-1400 Fritz-X. Analysis of the documentation was delayed and only in 1947, number 2 of the design bureau of the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering was entrusted to create your ammunition of the same type. Subject was named "Crab" and the index SNAB-3000, and the main designer of the project was assigned DV Svecharnika. Terms of Reference provided for a managed-caliber ammunition 3,000 kilograms with thermal homing head. Based on the requirements was formed recent overview bomb. Munition housing has an elongated teardrop shape with a corresponding cut in the bow. In the latter placed homing equipment. In the middle of bombs X-shaped pattern has been found four wings. The presence of the wings was justified by the need to maneuver in flight. Without additional planes aerodynamic control surfaces "Crab" simply could not provide the proper speed line adjustment movement. The leading edge of the wings was swept at 30 °. The scope of each pair of wings — 2520 mm. On the wings of all the consoles were spoilers size 30h350 mm is used to control the slope. On narrower tail feathers placed the bomb, which consisted of 2-stabilizers and 2-keels. In contrast, the X-shaped wings, stabilizers and fins installed horizontally and vertically, respectively. As the elevators and the direction of the spoilers have also been used, but on their feathers they had the smallest size: 30h173 mm. In the middle of the bomb SNAB-3000 placed the warhead from 1285 kilograms of TNT. Especially for the new managed ammunition was designed fuse AB-515. With all of this was the possibility of installing a fuse instead of the regular 2-AB-139 serial.

But the greatest interest is not a construct bombs and equipment installed in its nose. CDB-393 thermal developed two guidance systems, designated 01-53 and 01-54. Apart they differed sensitivity. Sensors 01-53 fixed thermal radiation of more than 0.04 mW/cm2. Seeker 01-54, in turn, "saw" has 0,018 mW/cm2. Structurally, both GOS were similar: any of them had its composition two lead-sulfide photocell, either of which, through its lens watched the sector width of eight degrees. One of the solar cells "produced observation" in the horizontal plane, the other — in the vertical axis. Two-fold difference in sensitivity gave approximately the same difference in target detection range. Thus, the GSN 01-53 was able to find the target type thermal power station at a distance of about 4.5 km. At 01-54 the figure was equal 9 kilometers. But the least sensitive head can be useful when attacking certain industrial facilities. Due to the relatively low traits, 01-53 is not "dazzle" of metallurgical plants and equipment etc. companies, particularly where the highest temperature used.

Right on target.  Domestic guided bombsIn 1951, it collected two 10-ka bombs "Crab". Two copies are also used in tests without homing. The results of these discharges has been redesigned rudder control system, interceptors. At this time, the KB-2, worked on the bomb, it was renamed the GSNII-642. Small revision control systems and homing lasted almost to the end of the 52th year after the bombs began tests with the working of the GOS. Instead warhead was used in this step ballast. At the landfill Volodymyrivka was equipped with several training purposes. They were a large roasting pan with a kerosene. The flame itself "fire" successfully imitated a number of purposes, first, industrial facilities. During the test bombing aircraft carrier "Crabs" was the Tu-4, which allowed the capacity to deliver to the target two bombs at once. By the end of the test in 1953, all transcripts dropped bombs ended successfully. All SNAB-3000 lay at a distance of less than 70-75 feet from the aiming point. Unguided bombs similar caliber rejected almost 800 meters. The upcoming second step scale testing was completed more advantageous. 12 bombs without a warhead and three, kitted it, showed little best result. With all of this deviation eight bombs were the least fifty meters.

At the end of the step scale testing technique completely formed introduction of the "Crabs". On the way to the goal bomber was held at about the course, as well as in the case with the introduction of unguided bombs. Reset SNAB-3000 was carried out at the time of hitting targets in the crosshairs standard scope. Next autopilot bombs take her into a dive at an angle of 50 ° to the horizontal. After a few seconds, then cut one seeker, which was carried out by teams coming guidance bomb. Type of guidance equipment affected the limitations on the application. Due to the use of infrared target, "Crabs" could be used only at night in bright weather. Allowed the bombing at the clouds, but to do so they had to be at a height of more than 3 km.

First 1955 bomber Tu-4 was found quite outdated and unsuited to deliver bombs "Crab". New media chose just made Tu-16. Carrying capacity of the aircraft price range allowed twice to increment the number of transported bombs. Only here is the best in comparison with the Tu-4 cruise speed has caused some apprehension. In the spring of the 55th was made four trial reset "Crabs" from the Tu-16. They were all bad. The new bomber flew higher and faster, which badly affect the properties of the bomb. At speeds of about M = 0.9 SNAB-3000 was losing directional stability and steering wheels, spoilers ceased to have a significant impact line movement. In the course of the next 32 flights have been developed about the use of new tools. The highest elevation relief restricted to 10 km, and the highest rate — up to 835-840 km / h

But even such restrictions practically have failed: the properties of accuracy fell off markedly. Municipal tests in September 1955 suggested 18 dropped the bomb. 1st 12 "Crabs" were dropped on the target conditional, which had an average thermal "image", similar to the Krasnodar refinery. Four bombs fell at a distance of up to forty meters. Deviation of more 2-was twice huge. Other bombings have failed due to the failure of equipment. Heat aim low brightness (simulated Schekinskie CHP) remained intact. Only one bomb captured target, but fell outside the circle of radius of 80 meters, provided the terms of reference. Two more bombs had not captured the colorful goal, and on the fourth there was a breakdown of the GOS. In the end, the most colorful aim to mimic the Azov Steel Mill, was struck by two bombs dropped with a deviation of less th
an 12 meters.

As a result, not very successful trial has taken a number of measures. But they may have failed, and in August 1956 the project SNAB-3000 was closed for futility. The main problem of controlled bomb "Crab" is the wrong choice of the type of guidance. Infrared seeker has sufficient properties to defeat enemy equipment, but almost always as the guidance system installed on the rocket started for the destruction of enemy aircraft. Ammunition for class "air-surface" infrared homing was unprofitable, first, because of the difficulty finding a particular object by thermal radiation.

"The Seagull" and "Condor"

A couple of years after the start of the "Crab" in the same GSNII-642 running AD Nadiradze began the creation of other 2-guided bombs, one of which eventually even entered service. It was the UB-2000F "The Seagull" and UB-5000F "Condor". Guided munitions caliber 2000 and 5000 pounds, respectively, were required to have a guidance system of the ordinary, if SNAB-3000. The customer sought to establish a new bomb radio command control system with an aircraft carrier for the targeting process by 3 points. Already early 50's this scheme could hardly be called a modern and promising. Yet, the military lusted get exactly similar ordnance.

Right on target.  Domestic guided bombsTo simplify the work the designers decided to unify the very units bombs. Thus, the case of "The Seagull" was a suitably modified block "Crab". The same was true of the X-shaped wings span 2100 mm. Immediately, it was modified tail bomb. To ensure the applicable size rear ammunition had to change the design of the stabilizer and keels. Swept stabilizers "Seagull" span 1560 mm long had a huge portion of the root and bore two goals for himself keels. With all of this part of the design of the stabilizer of the outwardly beyond the plane of the keel. On these "appendages" were attached two tracer. The control system as a whole remained trajectory is the same as it was on SNAB-3000. On the wings, stabilizers and keels mounted small spoilers, to function as rudders. With all of this in the "Seagull" was missing homing equipment. Instead it inside the bomb was mounted radio equipment. It receives commands from the bombers, and converted into electronic signals to control machines. Due to the absence of languid pieces of equipment homing, "The Seagull" at his weight of 2240 pounds (the designers were not able to meet the initial conditions by weight) was carrying 1795 kg of TNT.

In November 1954 an experimental batch of bombs UB-2000F "Seagull" went to the factory tests. Until February of next year, the crew took off test with IL-28 bombers and a half 10-ka guided bombs. The introduction of guided munitions was not easy. Since the guidance of "The Seagull" was performed by the method of 3-points, a bomber could not maneuver after reset until its bombs hit the target. At this time, it was a easy target for enemy air defenses. In addition, the navigator-operator had to constantly reset after watching the flight of the bomb and adjust its line of motion using a special console. Even with a special optical sight that was far not easy, including a no bad weather. When bad visibility, of course, "The Seagull" was worthless.

Municipal bomb tests UB-2000F began in July 1955. Two 10-ka bombings trial with a number of reservations have been found to be successful. In December of the same year, "The Seagull" under the title of UB-2F (GAU index 4A22) have adopted the Russian army. The creation of "The Seagull" was short-lived: in a few months was only 120 new ammunition. Carriers guided bombs were IL-28 and Tu-16. First could carry a "Seagull" under the fuselage, the second — two on the beam immediately holders under the wing. Create reset recommended from a height of more than 7 km. In these criteria experienced navigator operator could hit a target the size of 30-50 meters with only two or three bombs. To perform the same tasks svobodnopadayuschih FAB-1500 required an order of magnitude larger expenditure of ammunition.

Bigger Bomb UB-5000F "Condor" was a significant increase in "The Seagull." Hull length increased from 4.7 meters to 6.8 meters, wingspan X-shaped wings to 2670 mm, and the range of stabilizer — up to 1810 mm. Full weight of the latest bomb was 5,100 pounds, 4,200 of which had the charge of TNT. The design of the stabilizer fins and "Condor" was similar applications on the UX-2F, and the wings were processing planes "Crab". The control system heaviest bomb and complex created for installation on the aircraft, were taken from the "Seagull" without any configuration. As it turns out, that of engineering "cannibalism" has not justified itself.

In March 1956, in the course of industrial tests of the Tu-16 was dropped 16 "Condors". It was found that at altitudes above 10 km relief and speed of the aircraft carrier over 800 km / h bomb manages to accelerate to supersonic speeds, causing the handlebars, the spoilers on the wings are ineffective. The consequence of this is almost always the bomb rotation around the longitudinal axis. Area increment spoilers, but it took an upcoming patch to the same aerodynamics of ammunition. It has been tested and several bombs UB-5000F refreshed with the control system and the newest form of the case. Work on "Condor" lasted until illumine 1956, when control of the country has decided to close all projects guided bombs, and to focus on the development of guided missiles to aircraft. By that time it began testing "Condor" Curb television guidance system, but due to the order of the top of their hastily finished.

The family of "CC"

Right on target.  Domestic guided bombsAfter the closure of the "Condor" to create new guided bombs ended a half decades. In 1971, the Research Institute of Applied Hydromechanics (SSPE now "Region") immediately started to create a guided bombs for tactical aircraft. The first of them began to CC-500 and CC-1500. Both were equipped with laser weapon seeker vane type. It is located on the front of the tapered portion bomb casing. New bombs were intended for use on the front-line fighter-bombers MiG-27 filled with laser target designation system. Semi-active laser homing bombs after resetting the munition to the point where the pilot of the laser beam. So Makar, bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 worked on a "strike-brought." As a part of high-explosive warhead bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 there were 200 and 450 kg of explosive, respectively.

Shortly before adopting the first laser-guided bombs, in 1976, work began on improving this class of weapons. In the course of these studies was designed bomb KAB-500L-K. At its base was a single cluster bomb RBK-500. Because of such features of the "warhead" destructive elements KAB-500L-K were 266 anti-tank bombs PTAB-1. The main use of this weapon was to defeat armored vehicles in at least some types of different criteria, on the march and in the field of concentration. KAB-500L-K was adopted by the Russian army only in 1988.

The smallness of the smallest time has become the creation of another controlled bomb — KAB-500Kr. From other Russian
guided bombs It has a unique system guidance. The last bombs were directed at the direct assistance of the pilot an aircraft carrier. KAB-500Kr, unlike them, was already working on a "dropped-and-forget". For this purpose the bow barrel bomb under hemispherical transparent cowl set gyrostabilized platform television camera. Guidance bomb carried by the so-called TV-correlation method. Such guidance is working then obrazom.Pered ammunition dump pilot includes television system bomb, which transmits a signal to a monitor in the cab. Further pilot with a separate control knob is on display purpose and leads to an aiming mark. At the time of the pilot objectives bomb proof "remembers" the appearance of the target and surrounding objects. After resetting the weapon seeker looking for that "sees" the television camera and records the appropriate amendments to the motion of the line of flight. It should be noted that the method of guidance developed by the Research Institute of Applied fluid mechanics, is more reliable than that used by zabugornyh analogues of CC-500Kr the same time. As an example, the South American bomb AGM-62 Walleye. South American GSN produces guidance a method of fixing target optically contrasting areas. Russian bomb, in turn, uses to identify targets at once several contrasting sections. With this defeat the purpose for sure is not necessarily required to have appropriate outdoor signs — in this case a bomb without help calculate the desired point of impact with the introduction of appropriate benchmarks around the target. The radial deviation of the probability bombs KAB-500Kr lies within the boundaries of 4-8 meters. Such precision in combination with 100 kilograms of explosives rather for the destruction of a huge range of purposes. Bomb KAB-500Kr entered service in 1984.

Right on target.  Domestic guided bombsIn the coming-based bombs KAB-500, KAB-500Kr and CC-1500 has created several other ordnance Markets passive laser and television-correlation guidance systems. These types of guided bombs are equipped with different types of warheads, including penetrating (KAB-1500L-Pr) and FAE (KAB-500OD). One of the latest developments is the bomb KAB-500S, a couple of years back the adoption. This controlled Ammo is a typical response to current trends in the field of zabugornye homing systems. For the first time in Russian practice guided bomb has a satellite GOS. Electronics weapon receives a signal from satellite navigation systems GLONASS and GPS and tracks down its position relative to the coordinates of the target. Deviation bombs KAB-500S with this guidance does not exceed 8.10 meters. The bomb is equipped with 195 kilograms of explosives. Another novelty is guided bombs caliber 250 pounds. KAB-250 and KAB-250L equipped with semi-active laser seeker and are charged high-explosive action.

***

In the past since the beginning of the work on the "Crab", Russian guided bombs have undergone significant configuration. First, it should be noted decrease in caliber and change the tactical niche similar ammunition. First design had a weight of several tons and were designed to attack large objects first industrial companies. Large explosive charge and considerable size of these objectives make it possible comparable low accuracy. With the passage of time, after a long hiatus in the development, type of guided bombs significantly changed. Now they were relatively small and light ammunition started to engage point targets. In general, the introduction of the concept remains the same — reduction of ammunition and, as a consequence, the monetary costs to the attack at the cost of accuracy and increased cost of a single bomb. But, to change the "look" for the purposes of high-precision weapons. The result of all of these changes is the emergence of bombs caliber 500 and 250 pounds. Perhaps, in the 50 years of the last century, such guided munitions would be accused of a lack of power. But in modern conditions the beginning of XXI century, specifically guided bombs and missiles are more promising aircraft weapons.

According to the materials of websites:
http://airwar.ru/
http://russianarms.ru/
http://mkonline.ru/
http://voenavia.ru/
http://warfare.ru/
http://militaryparitet.com/
http://ktrv.ru/

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